4The internet has become a cultural, economical and life changing technological phenomenon. The internet is not one single invention; it is a simple idea that has evolved throughout the decades into something bigger than us all.Internet has already and will continue to revolutionize the world. Even as its beginnings were humble, no one could have predicted its amazing growth through the last several decades. The internet has brought so much information to the entire world.While the internet was started fairly recently, today we are still at the tip of the iceberg of what this technology in all its many forms can help us achieve.
5WHAT IS Internet?The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide.It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support , and peer-to-peer networks.
6Looking back, the essential idea of the internet is extremely basic, however with several innovations, the internet has grown and evolved to where it is currently at today.Typically the 20th century was defined by communications that went from one major source to thousands or millions of people at a time: television, radio…While the telephone evolved as a way for an individual to reach out and talk with a specific person, this type of communications usually involved mostly two people, or a handful of people (conference call).However, with the advent of the internet, a new type of communications technology would be available, where not only can two people communicate simultaneously, but thousands, millions and yes even billions of people at the same time, as well as offer their opinion or collaborate.This is just many of the reasons that the internet has grown so far, so fast. The internet is able to have an impact on our entire society.While most may think the history of the internet started in the early 90′s or even the 80′s, the idea of the internet started much earlier- back to the 1950′s.
7The Early Beginnings of the Internet In a lot of ways war is the mother of invention, The encapsulation of them in the last century was a Cold War ( ) (George Orwell):Berlin Blockade(1948–1949)Korean War (25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953)Suez Crisis (1956)Berlin Crisis of 1961Cuban missile crisis (1962)Vietnam War (1955–1975) …Nothing was scarier than the Soviet Union launching nuclear weapons against US soil… and then there was launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957! This was a crisis.In reaction to the launching of Sputnik, the USA tried to come up with ideas in how to protect us against the Soviet Union and diminish their strategic advantages. One of the ways that we responded to this crisis was to create ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency), also known as DARPA (Defense) with the mission to create technologies that would help give our military a high tech edge to lead in the arms race, as well as protect our country and security.
8DARPA was launched in the late 1950′s, in 1962 the first ideas about a web or interconnected net type of system were formed.
9So, who invented the Internet? … NOT Al Gore A single person did not create the Internet that we know and use today!Below is a listing of different people who have helped contribute and develop the Internet:The ideaThe initial idea is credited as being Leonard Kleinrock's after he published his first paper entitled "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets" on May 31, 1961.In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider became the first Director of IPTO (Information Processing Techniques Office) and gave his vision of a “galactic network”.In addition to ideas from Licklider and Kleinrock, Robert Taylor helped create the idea of the network that later became ARPANET.
10Initial creationThe Internet as we know it today first started being developed in the late 1960's.In the summer of 1968, the Network Working Group (NWG) held its first meeting chaired by Elmer Shapiro with the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) with attendees: Steve Carr, Steve Crocker, Jeff Rulifson, and Ron Stoughton. In the meeting, the group discussed solving issues related to getting hosts to communicate with each other.In December 1968, Elmer Shapiro with SRI released a report "A Study of Computer Network Design Parameters." Based on this work and earlier work done by Paul Baraon, Thomas Marill and others; Lawrence Roberts and Barry Wessler helped to create the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications. Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) was later awarded the contract to design and build the IMP subnetwork.Elmer Shapiro
11General public learns about Internet The UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) put out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.First network equipmentAugust 29, 1969 the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment called "IMP", which is short for (Interface Message Processor) is sent to UCLA. On September 2, 1969 the first data moves from UCLA host to the switch. In the picture is Leonard Kleinrock next to the IMP.
121969: Arpanet was the first real network to run on new packet switching technology. On the October 29, 1969, computers at Stanford and UCLA connected for the first time. In effect, they were the first hosts on what would one day become the Internet. The first message sent across the network was supposed to be "Login", but reportedly, the link between the two colleges crashed on the letter "g".Homework for tonight:figure this map out by tomorrow… Homework for tonight: figure this map out by tomorrow…
131969: UnixAnother major milestone during the 60′s was the inception of Unix: the operating system whose design heavily influenced that of Linux and FreeBSD (the operating systems most popular in today’s web servers/web hosting services).
141970: Arpanet network 1971: Email An Arpanet network was established between Harvard, MIT, and BBN (the company that created the "interface message processor" computers used to connect to the network) in 1970.1971:was first developed in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson, who also made the decision to use the symbol to separate the user name from the computer name (which later on became the domain name).
151971: Project Gutenberg and eBook One of the most impressive developments of 1971 was the start of Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg is a global effort to make books and documents in the public domain available electronically–for free–in a variety of eBook and electronic formats. In effect, this was the birth of the eBook.
161972: CYCLADESFrance began its own Arpanet-like project in 1972, called CYCLADES. While Cyclades was eventually shut down, it did pioneer a key idea: the host computer should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself.1973: The first trans-Atlantic connection and the popularity of ingArpanet made its first trans-Atlantic connection in 1973, with the University College of London. During the same year, accounted for 75% of all Arpanet network activity.
171974: The beginning of TCP/IP 1974 was a breakthrough year. A proposal was published to link Arpa-like networks together into a so-called "inter-network", which would have no central control and would work around a transmission control protocol (which eventually became TCP/IP).1975: The clientWith the popularity of ing, the first modern program was developed by John Vittal, a programmer at the University of Southern California in The biggest technological advance this program (called MSG) made was the addition of "Reply" and "Forward" functionality.
181978: The Bulletin Board System (BBS) 1977: The PC modem1977 was a big year for the development of the Internet as we know it today. It’s the year the first PC modem, developed by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington, was introduced and initially sold to computer hobbyists.1978: The Bulletin Board System (BBS)The first bulletin board system (BBS) was developed during a blizzard in Chicago in 1978.1978: Spam is born1978 is also the year that brought the first unsolicited commercial message (later known as spam), sent out to 600 California Arpanet users by Gary Thuerk.
191979: MUD – The earliest form of multiplayer games The precursor to World of Warcraft and Second Life was developed in 1979, and was called MUD (short for MultiUser Dungeon). MUDs were entirely text-based virtual worlds, combining elements of role-playing games, interactive, fiction, and online chat.
201979: Usenet 1980: ENQUIRE software 1982: The first emoticon 1979 also ushered into the scene: Usenet, created by two graduate students. Usenet was an internet-based discussion system, allowing people from around the globe to converse about the same topics by posting public messages categorized by newsgroups.1980: ENQUIRE softwareThe European Organization for Nuclear Research (better known as CERN) launched ENQUIRE (written by Tim Berners-Lee), a hypertext program that allowed scientists at the particle physics lab to keep track of people, software, and projects using hypertext (hyperlinks).1982: The first emoticonWhile many people credit Kevin MacKenzie with the invention of the emoticon in 1979, it was Scott Fahlman in 1982 who proposed using :-) after a joke, rather than the original -) proposed by MacKenzie. The modern emoticon was born.
211983: Arpanet computers switch over to TCP/IP January 1, 1983 was the deadline for Arpanet computers to switch over to the TCP/IP protocols developed by Vinton Cerf. A few hundred computers were affected by the switch. The name server was also developed in ’83.1984: Domain Name System (DNS)The domain name system was created in 1984 along with the first Domain Name Servers (DNS). The domain name system was important in that it made addresses on the Internet more human-friendly compared to its numerical IP address counterparts. DNS servers allowed Internet users to type in an easy-to-remember domain name and then converted it to the IP address automatically.
221985: Virtual communities 1986: Protocol wars 1987: The Internet grows 1985 brought the development of The WELL (short for Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link), one of the oldest virtual communities still in operation. It was developed by Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant in February of ’85. It started out as a community of the readers and writers of the Whole Earth Review and was an open but "remarkably literate and uninhibited intellectual gathering". Wired Magazine once called The Well "The most influential online community in the world.“1986: Protocol warsThe so-called Protocol wars began in European countries at that time were pursuing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), while the United States was using the Internet/Arpanet protocol, which eventually won out.1987: The Internet growsBy 1987, there were nearly 30,000 hosts on the Internet. The original Arpanet protocol had been limited to 1,000 hosts, but the adoption of the TCP/IP standard made larger numbers of hosts possible.
231988: IRC – Internet Relay Chat Also in 1988, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was first deployed, paving the way for real-time chat and the instant messaging programs we use today.1988: First major malicious internet-based attackOne of the first major Internet worms was released in Referred to as "The Morris Worm", it was written by Robert Tappan Morris and caused major interruptions across large parts of the Internet.
241989: AOL is launchedWhen Apple pulled out of the AppleLink program in 1989, the project was renamed and America Online was born. AOL, still in existence today, later on made the Internet popular amongst the average internet users.
251989: The proposal for the World Wide Web 1989 also brought about the proposal for the World Wide Web, written by Tim Berners-Lee. It was originally published in the March issue of MacWorld, and then redistributed in May It was written to persuade CERN that a global hypertext system was in CERN’s best interest. It was originally called "Mesh"; the term "World Wide Web" was coined while Berners-Lee was writing the code in 1990.
261990: First commercial dial-up ISP 1990 also brought about the first commercial dial-up Internet provider, The World. The same year, Arpanet ceased to exist.1990: World Wide Web protocols finishedThe code for the World Wide Web was written by Tim Berners-Lee, based on his proposal from the year before, along with the standards for HTML, HTTP, and URLs.
271991: First web page created Tim Berners-Lee1991 brought some major innovations to the world of the Internet. The first web page was created and, much like the first explained what was, its purpose was to explain what the World Wide Web was.
281991: First content-based search protocol Also in the same year, the first search protocol that examined file contents instead of just file names was launched, called Gopher.1991: MP3 becomes a standardAlso, the MP3 file format was accepted as a standard in MP3 files, being highly compressed, later become a popular file format to share songs and entire albums via the internet.
291991: The first webcamOne of the more interesting developments of this era, though, was the first webcam. It was deployed at a Cambridge University computer lab, and its sole purpose was to monitor a particular coffee maker so that lab users could avoid wasted trips to an empty coffee pot.Necessity IS a mother of invention! ( nice it is not always war )
301993: Mosaic – first graphical web browser for the general public The first widely downloaded Internet browser, Mosaic, was released in While Mosaic wasn’t the first web browser, it is considered the first browser to make the Internet easily accessible to non-techies.
311993: Governments join in on the fun In 1993, both the White House and the United Nations came online, marking the beginning of the .gov and .org domain names.1994: Netscape NavigatorMosaic’s first big competitor, Netscape Navigator, was released the year following (1994).
331996: First web-based (webmail) service 1998: First new story to be broken online instead of traditional mediaIn 1998, the first major news story to be broken online was the Bill Clinton/Monica Lewinsky scandal (also referred to as "Monicagate" among other nicknames), which was posted on The Drudge Report after Newsweek killed the story.
34file-sharing gets its roots 1998: Google!Google went live in 1998, revolutionizing the way in which people find information online.1998: Internet-basedfile-sharing gets its rootsIn 1998 as well, Napster launched, opening up the gates to mainstream file-sharing of audio files over the internet.
35What began in 1999 as an idea in the head of a teenager proceeded to redefine the Internet, the music industry and the way we all think about intellectual property.Napster is now back in business as a legal, pay-per-song music-download site; but it once was a controversial service that spurred what is still one of the greatest Internet-related debates: Just because we can get the music we want without paying for it, should we?There is so much concern, particularly in the music industry, about the issues of copyright and intellectual property.
362001: Wikipedia is launched 2000: The bubble bursts2000 was the year of the dotcom collapse, resulting in huge losses for legions of investors. Hundreds of companies closed, some of which had never turned a profit for their investors. The NASDAQ, which listed a large number of tech companies affected by the bubble, peaked at over 5,000, then lost 10% of its value in a single day, and finally hit bottom in October of 2002.2001: Wikipedia is launchedWith the dotcom collapse still going strong, Wikipedia launched in 2001, one of the websites that paved the way for collective web content generation/social media.
372003: MySpace becomes the most popular social network 2003: VoIP goes mainstreamIn 2003: Skype is released to the public, giving a user-friendly interface to Voice over IP calling.2003: MySpace becomes the most popular social networkAlso in 2003, MySpace opens up its doors. It later grew to be the most popular social network at one time (though it has since been overtaken by Facebook).2003: CAN-SPAM Act puts a lid on unsolicited sAnother major advance in 2003 was the signing of the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003, better known as the CAN-SPAM Act.2004: Web 2.0Though coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, the term "Web 2.0", referring to websites and Rich Internet Applications (RIA) that are highly interactive and user-driven became popular around During the first Web 2.0 conference, John Batelle and Tim O’Reilly described the concept of "the Web as a Platform": software applications built to take advantage of internet connectivity, moving away from the desktop (which has downsides such as operating system dependency and lack of interoperability).
382004: Social Media and DiggThe term "social media", believed to be first used by Chris Sharpley, was coined in the same year that "Web 2.0" became a mainstream concept. Social media–sites and web applications that allow its users to create and share content and to connect with one another–started around this period.Digg, a social news site, launched on November of 2004, paving the way for sites such as Reddit, Mixx, and Yahoo! Buzz. Digg revolutionized traditional means of generating and finding web content, democratically promoting news and web links that are reviewed and voted on by a community.
392004: "The" Facebook open to college students Facebook launched in 2004, though at the time it was only open to college students and was called "The Facebook"; later on, "The" was dropped from the name, though the URL still works
402005: YouTube – streaming video for the masses YouTube launched in 2005, bringing free online video hosting and sharing to the masses.2006: Twitter gets twitteringTwitter launched in It was originally going to be called twittr (inspired by Flickr); the first Twitter message was "just setting up my twttr".2007: Major move to place TV shows onlineHulu was first launched in 2007, a joint venture between ABC, NBC, and Fox to make popular TV shows available to watch online.
412007: The iPhone and the Mobile Web The biggest innovation of 2007 was almost certainly the iPhone, which was almost wholly responsible for renewed interest in mobile web applications and design.
422008: "Internet Election"The first "Internet election" took place in 2008 with the U.S. Presidential election. It was the first year that national candidates took full advantage of all the Internet had to offer. Hillary Clinton jumped on board early with YouTube campaign videos. Virtually every candidate had a Facebook page or a Twitter feed, or both.Ron Paul set a new fundraising record by raising $4.3 million in a single day through online donations, and then beat his own record only weeks later by raising $4.4 million in a single day.The 2008 elections placed the Internet squarely at the forefront of politics and campaigning, a trend that is unlikely to change any time in the near future.
44The Internet has radically changed everyday life in American society The Internet has radically changed everyday life in American society. It has created new ways to connect with friends and family, disrupted the way we do business and rewired just about everything in between. But the Internet and the World Wide Web are still relatively young. The public web is only 25, and like most twenty-somethings it still has a lot of growing up to do…While debate continues on net neutrality, privacy and the architecture of the Internet, there is some agreement about the future of the Internet over the next 10 years.So, what is the future of the Internet? Here are 15 predictions from the newly released Digital Life at 2025:Information sharing over the Internet will be so effortlessly interwoven into daily life that it will become invisible, flowing like electricity, often through machine intermediaries.The spread of the Internet will enhance global connectivity, fostering more positive relationships among societies.The Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and big data will make people more aware of their world and their own behavior.Augmented reality and wearable devices will be implemented to monitor and give quick feedback on daily life, especially in regard to personal health.
45Political awareness and action will be facilitated and more peaceful change, and more public uprisings like the Arab Spring will emerge.The spread of the “Ubernet” will diminish the meaning of borders, and new “nations” of those with shared interests may emerge online and exist beyond the capacity of current nation-states to control.The Internet will become “the Internets” as access, systems and principles are renegotiated.An Internet-enabled revolution in education will spread more opportunities with less money spent on buildings and teachers.Dangerous divides between haves and have-nots may expand, resulting in resentment and possible violence.Abuses and abusers will ‘evolve and scale.’ Human nature isn’t changing; there’s laziness, bullying, stalking, stupidity, pornography, dirty tricks, crime, and the offenders will have new capacity to make life miserable for others.
46Pressured by these changes, governments and corporations will try to assert power – and at times succeed – as they invoke security and cultural norms.People will continue – sometimes grudgingly – to make tradeoffs favoring convenience and perceived immediate gains over privacy; and privacy will be something only the upscale will enjoy.Humans and their current organizations may not respond quickly enough to challenges presented by complex networks.Most people are not yet noticing the profound changes today’s communications networks are already bringing about; these networks will be even more disruptive in the future.Foresight and accurate predictions can make a difference; “The best way to predict the future is to invent it.”That last one is more advice than a prediction.