Presentation on theme: "Embedded Systems Normal everyday items contain computer chips, complete with CPU, memory, programs –Television, Entt. Center, Automobiles, Irrigation,"— Presentation transcript:
Embedded Systems Normal everyday items contain computer chips, complete with CPU, memory, programs –Television, Entt. Center, Automobiles, Irrigation, –MP3, cell phones, GPS, –microwave, home alarms, thermostats, –network routers, game consoles Special purpose machines contain computers –Manufacturing, metering, sensing, –ATM machines, kiosks –Medical Instruments, Aircraft, Satellites, Need to know: Hardware Software
IMPACT $45 billion market in 2004, rising to $88 billion in 2009 Many more embedded processors per person, than general purpose processors –A cell phone may have separate processors –Value of embedded electronics in Automobiles: 25% of total cost, to rise to 35% by 2015 –Embedded market is 50 times the desktop market Application Domains: –Automotive, Avionics, Industrial Automation, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, Medical, IT hardware Cutting edge: –Multicore processors, Network on Chip, System on chip (e.g. the iPhone, PS-3)
Embedded Systems A “special purpose” unit –e.g. simple cell phone (it does not run MS-Word) Has a CPU, memory and programs that control mainly physical things –The program is preinstalled and cannot be changed easily Has limited processing power and limited electrical power and limited data storage Has “intelligence” –Can be configured, personalized, “programmed” Need to know: Computer Architecture
Schematic CPU Memory Permanent Memory Input device (keyboard) Sensors to measure physical values Actuators to control physical things Output device (screen) bus program Need to know: Digital Logic, Electrical Circuits, Computer Architecture
The Seven Segment Display Display Controller Counter Clock …..
DSL Router 5. JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) test and programming port. 6. RAM, a single ESMT M12L64164A 8 MB chip. 7. Flash memory, obscured by sticker. 8. Power supply regulator. 9. Main power supply fuse. 10. Power connector. 11. Reset button. 12. Quartz crystal. 13. Ethernet port. 14. Ethernet transformer, Delta LF KS8721B Ethernet PHY transmitter receiver. 16. USB port. 17. Telephone (RJ11) port. 18. Telephone connector fuses. Netgear DG632 ADSL Modem/router. 1. Telephone decoupling electronics (for ADSL). 2. Multicolor LED (displaying network status). 3. Single color LED (displaying USB status). 4. Main processor, a TNETD7300GDU, a member of Texas Instruments' AR7 product line.
MP3 player Large “flash” memory to store songs –Songs (audio) stored in digital form, then compressed to a set of numbers that are of the “MP3” format CPU runs program in main memory –Decompresses audio and generates “raw digital audio” –Gets user input from button –Displays information on screen Digital-Analog converter generates audible sound waves and sends to speaker/headphones Need to know: Software Algorithms, Device Drivers and programming
GPS Navigator Complex system with many components –GPS Radio –GPS signal processor –Map database –Processor to control display and compute routes, locations, points of interest –Video image processor to control actual screen May contain several different CPUs in one package
GPS Radio Receives data from several satellites, converts RF to digital signals –Separate for each satellite Radio receiver circuitry Signals (digital) from each satellite on separate wires A set of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, A GPS receiver can determine its location, speed, direction, and time.
GPS signal processor Correlates satellite signals –Computes timing differences –“triangulates” location GPS data processor Current location in latitude and longitude Need to know: Radio, Signal processing, Algorithms
GPS Navigator The user interface – show location on map and provide useful other information GPS Computer Display Processor MAP database Touch Sensor Need to know: Computer Graphics, Graph Theory
Cell Phone (basic) Multi-channel Radio (transmit and receive) Digital processor for CDMA or TDMA processing –GSM is TDMA – each person communicates in a pre- assigned slice of time on channel –CDMA is a complex code modulation method Encryption/Decryption hardware Channel and tower hopping Transmit power control Analog to digital to RF conversions Display, phone book and other electronic functions Need to know: Radio Modulation, Digital Signal Processing
Automobile Computers Engine control computer Advanced diagnostics Simplification of the manufacture and design of cars Reduction of the amount of wiring in cars New safety features New comfort and convenience features Need to know: Control Systems, Electrical Circuits, Real Time Control
Engine Control Computer (ECU) Read sensors (temp, pedal position, exhaust) and control fuel injector timing and spark timing Control engine fan and other actuators Handle the CAN (communication area networking) that is becoming common in cars. Interface with climate and other passenger controls Provide diagnostics Need to know: Real Time Operating Systems
Other computers in car There are more processors in the car other than ECU –ABS system –Climate control –Cruise control –Radio –Dashboard –Automatic doors, lights and such Cars also have networks for “simplified wiring” as well as automotive control networks.
Simplified Wiring OLDNEW Many connecting wires One wire runs all over the vehicle and carries power and signal SWITCHESSWITCHES LAMPSLAMPS Switches + signal encoders Lamps + signal decoders
Automobile Networking As multiple computing units get into cars, a networking standard is being used –CAN 2.0 is predominant Functions –Communicate between subsystems –Reduce wires –Multiplexing standard –Network addressing –“multiple networks” coming in the future Need to know: Computer Networking
Embedded Systems There are more “embedded systems” in the world than regular computers Explosive growth Research directions: –Power management –“system on a chip” –“network on a chip” –Low resource but high impact computing –Intelligent coupling of small wireless devices –MORE