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School of Informatics CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers1 Compression & Streaming Serving, shrinking, and otherwise.

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Presentation on theme: "School of Informatics CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers1 Compression & Streaming Serving, shrinking, and otherwise."— Presentation transcript:

1 School of Informatics CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers1 Compression & Streaming Serving, shrinking, and otherwise messing about with perfectly good audio files

2 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers2 Loudness and power Loudness related to force with which a sound presses on your eardrum The more power, the louder the sound Power is proportional to the square of a sound’s intensity (amplitude, or voltage)

3 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers3 Sampling error and noise CD audio uses 44.1 KHz at 16 bit resolution –Sampled voltages quantised to –32768…32767 –Quantisation introduces error (through rounding) –Largest error is 0.5 which is times as loud as the loudest sample value –Power related to square of amplitude so error has power as loud as loudest signal –Ratio of signal to error (noise) is 2 32 :1 Or 96.3 dB (10 log 10 (2 32 )) = SNR of 96 dB

4 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers4 Signal to noise ratio So, CD audio has SNR of 96 dB 8-bit sampling has SNR of 48 dB Therefore, 1 bit of resolution adds approx. 6 dB to the dynamic range Threshold of pain is 120 dB so we need a 20-bit resolution to capture the dynamic range of human auditory system Loud samples are rare, so noise is more noticeable than the theory would suggest

5 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers5 Coding A standard.WAV file (no such thing) stores samples as 16-bit values. These values are codes representing the voltages (amplitudes) of the signal System called pulse code modulation (contrast with pulse amplitude modulation and pulse width modulation) WAV format actually supports nearly 100 different coding systems

6 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers6 Compression Lossless compression (e.g. LZW) does not work well on audio as there are very few repeating patterns Sampled audio tends to have random noise in the least significant bits making very few bytes identical. Winzip hardly compresses audio files at all –Try girl2.wav and 528 Hz.wav. Why does the second file compress 2.33:1?

7 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers7 Other techniques Need some different compression techniques Popular ones are: –Differential PCM (DPCM) –Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) –A-Law –µ-Law –Logarithmic & non-linear codings –Perceptual codings

8 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers8 Differential PCM Consider the differences in value between individual samples at rates of, say, 44.1 KHz –Usually fairly small –Small differences need fewer bits than the samples themselves –So, DCPM stores sample differences, hence the name Leads to some inaccuracy and requires look ahead to balance things out

9 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers9 DCPM example To reduce 8-bit sample values to 4-bit differences Consider three samples of 17, 28, 30 –Differences: 11, 2 –4-bit system only allows values -8…+7 (1000…0111) –Thus 11 overflows, therefore clipped at 7 –But decompressing would then give 17, 24, 26 –But if we look at diff. between decompressed sample and next actual: = 11 -> = 24. Diff = 6 Give 7, 6 which, when decompressed gives 17, 24, 30

10 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers10 Predictor based compression Try to predict next sample on basis of previous samples If correct, no need to store sample as decompressor uses same rules and so can work it out too If prediction correct, output 1 else output 0 followed by actual sample

11 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers11 Adaptive DPCM ADPCM uses prediction Outputs predicted differences. If accurate then diff between actual and predicted samples has lower variance than actual samples and thus take fewer bits Uses 4-bit codes representing predicted diff. between two 16-bit samples

12 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers12 Sub-band coding Low frequencies have fewer cycles per second and thus lots of small differences High frequencies have larger differences Dividing signal into frequency bands allows low frequencies to be coded with fewer bits than high frequencies Bands to which ear is less sensitive can be less accurately stored

13 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers13 Speech compression Musical sound has little silence Speech has many pauses and silences –These can be replaced by duration codes –Can reduce a signal by 50% by doing this

14 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers14 Checkpointing Predictive techniques need knowledge of what has gone before If a stream (e.g. love radio feed) is opened in the middle, this state information is unavailable Therefore, insert checkpoints that contain –Uncompressed samples, or –Compressor state vector Checkpoints allow decompressor to reset itself

15 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers15 Non-linear coding High sample rate gives wide dynamic range Reducing from 16 bits to 8 bits halves storage requirements, but reduces dynamic range by 63,000 times (96 dB down to 48 dB) Standard PCM is linear –Sample value 50 is twice the amplitude of 25 –In 8-bit system, sounds less than 1/256th of loudest possible signal disappears

16 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers16 Non-linear coding Ear is quite insensitive to small changes in loud sounds but very sensitive to same small change in quieter sounds Linear coding ideal of computational manipulation but wasteful Non-linear coding uses a logarithmic scale –Value of 1 may be much less than 1/50th of intensity represented by value of 50 –More bits for quiet sounds and fewer bits for very loud sounds

17 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers17  -Law & A-Law  -Law and A-Law uses logarithmic compression to convert linear-coded PCM samples into 8-bit codes Provide greater accuracy for the small (quiet) samples that form bulk of an audio signal Human auditory system has (approx) logarithmic response so these techniques give highest accuracy where most audible Dynamic range is 14 bits & 13 bits respec. (84 dB and 78 dB)

18 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers18 Perceptual coding DPCM, ADPCM,  -Law & A-Law do not give high- enough compression for demanding multimedia and web applications Using psychoacoustic models of our auditory system we can take information out of the audio signal without changing its perceptual characteristics (well, sort of) Linear PCM captures sound as it is Perceptual coding captures audio as it sounds

19 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers19 Perceptual coding PC uses knowledge of the masking properties of the human auditory system and our sensitivity to different frequency bands PC introduces significant noise into the signal… … but in such a way as we don’t hear it. MP3, ATRAC (mini disc), DCC use perceptual coding techniques

20 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers20 Masking Part of an audio signal can be inaudible –A loud sound can mask a simultaneous quiet sound –A quiet sound immediately following a very loud sound may also be inaudible E.g. you have to turn up the radio when your car goes faster E.g. A handclap (normally loud) heard straight after a gun shot would sound quiet PC assigns fewer bits to masked signals

21 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers21 MPEG audio MPEG audio layer 1, 2, & 3 Most commonly use layer 3, hence MP3 A standard for coding an audio stream into a bit stream at various bit rates The higher the bit rate, the more data At a bit rate of 96 kpbs achieve bandwidth of about 15 KHz and compression of 16:1 At 128 kpbs, get closer to 20 KHz and compression of about 12:1

22 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers22 ATRAC Mini disc uses adaptive transform acoustic coding Compression of 5:1 Like MP3 uses perceptual coding and sub-band compression ATRAC uses three sub-bands, MP3 uses 32

23 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers23 Streaming Streaming is the process of sending an audio file as a continuous stream that can be played back the moment the stream starts Avoids having to download the file first –suitable for live situations, e.g. web casts, internet radio, etc. Need to know about network capabilities of client –e.g. no point sending 128 kbps MP3 audio to a 56 k modem client

24 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers24 Streaming Smooth signal heard where transmitter sends data at least as fast as client can decode it –low bandwidth connections and –network congestion lead to low stream rate = either poorer quality audio, or glitches and pauses Popular formats are Real audio, MS ASF, Apple Quicktime

25 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers25 Creating streamed content Very simple Connect a live feed to a streaming-enable media producer Use tools such as Windows Media Encoder or Real’s Helix Producer to turn audio files into streamable files. Even Sound Forge can save as.ASF and.RM Select required bit rate/bandwidth Some services provide multiple bit rates

26 CG087 Time-based Multimedia Assets School of Informatics Compression & StreamingDr Paul Vickers26 Example


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