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M100: Music Appreciation Discussion Group Ben Tibbetts, T.A. Welcome! Please sign the attendance at the front of the room.

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Presentation on theme: "M100: Music Appreciation Discussion Group Ben Tibbetts, T.A. Welcome! Please sign the attendance at the front of the room."— Presentation transcript:

1 M100: Music Appreciation Discussion Group Ben Tibbetts, T.A. Welcome! Please sign the attendance at the front of the room. Tuesday April 16, 2013

2 Today’s Agenda Pages 399-415 Jazz Lab

3 Moodle’s updated

4 Pass back stuff

5 Going over Classical Test

6 A. Listening Example 1: 1.Haydn 2.Symphony No. 94 (2 nd movement) 3.Theme and variations 4.(music elements)

7 A. Listening Example 2: 1.Mozart 2.Symphony No. 40 (first movement) 3.Sonata-allegro form 4.First movement (or, possibly, last movement)

8 A. Listening Example 3 1.Mozart 2.“Cosa sento” from “The Marriage of Figaro” 3.Lorenzo Da Ponte 4.Opera buffa

9 B. Short Answer 1.“A form in which an opening theme (A) returns repeatedly over the course of the movement, interspersed with contrasting ideas (B, C, etc.). An example of the resulting pattern would be ABACA.” – page 518 2.“A musical structure in which antecedent and consequent phrase units make up a larger whole.” –page 517 3.“A musical structure consisting of an exposition, development, and recapitulation, allowing for the presentation, development, and resolution of multiple themes within a single movement. Sonata form was widely used throughout the Classical Era and the nineteenth century.” –page 518

10 B. Short Answer 4. “Italian for ‘comic opera’; a genre that uses many of the same conventions as serious opera—arias, recitatives, ensembles, choruses—but with plots revolving around believable, everyday characters rather than mythical or historical figures.” –page 517 5. “The text or words of an opera or similar extended musical composition [OR] a book or booklet containing such a text.” –Dictionary.Com (

11 B. Short Answer 6. Haydn 7. “A form in which a theme is presented and then altered in some way—through harmony, melody, texture, dynamics, or some combination of these—in a succession of individual variations.” –page 518

12 The Classical Symphony (and other large works) Three or four movements, usually like this: Form:Tempo: 1.Sonata-allegro formmoderate 2.(Theme & Variations)slow 3.Minuet & Triomoderato / triple meter 4.(Rondo)fast

13 Extra Credit 1.similarities: wrote largely similar music at the same time in history (same genres, similar style), well-respected composers, keyboardists differences: financial success and stability, lifespan, relationship with aristocracy

14 Extra Credit 2. Nikolaus I, Prince Esterházy (“the Magnificent”) was Joseph Haydn’s principal employer / patron. 3. ( whatever )

15 Questions?

16 Pages 399-415

17 Duke Ellington 1899-1974 American composer/pianist/big band leader

18 Cotton Tail by Duke Ellington (will be listened to again)

19 Some jazz vocabulary

20 chord - "Three or more notes played or sung at the same moment." -page 515 Changes – underlying harmonies/chords Example: excerpt from Imagine by John Lennon

21 sequence - "A short musical motive that repeats at successively higher or lower pitches." -page 518 Example: excerpt from It’s a Small World

22 section - "In a musical ensemble, a group of instruments or voices with similar timbres or roles." -page 518 i.e. The “Brass section” The “Woodwind section” The “String section” etc.

23 call-and-response - "A technique in which one musician or group sings or plays an opening motive, and another musician or group sings or plays an answer." -page 515 Example: excerpt from So What by Miles Davis

24 groove - "In popular and jazz styles, the underlying rhythmic pattern of a song." - page 516 (Usually/often related to something the percussion is doing) Example: excerpt from Crazy Motorcycle by Nobuo Uematsu (Final Fantasy VII)

25 swing - "A rhythmic pattern of long and short notes approximating a two-to-one ratio, but varying from piece to piece and performer to performer." -page 518 Example: Straight v. swung eighth notes

26 Swing music - "The name given generally to the popular jazz of the 1930s and 1940s that prominently featured a swing rhythm." -page 518

27 head - "In jazz, the main melody“ [or tune] - page 516

28 32-bar standard song form - "often called AABA from the musical form or order in which its melodies occur, also ballad form, is common in Tin Pan Alley songs and later popular music including rock, pop and jazz. Though it resembles the ternary form of the operatic da capo aria its popularity declined and there were few instances of it in any type of popular music until the late teens of the 20th century. It became the principal form of American popular song around 1925–1926. Examples include 'Deck the Halls' with AABA form consisting of the chorus or the entirety of many songs in the early twentieth century.“ –Wikipedia ( Example: excerpt from Deck the Halls

29 Cotton Tail by Duke Ellington

30 Charlie Parker 1920-1955 American jazz saxophonist / composer

31 Ornithology by Charlie Parker (will be heard again)

32 bebop - "New jazz style of the late 1940s/early 1950s that developed in response to the popularity of big band music. Bebop is characterized by fast tempos, short bursts of melodic phrases, heavy and unexpected rhythmic accents, and virtuosic soloing." -page 515

33 musical improvisation - "immediate (‘in the moment’) musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.“ ( visation) visation

34 Types of saxophones, in order from highest to lowest: Soprano(example) Alto(example) Tenor(example) Baritone(example)

35 Ornithology by Charlie Parker

36 Louis Armstrong 1901-1971 American jazz trumpeter / singer

37 pass out Jazz Lab

38 Jazz Listening Lab How to hear more (and have more to write about) when you listen to jazz

39 Part 1: “Cool” Jazz and the 32-bar song form Example: The Gerry Mulligan Quartet (with Chet Baker) playing “Bernie’s Tune” (Play MP3)

40 The 32-bar song form divides a melody into four small sections. Each of these small sections contains eight measures. Like this: A A B A In this music, specifically, each “bar” (or “measure”) contains two beats. Jazz musicians often begin their performance of a piece of music by playing through the “head” (the main body of the music; the melody and its accompanying harmonies). As you listen to the head, try to (1) learn the tune, so you can recognize it; (2) describe how the “B” section is different from the “A” section. Also, try to identify the most prominent instrument(s) and whether this instrument(s) changes from section to section or remains the same throughout the head. (Play MP3 of the head to “Bernie’s Tune”)

41 After playing the head, musicians begin to “improvise.” This improvisation is carefully structured: (1) Each “chorus” (large section of improvised music) contains exactly the same number of measures as the head. (2) The “changes” (underlying harmonies/chords) follow roughly the same pattern as the changes in the head. These improvisations often bear some resemblance to the tune in the head. Players may improvise for more than one chorus.

42 First chorus: What is the most prominent instrument? Is it the same prominent instrument as in the head? What change takes place in the B section here? Describe how the musicians “changed” the melody in each section. (Play MP3 of first chorus of “Bernie’s Tune”)

43 Second chorus: What has changed between the first chorus and the second chorus? What change takes place in the B section here? Sometimes musicians prepare the listener for the B section with a short figure referred to as a “break”. Usually, it’s done by the drummer. Does it happen here? (Play MP3 of second chorus of “Bernie’s Tune”)

44 Third chorus By the third chorus the musicians may make greater changes. But the same rules still apply—each chorus contains the same number of measures, similar chord progression, and the improvisations still tend to reference the original melody. This is the last chorus in this recording. Try to describe what you hear. Note the drastic change which occurs this time in the B section. (Play MP3 of third chorus of “Bernie’s Tune”)

45 Return At this point, the group will usually “return” (re-play) the head. It may be the same as before, or it may be a little different. What’s similar in this return? And what’s different? (Play MP3 of return of “Bernie’s Tune”)

46 Part 2: Hard Bop Example: The Charlie Parker Septet playing “Anthropology” Parker on alto sax, Lucky Thompson on tenor sax, Al Haig on piano, Milt Jackson on vibes, Tommy Potter on bass, and Max Roach on drums By the way—Max Roach was a UMass faculty member until his death in 2007 (Play MP3)

47 Now we are turning from the “form” of the piece to the “style”. The same strategies apply—as you listen to the musician play the first time through the piece, try to learn and remember the melody. It will become the primary basis for the improvisation that follows. Describe how the “hard bop” style of Anthropology differs from that used in “Bernie’s Tune”. Consider the following: which instruments are playing, the tempo, dynamic levels, and how far the musicians’ improvisations moved away from the original melody. (Play MP3 again)

48 Part 3: New Orleans Jazz (“Dixieland”) Like other styles of jazz, Dixieland has its roots in the blues (which were originally sung) and ragtime (which were usually played on the piano). Dixieland was generally played by a small group of melody instruments (cornet or trumpet, clarinet and trombone) and rhythm instruments (often a drum or drums, banjo or guitar, something homemade such as a washtub with a rope attached). The melody instruments were called the “front line”. Behind them (marching or standing) were the rhythm instrument(s). This music was often functional; it was played for parades, gatherings, celebrations, picnics, in a bordello (brothel), etc.

49 Example: Louis Armstrong’s Hot Fives playing “Struttin’ With Some Barbeque” Louis Armstrong on cornet, Kid Ory on trombone, Johnny Dodds on clarinet, Lil Hardin Armstrong on piano, Johnny St. Cyr on banjo. (Play MP3)

50 In this style the cornet or trumpet often plays the melody, the clarinet improvises above the melody, and the trombone plays something rhythmic below the melody. When all three are playing something different at the same time, it is called a “collective improvisation”. Although it is a trademark of this style, collective improvisation appears in all styles of jazz.

51 Listen and try to remember the melody. Each time they play the tune again (or enter into a new musical section through improvisation), describe what changes: which instrument is playing, how is that player changing the tune, etc. How often, in this performance, did you hear “collective improvisation?” At what point in the recording did it occur? (Play MP3 again)

52 Part 4: Swing Example: Count Basie Band playing “One O’Clock Jump” Eventually, Dixieland became more polished and more commercial. It found its way into hotels and similar “upper income” locations in many cities. Often, a piano was added to the band. This music became known as “Chicago jazz”. As more and more Americans learned to listen and dance to these evolved groups, called “society bands,” more instruments were added—perhaps another cornet or trumpet, another saxophone, another trombone, etc. Eventually bands became bigger, using whole “sections” of each instrument—trumpets, trombones, saxophones, and rhythm instruments (piano, bass, drums and sometimes others). This music became known as “swing”. It was intended primarily for dancing. (Play MP3)

53 Much of the music in this era relied upon arrangers. Players were much more limited in how often they could improvise. Listen for the difference between music which sounds as if it was written by the arranger and music which sounds as if it was improvised by the player. Play excerpts from “One O’Clock Jump”: Pre- arranged vs. improvised

54 Describe this style of jazz. How does it differ from Dixieland? The limited amount of time allotted for improvisation eventually became a major issue for the players. This frustration helped develop the emerging styles of bop and cool jazz. How can you tell which music is probably improvised and which music is written out ahead of time? Which instruments are improvising? (And when?) Compared with the music which is pre-arranged (or written out), how often do improvisational sections occur? (Play MP3 again)

55 Part 5: Big Band Now (some modern jazz) Example: excerpt from a recording of Sherrie Maricle and the Diva Jazz Orchestra playing ???? Big Band + Orchestra (Play MP3)

56 Using the skills you’ve gained so far, describe the beginning of this piece. At what point can you decisively hear the melody? Can you name that tune? (Play MP3 again)

57 Final Reminders / Homework 20 th century lecture next class by yours truly Read pages 335-359 Questions? Email:

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