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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Power Point Presentation to accompany Visualizing Technology, by Debra Geoghan. Chapter 3 File Management Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objectives Create folders to organize files. Explain the importance of file extensions. Explain the importance of backing up files. Demonstrate how to compress files. Use advanced search options to locate files. Change the default program associated with a file type. This chapter discusses file management. The chapter objectives are: Create folders to organize files. Explain the importance of file extensions. Explain the importance of backing up files. Demonstrate how to compress files. Use advanced search options to locate files. Change the default program associated with a file type. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 1: Overview A Place for Everything Discuss the Windows folder hierarchy for storing files Understand the folder structure for storing documents, pictures, music, video, and more Understand how libraries gather files from different locations Understand how File Explorer is used to navigate folders and drives Key Terms File management Folder Hierarchy Library There really is a place for everything. This objective discusses the Windows folder hierarchy, libraries, and how File Explorer is used to navigate folders and drives. Public folder Path File Explorer Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Management Organizing digital files Creating new folders Navigating through the folder structure File management is the process of organizing digital files, creating new folders, and being able to navigate through the folder structure of your computer. It is an important skill needed when working with computers. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Management The folder structure created by Windows is a hierarchy. Folders are containers used to organize files on your computer. By default, Windows comes with certain files and folders already created. You can access the user folders via the Windows Start menu or the desktop. Folders: containers used to organize files on your computer Folder structure created by Windows is a hierarchy Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

6 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Management Libraries: help you better organize your files Four libraries: Documents Music Pictures Videos Windows 7 introduced Libraries, which help you better organize your files. There are four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos. You can also create more to suit your needs. Each library includes the matching user subfolder and the corresponding Public folder. This gives you quick access to both your personal and public shared files. These are also customizable. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Explorer Search Box Address Bar File List Area The window you use to look at a library is called File Explorer. It is opened from the taskbar or the Start menu. The image here identifies important parts of the Explorer window. The Address Bar contains the path to the current location and is used to navigate through folders and libraries. The Navigation Pane is used to navigate the folders, libraries, and drives available on the computer. The Search Box is used to search for files in the current Explorer window. The File List area takes up most of the window and displays the contents of the current library or folder. Navigation Pane Details Pane Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Mac OS X Finder OS X creates a Home folder for each user Home folder includes: Documents Downloads Movies Music Pictures The Finder is the file management component on Mac OS X. It is similar to File Explorer. Each user has their own Home folder which includes subfolders to store Documents, Downloads, Movies, Music, and Pictures. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9 Creating and Using Folders
You can create folders You can create a unique organizational scheme You are not limited to using the folder structure that’s created by Windows or OS X. You can create your own organizational scheme to fit your needs. This is especially useful when you use flash drives and other locations that aren’t part of the user folder hierarchy. It is a good idea to think about how you wish to organize your files, and set up folders that enable you to find them easily in the future. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Using Windows or OS X help, research the Public folder on your computer. What purpose does it serve? What types of files can be stored in it? Who has access to those files? What restrictions are there on their access? Using Windows or OS X help, research the Public folder on your computer. What purpose does it serve? What types of files can be stored in it? Who has access to those files? What restrictions are there on their access? Answers may vary, but should include similar information: The Public folder on a computer enables you to share files with other people, either who are using the same computer, or are on the same network. Documents, downloads, music, pictures and videos can be added to the Public folder. Everyone with a user account and password on your computer can access the Public folder, but you decide whether anyone on the network can access the Public folder. You can also turn on password-protected sharing. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

11 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 2: Overview What’s in a Name? Discuss and learn the file naming rules Discuss and learn the file naming limitations Discuss file extensions and understand how the extensions identify the file type Explore file properties and how they can be used to sort and search for files Key Terms File extension File name File property What’s in a name? This objective explains the importance of file extensions. There are two types of files on every computer: The ones that the computer uses to function, such as programs and device drivers, and the ones that are created by the user, including music, documents, photos, and videos. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Naming Rules File names contain name and extension Can be up to 260 characters long May include spaces and special characters Illegal characters: \ / ? : * ” > < | Every file has a file name and an extension. The maximum number of characters allowed is 260. There are characters that are not permitted or illegal: \ / ? :* “ > < |. Extensions are assigned by a program and associated in Windows or Mac computers. As you name your files, be sure to use meaningful names so that you will be able to recognize them in the future. A name like “document 1” is not as descriptive as “editorial letter – Daily News”. Here is an example of a file name: ch03_homework is the name of the file. The file extension is .docx, which tells Windows that it is a Microsoft Word document. File name Extension ch03_homework.docx Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Extensions A file extension is assigned by the program that is used to create the file. The extension helps the operating system determine the type of file. The table on this slide describes different file extensions, the type of file each is, and the default program associated with it. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Properties Properties used to organize, sort, and find files more easily Automatically created: File type Size Date Title and author can be added or edited by the user File properties are the characteristics associated with the file. Each file includes file properties. You can use these properties to organize, sort, and find files more easily. File type, size, and date are automatically created. The title and author can be added or edited by the user. The Properties dialog box contains a lot of information about the file. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
OS X File Properties Info Pane In the Mac OS X Finder, you can modify some of the properties of the files. Select the file and choose Get Info from the File menu to see the properties. This will open the Info pane for the file, where you can view and make changes. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
We discussed how to add properties to a file, but how would you remove them? Which properties can you remove? Use Windows Help and Support to find the answers. We discussed how to add properties to a file, but how would you remove them? Which properties can you remove? Use Windows Help and Support to find the answers. Answers will vary, yet may look like: From Windows Help: “In the Remove Properties dialog box, click Create a copy with all possible properties removed, and then click OK. This allows you to keep the original version of the file with all of its properties, and make a copy that is suitable for sharing with all of the properties removed. – or – In the Remove Properties dialog box, click Remove the following properties from the file, choose which properties to remove, and then click OK.” Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

17 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 3: Overview Back It Up Discuss the importance of backing up files Discuss backup storage options Discuss the pros and cons of backup storage types Discuss backup storage software options Discuss online backup storage options Key Term Back up Backing up is something most people do not think of until it’s too late. One simple step is to periodically back up or copy files to another hard drive, DVD, or flash drive. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Back Up Your Files Copying files to another location Backup storage options: Internal hard drives External hard drives Optical drives Flash drives Networks Backup utilities make it easy Online backup services Backing up is the process of copying your files to another location. There are many backup storage options, including internal hard drives, external hard drives, optical drives, flash drives, and networks. Windows includes a backup utility, as does Mac, yet there are other options including online backup services that are free or inexpensive. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

19 Windows Backup Utility
The Windows backup utility is available through the Control Panel, and after set-up will automatically back up your files on a regular basis. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
OS X Time Machine Macs come with a backup utility called Time Machine. You can open Time Machine from the Launchpad. Time Machine keeps three types of backups: hourly backups for the previous 24 hours, daily backups for the previous month, and weekly backups for all previous months. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Backup Options External hard drives: Inexpensive usually less than $100 Cloud: Free personal storage –1 or 2 GB Unlimited storage for about $5 –10 per month External hard drives are an inexpensive place to back up your files. They usually cost less than $100. The use of Internet or cloud backup services is becoming increasingly popular. Cloud storage is a way to store files in a convenient place. Many sites offer free personal storage of 1 or 2 GB or unlimited storage for about $5–10 per month. While this also serves to back up files, cloud storage is generally more limited than a backup in what and how much you can store. With Microsoft SkyDrive you can save directly from Office applications to the cloud. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Research two online backup sites and investigate their cost, reliability, storage size, and features. Create a table to compare what you found. Research two online backup sites and investigate their cost, reliability, storage size, and features. Create a table to compare what you found. Answer will vary, and may look like: Online Storage Cost Storage Size Reliability Features Your ISP Free 7 GB Yes It is provided “free” as part of your Internet package. No further accounts and passwords to manage or remember. Dropbox 100GB $ GB $ GB $49.99 Yes Offers file synching between the PC / Mac / Linux and the cloud (www.dropbox.com) ; have multiple paid options available. Can load the desktop client or upload through the Web interface. Once in the folder, Dropbox synchs the file between the PC and the cloud. Windows Live Free 25 GB/SkyDrive Yes Can easily setup mailbox with existing Microsoft accounts or using an existing account. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

23 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 4: Overview Shrink It Define file compression and its advantages Discuss the different types of file compression Discuss how Windows can create and extract ZIP archives Key Terms Algorithm Compression Lossless compression Lossy compression Files can be large. File compression is the process of making files smaller to conserve disk space and make them easier to transfer. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

24 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Compression Process of making files smaller: Conserves disk space Easier to transfer Types of file compression Lossy Lossless Windows can compress and decompress files using ZIP format File compression is the process of making files smaller to conserve disk space. There are two types of file compression: lossy and lossless. Windows includes the ability to compress and decompress files using the ZIP format. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Compression Lossy Lossless Usually for image, photo, video, and multimedia files Substantial amount of data can be discarded before the result is sufficiently degraded to be noticed Usually for files that contain text and numbers Takes advantage of redundant information Files can be decompressed with NO loss of data A lossy compression algorithm is often used on images, audio files, and video files. These files contain more information than humans can discern, and that extra information can be removed from the files. A lossless compression algorithm looks for the redundancy in the files by removing it and placing it in an encoded file. When the file is decompressed, all the information from the original files is restored. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
File Compression Windows can open and browse files in a ZIP archive Popular file compression programs: 7-ZIP WinRAR WinZip Stuffit Windows can open and browse files in a ZIP archive. Because each type of file contains different types of information, the compression ratio varies. Sometimes you need to decompress or extract files. Other popular file compression programs include 7-ZIP, WinRAR, WinZip, and Stuffit. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

27 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
An MP3 file is a compressed audio file that uses a lossy compression algorithm. Many audiophiles say they can hear a difference in sound quality. Use the Internet to research ways to improve the quality of MP3 files. An MP3 file is a compressed audio file that uses a lossy compression algorithm. Many audiophiles say they can hear a difference in sound quality. Use the Internet to research ways to improve the quality of MP3 files. Answers will vary, yet may look like: Record your MP3 files at a high bit rate. Generally, the largest bit rate you might use with an MP3 file is 192 KB or 256 KB per second. You should record your MP3 files at the rate of 192 KB since you cannot discern the difference between 192 KB and 256 KB with the naked ear. Utilize a program such as Audacity to manipulate your MP3 file. With Audacity you can reduce white noise and hard-code equalizer settings into the MP3 file. You can also use Audacity to record your MP3 files at a higher bit rate. Each of these changes will improve MP3 playback quality. Audacity is available free from the Audacity website at SourceForge. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

28 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 5: Overview It’s Always the Last Place You Look Discuss how to use advanced search options to find files using the Windows search feature Define Boolean operators and how they can be used to create search filters Discuss how Windows maintains an index of the files located on your computer Key Terms Algorithm Boolean operators Index Following the principles of good file management will make finding your materials much easier. This objective discusses how Windows and OS X can help you find what you are looking for. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

29 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Search Options File Explorer A search box can be found in almost every place you go to in Windows. It is in the Start menu, the Help and Support window, every Control Panel window, and every File Explorer window. As soon as you begin typing, Windows immediately begins searching. Windows contains an index with information about files stored in libraries as well as , but not about programs or system files. This index makes searching for files very fast. Searching from the Start menu automatically searches programs, the Control Panel, and files; you can also launch programs from the Start menu. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Windows 8 Search In Windows 8, you can just start typing from the Start screen or click the Search charm to search Apps, Settings, and Files. Windows 8 search locates programs, including apps, and settings, as well as files. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Spotlight in Mac OS X You can access Spotlight, on a Mac computer, by clicking the magnifying glass on the upper right-hand side of your screen. Spotlight searches applications, files and folders, contacts, and other objects on your computer. Spotlight can even provide a definition and do simple math calculations. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Search Options Boolean Logic
Created in 19th-century George Boole Boolean operators: AND OR NOT Used to create search filters in Windows, most databases, and Web searches Boolean logic was created by 19th-century mathematician George Boole. The Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT are used to create search filters in Windows, most databases, and Web searches. In the slide example, search results using AND include both John AND Kennedy; search results using OR include either words John OR Kennedy; and search results using NOT include the first term and NOT the second term, John NOT Kennedy. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Use Windows Help and Support or the Internet to research natural language search. What is it and how does it change the way you can search your computer? Use Windows Help and Support or the Internet to research natural language search. What is it and how does it change the way you can search your computer? Answers will vary, yet may look like: A natural language search enables you to ask a question in sentence structure in a language, such as English. The sentence is converted into a series of keywords that are used to complete the search in the computer or database. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

34 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Objective 6: Overview That’s Not the Program I Want to Open This File Type Define a default program Discuss how default programs are associated with certain programs Learn how to change or set the default program associated with a file type Key Term Default program Windows maintains a list of file extensions and associated default programs that enable Windows to open the correct file when you click on it. Issues arise when working with generic files that can be opened with multiple programs. You are able to manage these settings. This objective discusses how to manage these settings via the Default Programs control program. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Default Programs Application that is associated with a file Allows you to open, view, and edit the file Some file types open in multiple applications A default program is an application that is associated with a file that allows you to open, view, and edit the file. Windows maintains a list of file extensions and associated default programs, which allows Windows to automatically open the correct program. Keep in mind that some file types can be opened by more than one application, so it is important to know how to change the default program. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

36 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Default Programs Windows allows you to manage file type association directly. The Default Programs control panel enables you to manage these settings. To access it, click the Start button and click Default Programs. As shown here, the Paint program is selected and has options to change the default. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

37 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Managing File Types To manage file type associations directly, in the Default Programs control panel, click Associate a file type or protocol with a program. In this example, a .bmp file type is being associated with the Picasa Photo Viewer. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

38 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Use the Default Programs control panel or Finder on your computer to complete this section of the project. What program is currently associated with MP3 files? What other files types can this program open by default? What other programs are installed on your computer that can open MP3 files by default? Use the Default Programs control panel or Finder on your computer to complete this section of the project. What program is currently associated with MP3 files? What other files types can this program open by default? What other programs are installed on your computer that can open MP3 files by default? Windows Media Player is currently associated with MP3 files. Audacity is another audio application program. Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall <#>

39 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice Hall Visualizing Technology Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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