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Compact disc players Device characteristics. Hardware architectures.Software. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CD audio 44.1 kHz sample rate. 16 bit samples. Stereo.Additional data tracks. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Compact disc Data stored on bottom of disc: plastic substrate coatingaluminum coating © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CD medium Rotational speed: 1.2-1.4 m/s (CLV).Track pitch: 1.6 microns. Diameter: 120 mm. Pit length: microns. Pit depth: .11 microns. Pit width: 0.5 microns. Laser wavelength: 780 nm. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CD layout Data stored in spiral, not concentric circle:© 2003 Wayne Wolf
CD mechanism Laser, lens, sled: CD focus track detectors diffractiongrating sled laser track © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Laser focus Focus controlled by vertical position of lens.Unfocused beam causes irregular spot: Out of focus In focus Out of focus © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Laser pickup Side spot detectors F A Level: A+B+C+D B D Focus error:(A+C)-(B+D) Tracking error: E-F B D E C © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Servo control Four main signals: focus (laser) @ 245 kHz;tracking 245 kHz; sled 800 Hz; Disc motor. Optical pickup © 2003 Wayne Wolf
EFM Eight-to-fourteen modulation:Fourteen-bit code guarantees a maximum distance between transitions. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Error correction CD capacity: 6.99 GB raw, 700 MB formatted.Reed-Solomon code: g(x) = (x-a) (x- a2) … (x- an-k-1) (x- an-k) Produces data, erasure bits. Time to solve varies greatly depending on noise. CD interleaves Reed-Solomon blocks to reduce effects of large data gaps. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CIRC encoding Cross-interleaved Reed-Solomon coding.Interleaves to reduce burst errors. Each 16-bit sample split into two 8-bit symbols. Specs: Max correctable burst: 4000 bits = 2.5 mm Max interpolatable burst: 12,300 bits = 7.7 mm © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CIRC algorithm Sample split into two symbols.Six samples from each channel (=24 symbols) are chosen. Samples are delayed and scrambled. Parity symbols (Q symbols) are generated. Values are delayed by various amounts. P parity symbols are generated. Even words delayed by one symbol, P and Q words are inverted. Frame = 32 8-bit symbols. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Control word 8-bit control word for every 32-symbol block:P: 1 during music/lead-in, 0 at start of selection. Q: track number, time, etc (spread over 98 bits). R, S, T, U, V, W: reserved. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Control and error correctionSkips caused by physical disturbance. Wait for disturbance to subside. Retry. Read errors caused by disc/servo problems. Detect error. Choose location for retry. Fail and interpolate. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Retry problems Data is stored in a spiral.Can’t seek track as on magnetic disc. Sled servo is very coarse. Data is only weakly addressed. Must read data to know where to go. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Audio playback Audio CD needs no audio processing. Tasks:convert to analog; amplify. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Digital/analog conversion1-bit MASH conversion: interpolation noise shaping PWM integrator © 2003 Wayne Wolf
MP3 Decoding is easier than encoding, but requires:decompression; filtering. Basic CD standard for data discs. No standards for MP3 disc file structure: player must understand Windows, Mac, Unix discs. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Jog/skip memory Read samples into RAM, play back from RAM.Modern RAMs are larger than needed for reasonable jog/skip. Jog memory saves some power. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
CD/MP3 player Audio CPU memory Jog memory Analog out display Errorcorrector focus, tracking, sled, motor drive Servo CPU Analog in amp DAC head FE, TE, amp I2S memory © 2003 Wayne Wolf
DVD format Similar to CD, but: shorter wavelength laser; tighter pits;two layers of data. © 2003 Wayne Wolf
Audio on DVD Alternatives: MP3 on data DVD (stereo).Audio track of video DVD (5.1). DVD audio (5.1). SACD (5.1). © 2003 Wayne Wolf
ISPASS 2004 © 2004 Marilyn Wolf Multimedia Algorithms Marilyn Wolf Dept. of Electrical Engr. Princeton University.
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