Presentation on theme: "Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Lee Axdahl Accident Records Supervisor South."— Presentation transcript:
Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Lee Axdahl Accident Records Supervisor South Dakota Office of Highway Safety
Vehicles have many safety features… Seatbelt and shoulder straps Air-bags Padded dashboards Safety glass Anti-locking brakes, and Collapsible steering columns …but…
Recent years have seen new driving challenges… Increased traffic congestion on our roads … Many new technologies are now available for use in automobiles … One technology particularly surrounded by debate is the cell phone (and MP3 players) …
Generally Accepted Distracted Driving Realities… Multitasking results in multiple tasks competing for a driver’s attentional resources …and… Multitasking while driving results in less efficient visual search, slower reaction times, and fewer and shorter eye fixations. George Mason University Study
Add this to the list and trouble is bound to be around the corner….
Is That The Only Problem? Another factor is the inability of most young drivers to adequately assess and respond to risk. Why? The frontal brain lobe is responsible for cognitive functions that control life-saving behavior such as hazard anticipation and risk management. And? Brain imaging studies show this lobe does not fully develop until drivers are 25.
A South Dakota Example… CRASH REPORT NARRATION: …the driver lost control of the vehicle, entered the east ditch, crossed the fence line and then rolled multiple times. The driver, who was deceased at the scene, was located outside the vehicle. The crash is believed to have occurred numerous hours before discovery. The driver was last seen at approximately 10:30 PM the night before…. 609124 – 16 Year Old Male
Fact: Inexperience behind the wheel is the leading cause of teenage crashes… NHTSA
South Dakota Example #2… CRASH REPORT NARRATION: …the right rear tire blew out and the driver lost control. Vehicle began to slide sideways crossing the oncoming lane of traffic and entering the north ditch rolling two times. Back seat passenger was ejected out the back window sustaining fatal injuries… 613662 – 18 Year Old Male
Fact: Approximately two thirds of teens killed in automobile crashes are not wearing seatbelts. NHTSA
South Dakota Example #3… CRASH REPORT NARRATION: …Vehicle was traveling at a high rate of speed attempting to jump the vehicle on a drainage dip in the roadway. Vehicle hit the dip and became airborne. The driver lost control and swerved to miss a vehicle at the stop sign. …vehicle struck a tree and came to rest on its roof…driver was partially ejected and died at the scene… 614245 - 16 Year Old Male
Fact: 16 Year Olds have higher crash rates than drivers of any other age. NHTSA
South Dakota Example #4… CRASH REPORT NARRATION: Vehicle traveling in excess of posted speed limit and over steered the curve causing vehicle to skid and then roll three times along the drainage ditch…vehicle then struck the bottom of the drainage ditch… …driver was ejected from the vehicle and found approximately 80 feet from the roadway… 701708 – 19 Year Old Male
Fact: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers. NHTSA
South Dakota Example #5… CRASH REPORT NARRATION: …driver drifted off the road into the west ditch for an unknown reason. As unit entered the ditch it collided with a delineator post. After the collision with the post, the driver of the vehicle attempted to bring the unit back onto the roadway and overcorrected, causing her to lose control and roll three times, ejecting both occupants… 709398 – 16 Year Old Female Killed 17 Year Old Male Killed
Fact: Statistics conclude that 16 & 17 year old driver death rates increase with each additional passenger. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: Safety Equipment Usage By Drivers Killed Or Injured In Motor Vehicle Crashes
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: Is The “No Drinking & Driving Lesson” Being Learned?
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: Not bad…the last three years are below the 13 year fatality average!
South Dakota Teenagers: But … South Dakota Teenagers: But … it’s still “them” versus “us” and the picture isn’t encouraging!
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: And the year to year averages are not in drastic flux … lessons being learned? 31.3 15.0 8.7
You Think That’s Bad? Don’t even ask about teenagers on motorcycles!
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: Percent Motorcycle Licenses versus Percent Fatal & Injury Motorcycle Crashes
South Dakota Teenagers: South Dakota Teenagers: Doing their best to stay average! 12.3
Recarte & Nunes Research Published in March, 2000 by the American Psychological Association Recorded the eye movements of drivers while they performed verbal and spatial- visual tasks Also measured how often each driver checked his or her side and rear mirrors and the speedometer
Findings… During visual-verbal tasks unrelated to driving, the driver fixated on certain points longer and glanced less frequently at his/her mirrors and dashboard instruments During visual-verbal tasks, “the driver’s eye freezes up and the visual inspection window decreases, affecting peripheral vision and perception of the environment”
Findings… When cognitively complex tasks are performed while driving, the “visual inspection window” decreases between 25-40% horizontally, and 40-60% vertically. Technical term for the phenomena… …TUNNEL VISION
Findings… Therefore, the study finds, that the potential of using a cell phone is one thing (visual task)…add an in-depth conversation requiring considerable mental effort (verbal task) and an already risky behavior is compounded
2002 George Mason University Distracted Driving Study: Examine the nature and scope of the distracted driving issue To identify and develop strategies that might help minimize distracted driving
George Mason University Study RESEARCH FINDINGS: The extent of the distracted driving problem is not clearly defined, validated, or determined and terminology is inconsistent It is not clear how specific behaviors affect driving capacities differently in magnitude or effect
South Dakota Teen Driver South Dakota Teen Driver Contributing Factors To Crashes
South Dakota Tasks? Define “distracted driving” for consistency As it applies to all drivers? As it applies to SDCL? As it applies to enforcement? Categorize “distracted driving” incidents to validate extent of problem Cell Phone related? MP3, etc… related? Traffic related?
South Dakota Tasks? Determine methods to educate drivers Remedial education for existing drivers? Inclusion in Driver’s Education program? Major media reinforcement Legislative or Policy Proposed legislation should be supported by current research The fact that “Distracted Driving” is not an offense inhibits the ability for enforcement to “cite”