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Chapter 01- Part I Introduction To Multimedia CGMB 234 Multimedia Systems Design.

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2 Chapter 01- Part I Introduction To Multimedia CGMB 234 Multimedia Systems Design

3 Objectives At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: describe the history and development of media, computer and multimedia systems distinguish between hypertext, hypermedia and multimedia Identify all the multimedia building blocks Distinguish between modalities, channels, medium and bandwidth state the FOUR (4) characteristics of multimedia system state and describe the multimedia applications and software tools available

4 History & Development Of Multimedia

5 History Of Multimedia What can we say about the evolution of media that has taken place for thousands of years? Since the dawn of time, people have had the need to communicate with one another. This created what we called as communication media.

6 History Of Multimedia Newspapers  (perhaps) the first mass communication medium, which used mostly text, graphics, and images  Gugliemo Marconi sent his first wireless radio transmission at Pontecchio, Italy  he detected radio waves beamed across the Atlantic. Initially invented for telegraph, radio is now a major medium for audio broadcasting.

7 History Of Multimedia Television  new media for the 20th century. It brought video (+audio) and has since changed the world of mass comm.

8 Some Important Events In Computer History Vannevar Bush ( ) wrote about Memex  a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which it is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility Vannevar Bush

9 Some Important Events In Computer History Engelbart 1960s - Ted Nelson started Xanadu project (The Original Hypertext Project) Douglas Engelbart demonstrated NLS (oN Line System) - The Debut of The Mouse Nelson & Van Dam hypertext editor at Brown University.

10 Architecture Machine Group proposal to DARPA: Multiple Media Negroponte, Wiesner: opened MIT Media Lab in Boston Tim Berners-Lee proposed the World Wide Web to CERN (European Organization For Nuclear Research) 1990  Kristina Hooper Woolsey headed Apple Multimedia Lab, 100 staff, for education  Dec Birth of WWW - Tim Berners CERN Some Important Events In Computer History

11 U. Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications: NCSA Mosaic 1994 – Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen: Netscape JAVA language for platform-independent application development – XML 1.0 announced as a W3C recommendation 1998 – Handheld MP3 devices (32MB) flash memory 2000 – WWW size estimated over 1 billion pages – YouTube were introduced, a video sharing website May 2011 – Justin Bieber - Baby ft. Ludacris - 536,581,973 views on YouTube Some Important Events In Computer History

12 Hypertext, Hypermedia & Multimedia

13 Hypertext  text which contains links to other texts and is usually non-linear Invented by Ted Nelson around 1965 Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based.  It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and continuous media (audio & video). Apparently, Ted Nelson was also the first to use this term. The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of hypermedia applications. Hypertext and Hypermedia

14 Hypertext Ted Nelson

15 Hypertext and Hypermedia Hypermedia Hypertext

16 The notion of Multimedia Consists of two words: Multi (Latin)= many; much; Medium (Latin) = An intervening substance through which something is transmitted or carried on. Multimedia

17 What is Multimedia? Multimedia means a (usually) interactive combination of two or more media elements (multimedia building block), such as text, graphics, audio, video and animation integrated using a computer A multimedia system is a system that supports more than a single type of media.

18 Multimedia Building Block Digital environment USER Elements of Multimedia

19 Multimedia has a number of distinct and unique features, including: Based on Edgar Dale (Cone Of Learning), on average, people remember: 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see,  multimedia approach multimedia rich elements, multi-sensory delivery system can facilitate greater retention of new knowledge


21 Multimedia Modalities Modalities are the sensory systems through which a multimedia activity occurs This includes tactile (touch), gustatory (taste), visual (sight), auditory (hearing), olfactory (smell) Based on the multimedia elements we have today, only two modalities are regularly used.

22 Multimedia Channels Channels can be understood as existing within a modality. For example, with the auditory modality, we have different channels for noises, speech and music. With the visual modality, we have different channels for words, pictures and movies.

23 Regularly Used Modalities & Channels Modalities Visual WordsPicturesMovies Auditory NoisesSpeechMusic Channels Modalities

24 Multimedia Channels Bandwidth is a concept of how much information can be carried by a certain channel within a certain modality. For example, we can read at the rate of 150 words per minute which is the ‘printed text’ channel within the ‘visual’ modality. Much like your modem, you are unlikely to reach the theoretical maximum bandwidth of your channel within any modality, in practice.

25 Multimedia Channels The reason for this discrepancy in practice is because in theory, we assume a perfect encoder and decoder. For example, English text ‘encoded’ on a page and the English language ‘decoder’ in someone’s head is assumed to be perfectly compatible. In reality, however, it is highly dependent on the education level of the reader, the nature of the text information presented and many other factors.

26 Multimedia ‘Medium’ A medium can be understood as a set of co- ordinated channels, spanning one or more modalities, which have come to be referred to as a unitary whole, and which possess a cross-channel language of interpretation. Examples include a television show, which typically uses the auditory and visual modalities; and picture, written text, speech and music channels.

27 Multimedia ‘Medium’ What is meant by a ‘cross-channel language of interpretation’ is that there must be some form of relationship between the channels. Take the TV show, for example. The moving pictures and sound are closely related. In combination, they provide a clearer message than when alone.

28 Digital Media Revolution Digital camcorders, cameras, MP3 players  but also location sensors, speech, gestures, etc. Digital media enables new forms of expression  inform, educate, entertain, provoke, etc.  multi-sensory, emphasizes temporal over spatial Digital media places the power of mega production studios at the fingertips of the user  record, edit, process, play, and share digital media  profound social, cultural, educational, technological, and communicative impact – its just now beginning

29 Multimedia Requires Multiple media  Combination of two or more media of which at least one is a discrete medium such as text and image and one is a continuous medium such as audio and video Coordination  temporal or spatial Interaction  user exercises control

30 Overlapping Technologies Different branches of multimedia grow together because of new, upcoming multimedia technology and applications. Two challenges lie ahead:  Timing requirements (synchronization etc.)  Integration requirements (of different media types)

31 Where’s the Action in Multimedia? Enable amateurs to take pictures and shoot video like the pros Interfaces for organizing, retrieving, and accessing large collections of content Capturing and sharing experiences Multi-source/multi-party collaborative systems 3D media P2P Streaming (IPTV)

32 Multimedia System Characteristics Multimedia systems must be computer controlled. All multimedia components are integrated. The interface to the final user may permit interactivity. Information must be represented digitally.

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