2SoundSound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter (like air) as a longitudinal wave and impacts the ear drum.
3Sound WavesloudsoftA sound wave is measured in amplitude (loudness in decibels dB) and frequency (pitch in Hz).amplitudelowhightimeHumans can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (the audio range)Most human speech communication takes place between 200 and 8,000 HzProlonged exposure to a sound pressure level exceeding 85 dB can permanently damage the earSound levels in excess of 130 dB are more than the human ear can safely withstand and can result in serious pain and permanent damage.oscilloscope demo
6Digitizing SoundThe sound wave is measured or “sampled” at regular time intervals to transform it into a list of numbers..28.27.08.08-.1-.45-.5millseconds
7Sampling RatesThe amount of times per second that a sound wave is measured (sampled), measured in Hz.8,000 Hz - telephone22,050 Hz - FM quality44,100 Hz - CD quality192,000 Hz –HD-DVD
8Bit RateThe combination of the sampling rate, amount of bits used with each sample, and mono vs. stereo determines the total number of bits processed per second, or the bit rate. The higher the bit rate the higher the quality of sound.4 kbit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech8 kbit/s — telephone quality32 kbit/s —AM radio quality96 kbit/s — FM radio qualitykbit/s - Decent quality192 kbit/s — Good qualitykbit/s — High quality, nearly lossless quality500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio
9Calculating CD Quality Bit Rate 16 bits are used for each sample valuex 44,100 samples per second (CD)x 2 for stereo= 1,411,200 bits per seconda three minute CD song uses 1,411,200 x 180 (seconds)= 254,016,000 bits/8 = 31,752,000 bytes or about 31 MB.The main uncompressed audio format is PCM. It is used on CDs and stored as a .wav on Windows or as .aiff on Mac OS
10Digital audio compression: MP3 MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy* compression format and algorithm, designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners.MP3 uses psychoacoustic models to discard components less audible to human hearing, and recording the remaining information in an efficient manner - typically 1/10th the size of the original uncompressed audio file.LAME produces the highest-quality MP3 files for bitrates greater or equal to 128 kbit/s.*Lossless compression allows the original sound recording to be rebuilt from the compressed file, lossy loses some of the original sound characteristics. Lossy compressed files can never be returned to the original recording quality.
11Newer Compressed Audio Formats: AAC & MWA Apple’s Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, or .m4a) format achieves better quality sound than MP3 for the same compression level or smaller file sizes for the same quality audio.Microsoft’s Windows Media Audio (WMA or .wma) format reduces file size but does not necessarily improve sound quality.WMA 10 Pro (Media Player 11) is much better than plain WMA
12Review How is music digitized? What is sampling rate? As the sampling rate increases what happens to the sound quality?What is the sampling rate for CD quality sound?What is bit rate?How is bit rate calculated for CD quality sound?
13Review How do MP3 files compare in quality and size to CD audio? What is Psychoacoustic and how does it relate to MP3?What are lossless and lossy in regards to audio compression?What is Microsoft’s preferred audio file format?What is Apple’s preferred audio file format?
15Digital Rights Management (DRM) DRM provides a way to control if and how many times a digital music file can be copied.Fairplay: Apple’s DRM technology used in m4p files.Janus: Microsoft’s DRM technology used in wma files (wma-drm 9.0).Zune wma-drm 9.1: Microsofts new DRM for Zune not compatible with Janus.
16Online Music Distribution Wma drm 9.0 Online StoresAOL Music NowYahoo! Music UnlimitedMusicmatchNapsterRhapsody To GoRuckusSony Music StoreURGEVirgin DigitalTesco DownloadsWma drm 9.1 StoresZuneM4P StoresiTunesNo DRM StoresThe public’s reaction to DRM…
21Restrictions: Fairplay & iTunes FairPlay will allow a protected track to be used in the following ways:The protected track may be copied to any number of iPod portable music players.The protected track may be played on up to five authorized computers simultaneously.The protected track may be copied to a standard Audio CD any number of times.The resulting CD has no DRM and may be ripped, encoded and played back like any other CD.A particular playlist within iTunes containing a protected track can be copied to a CD only up to seven times before the playlist must be changed.Demo iTunes
22Restrictions: Janus & Napster Monthly Subscription:$10 per month to download and stream an unlimited amount of music while subscribed to the service.$5 per month to use the music on “PlaysForSure” portable device.$.99 song purchasesUnlimited burns of individual tracks.Unlimited transfers to Napster compatible portable devices.Copy your music to three computers.Demo Napster
23Restrictions: WMA DRM 9.1, Zune Zune Marketplace Subscription$14.99/monthAccess millions of songs from 3 PCTransfer to Zune playerNo burning to diskPurchase songs with Microsoft Points, 400 for $5 = 79 points per song = $0.99Wirelessly share music with other Zunes. Shared songs last three days or three plays.Demo: Zune
24Review What is the purpose of DRM? What are the three popular forms of DRM in use today?Which DRM is supported by the most online music services?What portable player would you buy if you wanted to use Napster?How about iTunes or Zune?Would you consider the online music industry to be well organized?
26Online Music Pay Per Track Monthly Subscription Internet Radio Monthly SubscriptionInternet RadioFree Services
27Portable MP3 Players www.cnet.com > MP3 Portable players selection based oncompatibilitycapacity (flash or microdrive)ease of useSelecting headphones (www.cnet.com)
28Podcasts www.podcast.net http://www.ipodder.org iTunes RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated digital content, such as blogs, news feeds or podcasts.iTunesPodcast SoftwareMaking PodcastsGarageBand (demo)
29Home/Auto MP3 Players> Home Audio > Network Audio PlayeriPod Complimentary Speaker SystemsiPod Compatible Auto Sound SystemsCD/MP3 Players
34Summary: Music Devices HomeOfficeAutoOnFootAM/FM RadioXHD RadioSatellite RadioCD Player (CD-R MP3 Capable)TelevisionPersonal ComputerNetwork Audio SystemPortable Player (iPod)Portable Player Speaker SystemCell Phone
35Summary: Music Suppliers PriceStreamedOn DemandUser OwnedLegalAvailabilityProgrammingTotalInternet Music Subscription (Napster)510963Cell Phone Music Service357Internet Pay Per Tune Only (iTunes)54Podcasts4File Sharing Networks50CD Vendors45CD Rip and BurnInternet Radio39Satellite Radio838HD Radio Stations37Radio Stations36Cable TV232