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Ethical Issues concerning CyberCrime

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Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues concerning CyberCrime"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethical Issues concerning CyberCrime

2 Cyber Crime Youtube contains comic video on cyber crimes and the evolution of cyber crimes

3 Why Cyber Crime In a day and age when everything from microwave ovens and refrigerators to nuclear power plants are being run on computers, cyber crime has assumed rather threatening implications. The majority of what are termed “cyber- crimes” is really violations of longstanding criminal law, perpetrated through the use of computers or information networks.

4 What is a Computer Crime?
Criminals Can Operate Anonymously Over the Computer Networks. Hackers Invade Privacy. Hackers Destroy "Property" in the Form of Computer Files or Records. Hackers Injure Other Computer Users by Destroying Information Systems. Computer Pirates Steal Intellectual Property.

5 Definition of Cyber Crimes
Defining cyber crimes, as "acts that are punishable by the Information Technology Act" would also cover many things such as spoofing and cyber defamation, sending threatening s etc. A simple yet sturdy definition of cyber crime would be "unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both".

6 Classification of Cyber Crimes:
Tampering with computer source documents Hacking Publishing of information, which is obscene in electronic form Child Pornography Accessing protected system Breach of confidentiality and privacy

7 Other Cyber Crimes Cyber Stalking Cyber squatting Data Diddling
Cyber Defamation Trojan Attack Forgery Financial crimes Virus/worm attack spoofing bombing Salami attack Web Jacking Internet time theft

8 Cyber Crime Videos Search for some of the following videos
September 2007-crime toolkit with tech support Electronics show June (Donation s) Scam the scammer on craigslist

9 Laptop Theft Easy to carry Going through airport security
Be sure the TSA person sees YOU Same TSA person keeps laptop Same TSA person gives it back to you.

10 Data Theft when any information in the form of data is illegally copied or taken from a business or individual without his knowledge or consent poor technical know-how of our police adds to the woes the lack of coordination between different investigating agencies if the culprit is caught he can easily get away because of various loopholes in our law

11 Cyber Crime Videos There are several good videos on Youtube on:
Blue jacking – Bluetooth hijacking jacking War driving

12 Cyber Criminals Any person who commits an illegal act with a guilty intention or commits a crime is called an offender or a criminal. The Cyber Criminals may be children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, they may be organized hackers, may be professional hackers or crackers, discontented employees, cheaters or even psychic persons.

13 Kids & Teenagers (ages 9-16)
have just begun to understand what appears to be a lot about computers, it is a matter of pride to have hacked into a computer system. Appearing really smart among friends. Commit cyber crimes without really knowing that they are doing anything wrong. Teen hackers have gone from simply trying to make a name for themselves to actually working their way into a life of crime.

14 Organized Hacktivists
Hacktivists are hackers with a particular (mostly political) motive. Can be social activism, religious activism, etc. Attacks on approximately 200 prominent Indian websites by a group of hackers known as Pakistani Cyber Warriors are a good example of political hacktivists at work.

15 Disgruntled employees
Displeased employees can become spiteful. It is easy for disgruntled employees to do more harm to their employers by committing computer related crimes, which can bring entire systems down.

16 Professional Hackers (Corporate espionage)
Rival organizations employ hackers to steal industrial secrets and other information that could be beneficial to them. The temptation to use professional hackers for industrial espionage also stems from the fact that physical presence required to gain access to important documents is rendered needless if hacking can retrieve those.

17 Microsoft – February 2010 Microsoft Corp. launched a novel legal assault to take down a global network of PCs suspected of spreading spam and harmful computer code, adding what the company believes could become a potent weapon in the battle against cyber criminals.

18 Security experts say it isn't yet clear how effective Microsoft's approach will be, while online rights groups warn that the activities of innocent computer users could be inadvertently disrupted. Here we go with everything we have been talking about.

19 A Federal judge in Alexandria, Va
A Federal judge in Alexandria, Va., granted Microsoft's request for an order to deactivate hundreds of Internet addresses that the company linked to an army of tens of thousands of PCs around the globe, infected with computer code that allows them to be harnessed to spread spam, malicious virus programs and mount mass attacks to disable Web sites.

20 By cutting off access to those addresses, Microsoft hopes to prevent the masterminds behind the network from reprogramming the infected PCs with a fresh batch of addresses to reach, blocking them from directing the network.

21 Google In one high-profile incident, Google Inc. (February 2010) disclosed attacks against the Internet giant and other major U.S. companies that it linked to China. Chinese officials deny any involvement.

22 Source Code of a Virus Not illegal to sell or publish the source code
Illegal to release a virus over the Internet

23 Phishing Latest menace, online identity theft
Phishing s look authentic, many include accurate-looking logos. Want the user to enter sensitive information like passwords, account numbers, credit card information Information is then used to pilfer money from unsuspecting user’s accounts or create bogus credit cards

24 Macro Virus Macro is a recorded series of steps
Macros are used in many application programs (Microsoft Office) Macros can be blocked by virus detection programs but then you can’t send Access files

25 Costs of Cybercrime & Cybervandalism
Survey of 300 North American companies showed 103 virus infections per 1000 computers Cost billions of dollars each year Blames the Internet and for spread of viruses and worms

26 Malware Worms Trojan Horse
Malicious pieces of code that run independently Travel across network connections from computer to computer Trojan Horse Appears to be good Used to insert corrupt information into a working program Backdoor Trojan Horse when ran opens the door for people to steal your passwords, destroy files, etc.

27 “Internet Worm” One of the first cases showing the Internet’s vulnerability Developed by a Cornell University student , 1988 A self-replicating C program Didn’t modify system files or destroy data but made performance deteriorate rapidly and crash Halted after 12 hours of destruction (2,500 computers infected with over $1 million cleanup) Robert Morris claimed did this to show security gaps Fined $10,000 and 3 year probation

28 Computer System Security
Break into 4 topics Cybercrime –how it is defined and what sorts of activities Trespass – unauthorized access Protection for online communications Encryption – different ways encrypt and decipher

29 Cybercrime Special category of criminal acts typically executed through utilization of computer and network technologies Includes 3 basic categories Software piracy Computer sabotage Electronic break-ins

30 Software Piracy Unauthorized duplication of proprietary software and the distribution or making available those copies Software could be system software, application software or even MP3 files In 2001 law enforcement officials shut down a major piracy ring called “Drink or Die” of software and movies; created by students at MIT and UCLA

31 Computer Sabotage Disruption of computer operations by means of a virus, worm, or logic bomb Blaster worm and the SoBig virus unleashed in caused of $35 billion in losses Denial of Service (DoS) attack – attacks a server multiple mock requests that the server crashes.

32 Electronic Break-ins Trespassing and unauthorized access are covered later in the chapter in more detail Internet-related fraud accounted for 53% of all consumer fraud in 2004 Internet is used for planning crimes in the physical world

33 Anti-piracy Constant battle to keep music, videos, and software from being copied. Want to give user the ability to make a backup or use on diverse platforms (windows, mac) iPod and MP3 players and music issues

34 Trespass and Unauthorized Access
Milwaukee teenagers were convicted of computer trespassing but they said they were playing a game. Their game was to see if they could get in and they did allegedly break into Los Alamos Nation Laboratory and Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) updated in 1996 made trespassing a federal crime if done so to pilfer classified information to perpetrate fraud or to cause damage whether reckless or not

35 Controversy of CFAA What if the hacker:
Did no deliberate damage or destruction to property Uncover security flaws so this is a good thing Just did this to learn how computer systems operate Claims this is just digital graffiti (a prank) Does good (Robin Hoods)

36 Controversy of CFAA continued
What if the hacker: Did no malicious destruction It could still be disruptive or costly Must be inspected to verify no damage There should be property rights because someone took the time to set up the site

37 Questionable Forms of Trespass
Trespass to chattels – a tort action (negligence) based on unauthorized use or interference with another’s property ISPs suing spammers for “trespass to chattels” Compuserve vs. CyberPromotions Inc. – Compuserve notified CyberPromotions that it was prohibited from using their mail servers to send unsolicited bulk Compuserve grants permission to use but not overwhelm the mail server

38 Shopbots Shopbots comb through commercial web sites extracting pricing and product information for user comparison for the same item eBay vs Bidder’s Edge – comparing auction data; court sided with eBay

39 Security Measures in Cyberspace
Firewall Software or hardware is first in the line of defense to protect internal network Positioned between an organizer’s internal network and the Internet Can trap an intrusion (virus) before it can penetrate Is a packet filter (router to filter packets) allows legitimate interactions Not always effective, use other protection as well

40 Security Software AntiVirus Filtering systems
Software programmed to scan a computer for malicious code then deletes it once found New viruses (300 launched each month) all the time so antivirus must be kept up-to-date Filtering systems Scan mail for spam or viruses

41 Encryption Encryption - Encoding the information so it can only be read if the receiver has the proper key to decode Cryptography – use of algorithms that allow information to be understood thru secret codes Types of keys Single key – 1=A, 2=B, etc. Data Encryption Standard (DES) – private key, 56 bits long Public/private – messages are encrypted with public key that can only be decrypted with a private key

42 Secure Socket Layer – is most often used in e- commerce transactions
Sniffers – programs used to seek out security lapse and intercept vulnerable communications travelling over a network Authentication – process where a security system establishes the validity of an identification Digital signature – public key encryption that verifies identity

43 Encryption Controversy
Giving government the key to encryption systems not well received (like forcing builders to install microphones and cameras in all new homes) Clipper Chip (multiple versions) and controversial


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