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OGT Science Review. Physical Science Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion: ► 1 st law: A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion until.

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Presentation on theme: "OGT Science Review. Physical Science Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion: ► 1 st law: A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion until."— Presentation transcript:

1 OGT Science Review

2 Physical Science

3 Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion: ► 1 st law: A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion until an outside force acts on it (inertia) ► 2 nd law: A forces causes an object to accelerate ► 3 rd law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

4 Kinetic Energy: energy in motion ► Examples: jogging, an mp3 player playing music ► KE = ½ mv 2  m = mass  V=velocity

5 Potential Energy: stored energy ► The ability of a system to do work due to its position or internal structure ► Examples: batteries, the food we eat, a rock on a ledge, an expanded rubber band ► Gravitational PE = m x g x h  M= mass g = gravityh=height

6 Law of Conservation of Energy: ► Says that energy cannot be created or destroyed…only converted to another type of energy  Example: chemical energy in food converting into different types of energy  Example: Solar (sun) energy converts to chemical energy during photosynthesis  Example: in an mp3…chemical energy in a battery is converted into electrical energy that powers the mp3, which becomes sound energy

7 Heat (a type of energy) can be transferred in 3 ways… 1. conduction: transfer of heat through a solid object Example: heating on stove 2. Convection: transfer of heat by liquid or gas example: currents in ocean waters, earth’s mantle layers, steam from water 3. Radiation: transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves example: microwaves, x-rays, infrared

8 Chemical Properties: ► Any change that produces a new substance ► Examples: when copper corrodes and turns green, when iron rusts, when something is burned

9 Physical Change: ► A change that does not create any new substance. ► Examples: phase changes of water, cutting hair, creating mixture

10 Endothermic reactions: ► A reaction that absorbs heat from the surrounding ► Ex: baking a cake

11 Exothermic reactions: ► A reaction that gives off heat ► Ex: burning wood or paper produces heat

12 Other terms in phase changes: ► Freezing: when a liquid becomes a solid ► Melting: when a solid changes to liquid to allow molecules to move more freely ► Evaporation: liquid becomes a gas; molecules now moving rapidly ► Condensation: gas becomes a liquid (clouds) ► Sublimation: Solid directly to a gas (dry ice) ► Precipitation: clouds release water in rain/snow

13 Density ► Allows objects to float or sink ► Density = mass/volume ► Density of water is 1 g/ml

14 Atomic Structure ► Matter: anything that takes up space ► Atom: smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element  Protons: positive (in nucleus)  Neutrons: no charge (in nucleus)  Electrons: negative (orbit nucleus) ► Element: pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance

15 Periodic Table ► Atomic number: # of protons in an atom  Hydrogen: Atomic #1, so it’s the 1 st element ► Moving left to right, the elements go up in atomic number on the periodic table ► Top number: atomic # ► Bottom number: atomic mass (protons & neutrons)

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17 Bonds ► Ionic bonds: form when one or more valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another, creating positive and negative ions ► Covalent bonds: some atoms complete their outer shell by sharing these valence electrons with other atoms

18 Wave Properties ► Earthquake, water, and sound waves require matter to travel through ► Electromagnetic waves do not require matter (light, radio, micro, x-rays)

19 ► Wavelength: the length of one complete wavelength cycle ► Amplitude: a measure of the energy a wave carries (distance from crest to midline)  Larger the amplitude…higher the sound ► Frequency: # of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time ► In phase: when 2 waves match (become larger wave) ► Out of phase: when 2 waves do not match up (will cancel each other out)

20 Earth & Space Science

21 Big Bang Theory: ► Universe was created in one giant explosion about 13.7 billion years ago  Galaxies are moving apart from central location  Red shift: the light most galaxies give off is close to the red end of the spectrum…therefore the light energy is longer and the color is red as they move out

22 How a star is formed… ► In space, dust & gas get pulled together by gravity = nebula ► this gravity produces heat, and nuclear fusion occurs Massive Star Cycle: nebula-massive star-large red giant-supernova- black hole or neutron star Low mass star cycle: nebula-star similar to sun-small red giant-white dwarf-black dwarf

23 Tools ► Telescopes: look at moons, planets, galaxies ► Spaceship: allows travel to collect data ► Satellites: transmit signals from outer space ► Probes: sent by scientists to collect data on far away planets that humans cannot get to

24 Galaxies ► Spiral ► Eliptical ► irregular

25 Why does the earth and other planets revolve around the sun? ► Gravitational force ► Gravitational force

26 ► Earth rotates on axis: causes night and day ► Earth revolves around sun  1 year = one time around sun

27 Seasons ► Hemispheres differ (summer/winter) depending on angle toward sun (think of the tilt ) ► Solar eclipse: when moon blocks sun from the Earth’s view (moon is between) ► Lunar eclipse: when Earth blocks our view of moon (Earth is between)

28 Plate Techtonics ► Theory that the Earth’s crust is made up of many plates that are floating on top of the Earth’s mantle layer (which is molten liquid rock)  Earthquake: when plates slide past each other, creating friction  Mountains: when plates collide & push up  Magma: comes up between 2 plates or melt through a soft crustal plate  Convection currents in mantle push plates around, causing continents to drift and seafloors to spread

29 Alfred Wegener ► Proposed Continental Drift Theory (at one time continents were all 1 land mass) Fossils: a piece/trace of an organism that was once alive (found in sedimentary rock) *Oldest rock sediments will be on the bottom

30 Non-renewable resources ► Fossil fuels: gasoline, oil, coal ► We can never replace or renew them 2 negatives: 1. They will eventually run out 2. They cause global warming

31 Renewable Resources ► Can be replaced and renewed ► Ex: sunlight, water power, wind, wood, crops

32 Global Warming ► When heat is trapped, and causes the planet to become warmer ► Greenhouse effect: insulation layer that allows some heat in, and other out

33 Alternative Energy Sources (VERY IMPORTANT!!) ► Wind power  Good: no CO 2 produced  Bad: must have wind Hydroelectric (dams)  Good: no CO 2 produced  Bad: need large river ► Solar panels  Good: no CO 2 produced  Bad: expensive; must have sun shine

34 ► Hydrogen power  Good: no CO 2 produced; large amounts of energy  Bad: explosive; expensive ► Geothermal  Good: no CO 2 produced  Bad: need access to underground temperatures ► Ethanol-making alcohol from corn/sugar cane  Good: produces less CO 2 than fossil fuels  Bad: still creates carbon dioxide

35 How can we conserve resources? ► Recycle ► Car pool ► Ride bike instead of driving ► Use public transportation ► Turn off water/electricity when not using

36 Biomes ► Desert: little rain; large temp. change ► Rainforest: hot and wet ► Tundra: cold; has wet/dry seasons ► Grasslands: wet/dry seasons; hot ► Deciduous forest (us ): even moisture; warm summers/cold winters ► Coniferous forest: moisture varies; cool summers/cold winters

37 ► Biomes with colder temperatures have less diversity of life

38 Moh’s Mineral Hardness Scale ► 1 Talc (softest mineral on Earth) ► 2Gypsum ► 3Calcite ► 4Fluorite ► 5Apatite ► 6Feldspar ► 7Quartz ► 8Topaz ► 9Corundum ► 10Diamond (hardest mineral on Earth) **higher number will scratch lower number**

39 Life Science

40 ► Predator: organisms that kill and eat others ► Prey: organisms that the predators kills ► Herbivore: feeds off plants only ► Carnivore: feeds off animals only ► Omnivore: feeds off plants and animals

41 ► Consumers: depend other organisms for energy  Primary consumer: 1 st to eat the plant  Secondary consumer: eats 1 st consumer ► Producers: produce own food through photosynthesis ► Food chain: 3-5 links ► Food web: network of food chains

42 Energy pyramid ► Bottom is the producers (get energy from sun) ► Most available energy is located at the bottom!! ► Only 10% of each level gets passed on  Where does the other 90% go? ► Lost as HEAT

43 Biotic (living) factors: ► Plants, animals, fungi, etc.

44 Abiotic (non-living) factors: ► Weather, rocks, water, hills, rocks, holes, etc.

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46 Symbiosis (aka symbiotic relationships) 1. mutualism: both organisms benefit Ex: bee pollinating a flower 2. Commensalism: one benefits, other is not harmed OR helped Ex: bird’s nest in tree 3. Parasitism: one benefits, other is harmed Ex: flea on dog

47 Natural Selection ► When nature chooses the most favorable variation ► Those organisms that are the best for that environment will survive and reproduce the best ► Those organisms that are the best for that environment will survive and reproduce the best ► Ex: giraffes with tall food (only tall giraffes survive and reproduce)

48 Photosynthesis ► When plants convert light energy (sun) into chemical energy (glucose=food) ► Must take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen! ► Who does this? PLANTS

49 Cellular Respiration ► Take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide ► Who does this? ANIMALS & PLANTS ► Together: both cycles need each other!!  Just opposites of each other

50 Cells: smallest functional unit of organism ► Eukaryotes: have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Ex: plants, animals ► Prokaryotes: lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Ex: bacteria

51 Organelles: have a membrane ► Nucleus:control center; contains DNA ► Ribosome:makes proteins ► Lysosomes:digests food particles ► Mitochondria:produces energy (powerhouse) ► Endoplasmic reticulum: transports ► Golgi complex (apparatus/body): process and packages proteins ► Vacuole: stores water & food ► Cytoplasm: gel-like substance that fills cell

52 Plants vs. Animal Cells: Only in plants: ► Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll (green pigment); photosynthesis occurs here ► Cell walls: give plants support

53 DNA ► Located on chromosomes ► Shaped like double helix ► DNA in specific spot on chromosome = gene ► Viruses are not cells; they must inject DNA into host in order to reproduce  Ex: flu and HIV

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55 Asexual reproduction: ► Reproduction from 1 parent ► DNA is identical to parent ► Involves mitosis ► Ex: bacteria, fungi, some plants/animals

56 Sexual reproduction: ► Involves 2 parents ► Causes VARIETY ► Involves meiosis

57 Mitosis vs. Meiosis ► Mitosis: cell division that produces 2 identical daughter cells ► Meiosis: cell division that produces 4 different daughter cells  Sperm/egg  Each have 23 chromosomes  When sperm + egg = 46 chromosomes

58 Genetics ► Allele: one form of a gene ► Dominant: trait is expressed if 1 there ► Recessive: only expressed if 2 present ► Homozygous: same (hh, BB) ► Heterozygous: different (Hh, Bb)

59 Sex-linked traits ► Male: XY ► Female: XX ► Males are more likely to get a sex-linked disorder, for they only need 1 affected X to have the disorder. Females would need 2 affected x’s to have the disorder (which is less likely).

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61 Science & Technology

62 2 kinds of nuclear energy 1. Nuclear fusion: produced inside stars 2. Nuclear fission: when radioactive atom called an isotope is broken up into two smaller atoms -occurs inside Earth’s core, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons

63 Other ideas: ► Know how technology and inventions impact our life and environment ► State advantages/disadvantages of specific technologies ► Examples: car adv/disadv, genetically altered food, hydroelectric power, lasers ► How modern practices use science: auditorium can quiet by using carpet, styrofoam, curtains (solid, smooth materials will reflect sound)

64 Scientific Inquiry Scientific Ways of Knowing

65 Scientific method ► Hypothesis must be able to be tested ► Dependent variable: depends on independent variable (ex: growth of plant) ► Independent variable: what you are actually changing (ex: adding fertilizer) ► Control: untreated sample

66 Know scientific instruments and their purposes ► Find volume of object with graduated cylinder ► Observation: something you detect using your senses ► Inference: may or may not be true; based on past experiences

67 ► Deal with ethical issues…why something is right or wrong ► Safety issues ► Explain yourself, no matter what your opinion ► Explain yourself, no matter what your opinion

68 *Much of this information in this powerpoint was gained from


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