Presentation on theme: "Embedded Systems Normal everyday items contain computer chips, complete with CPU, memory, programs Television, Entt. Center, Automobiles, Irrigation, MP3,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Embedded SystemsNormal everyday items contain computer chips, complete with CPU, memory, programsTelevision, Entt. Center, Automobiles, Irrigation,MP3, cell phones, GPS,microwave, home alarms, thermostats,network routers, game consolesSpecial purpose machines contain computersManufacturing, metering, sensing,ATM machines, kiosksMedical Instruments, Aircraft, Satellites,Need to know:HardwareSoftware
2 IMPACT $45 billion market in 2004, rising to $88 billion in 2009 Many more embedded processors per person, than general purpose processorsA cell phone may have separate processorsValue of embedded electronics in Automobiles: 25% of total cost, to rise to 35% by 2015Embedded market is 50 times the desktop marketApplication Domains:Automotive, Avionics, Industrial Automation, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, Medical, IT hardwareCutting edge:Multicore processors, Network on Chip, System on chip (e.g. the iPhone, PS-3)
3 Embedded Systems A “special purpose” unit e.g. simple cell phone (it does not run MS-Word)Has a CPU, memory and programs that control mainly physical thingsThe program is preinstalled and cannot be changed easilyHas limited processing power and limited electrical power and limited data storageHas “intelligence”Can be configured, personalized, “programmed”Need to know:Computer Architecture
4 Schematic Output device (screen) Memory program CPU Input device (keyboard)Sensors to measure physical valuesActuators to control physical thingsbusPermanent MemoryNeed to know:Digital Logic, Electrical Circuits, Computer Architecture
5 The Seven Segment Display Display ControllerCounterClock00000001001000110100…..
6 DSL Router5. JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) test and programming port. 6. RAM, a single ESMT M12L64164A 8 MB chip. 7. Flash memory, obscured by sticker. 8. Power supply regulator. 9. Main power supply fuse. 10. Power connector. 11. Reset button. 12. Quartz crystal. 13. Ethernet port. 14. Ethernet transformer, Delta LF KS8721B Ethernet PHY transmitter receiver. 16. USB port. 17. Telephone (RJ11) port. 18. Telephone connector fuses.Netgear DG632 ADSL Modem/router. 1. Telephone decoupling electronics (for ADSL). 2. Multicolor LED (displaying network status). 3. Single color LED (displaying USB status). 4. Main processor, a TNETD7300GDU, a member of Texas Instruments' AR7 product line.
7 MP3 player Large “flash” memory to store songs Songs (audio) stored in digital form, then compressed to a set of numbers that are of the “MP3” formatCPU runs program in main memoryDecompresses audio and generates “raw digital audio”Gets user input from buttonDisplays information on screenDigital-Analog converter generates audible sound waves and sends to speaker/headphonesNeed to know:Software Algorithms, Device Drivers and programming
8 GPS Navigator Complex system with many components GPS RadioGPS signal processorMap databaseProcessor to control display and compute routes, locations, points of interestVideo image processor to control actual screenMay contain several different CPUs in one package
9 GPS RadioReceives data from several satellites, converts RF to digital signalsSeparate for each satelliteA set of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals,A GPS receiver can determine its location, speed, direction, and time.RadioreceivercircuitrySignals (digital) from each satellite on separate wires
10 GPS signal processor Correlates satellite signals Computes timing differences“triangulates” locationGPS data processorCurrent location in latitude and longitudeNeed to know:Radio, Signal processing, Algorithms
11 GPS NavigatorThe user interface – show location on map and provide useful other informationGPS ComputerDisplay ProcessorMAP databaseTouch SensorNeed to know:Computer Graphics, Graph Theory
12 Cell Phone (basic) Multi-channel Radio (transmit and receive) Digital processor for CDMA or TDMA processingGSM is TDMA – each person communicates in a pre-assigned slice of time on channelCDMA is a complex code modulation methodEncryption/Decryption hardwareChannel and tower hoppingTransmit power controlAnalog to digital to RF conversionsDisplay, phone book and other electronic functionsNeed to know:Radio Modulation, Digital Signal Processing
13 Automobile Computers Engine control computer Advanced diagnostics Simplification of the manufacture and design of carsReduction of the amount of wiring in carsNew safety featuresNew comfort and convenience featuresNeed to know:Control Systems, Electrical Circuits, Real Time Control
14 Engine Control Computer (ECU) Read sensors (temp, pedal position, exhaust) and control fuel injector timing and spark timingControl engine fan and other actuatorsHandle the CAN (communication area networking) that is becoming common in cars.Interface with climate and other passenger controlsProvide diagnosticsNeed to know:Real Time Operating Systems
15 Other computers in carThere are more processors in the car other than ECUABS systemClimate controlCruise controlRadioDashboardAutomatic doors, lights and suchCars also have networks for “simplified wiring” as well as automotive control networks.
16 Simplified Wiring OLD NEW Switches + signal encoders Lamps + signal decodersL A M P SS WI T C H E SOne wire runs all over the vehicle and carries power and signalMany connecting wires
17 Automobile Networking As multiple computing units get into cars, a networking standard is being usedCAN 2.0 is predominantFunctionsCommunicate between subsystemsReduce wiresMultiplexing standardNetwork addressing“multiple networks” coming in the futureNeed to know:Computer Networking
18 Embedded SystemsThere are more “embedded systems” in the world than regular computersExplosive growthResearch directions:Power management“system on a chip”“network on a chip”Low resource but high impact computingIntelligent coupling of small wireless devicesMORE