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American Trade American traders were very clever  figured out quickly what other countries needed & wanted: i.e. furs, ginseng, ice! Traded all over.

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Presentation on theme: "American Trade American traders were very clever  figured out quickly what other countries needed & wanted: i.e. furs, ginseng, ice! Traded all over."— Presentation transcript:


2 American Trade American traders were very clever  figured out quickly what other countries needed & wanted: i.e. furs, ginseng, ice! Traded all over world & w/ Nat. Americans Some trading trips would last up to 3 yrs!

3 Sailing in foreign seas was dangerous.  Ships in Mediterranean had to be aware of pirates from Tripoli & other Barbary Coast states of N. Africa.  These pirates would: steal cargos kill crew  Tripoli demanded tribute, or protection $, from European govts to let ships pass. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)


5 Tripoli asked for bigger bribe in early 1800s  Jefferson refused  Tripoli declared war on U.S.  Jefferson blockaded Tripoli w/ navy In 1804, pirates seized U.S. ship (the Philadelphia)  Had it towed to Tripoli Harbor  Threw captain & crew in jail. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

6 Stephen Decatur (U.S. Navy capt.) burned captured ship to prevent pirates from using it.  Decatur huge hero War went on w/ Tripoli till 1805- U.S. won  Tripoli signed treaty promising not to attack ships or demand tributes anymore  U.S. had to pay $60,000 ransom for return of American prisoners. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

7 Britain & France go to war again Btwn. 1803-1805 U.S. trade prospered because U.S. claimed neutral rights- right to sail seas & not take sides- in war btwn. Britain & France. Neither France nor Britain want U.S. to trade w/ their enemy & capture U.S. ships In 1805 Britain & France began new policy of seizing & searching U.S. ships. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

8 British needed soldiers in Royal Navy because many were deserting. British naval patrols stopped U.S. ships & searched for any soldiers they thought might be British deserters. British would force sailors on U.S. ships to serve in British navy- impressment. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

9 In 1807 British intercepted U.S. ship off coast of VA  Demanded to search it  Capt. of U.S. ship refused  British opened fire Because of this, impressment & capturing ships many in U.S. want war w/Britain Jefferson wanted to avoid war like Washington & Adams I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

10 Issued Embargo Act- no importing or exporting Jefferson believed British depended on US produce Embargo backfired  Britain got agricultural from Latin America  Hurt farmers, merchants, sailors…  Some became smugglers  Jefferson sent out navy & troops to enforce I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340)

11 1808 James Madison elected prez. Madison facts:  4th president  DOB: March 16, 1751 Port Conway, VA  Death: June 28,1836, at home of 85 yrs.  Career: activist in Revolution- too frail to enlist in army. Elected to VA legislature at 25, delegate to Continental Congress, "Father of the Constitution", coauthor of The Federalist Papers, member of House of Reps, coorganizer of Democratic-Republican party, Sec. of State under Jefferson.

12 Personal:  Wife- Dolley Madison  # of Children: None  School Attended: Princeton University  Professions: farmer, planter  Our smallest prez.-100 pounds, 5’ 4” tall  1 of 2 prez. to sign Const.  1st prez. to wear trousers instead of knee breeches  Known as “Father of the Constitution”  ½ 1st cousin twice removed of Washington & 2nd cousin of Zachary Taylor  Younger than both of his v.p.s, & both of his v.p.s died while they were in office.  Diagnosed as epileptic  Only prez. to face enemy gunfire while in office.

13  Madison was a bachelor till age 43, when Aaron Burr introduced him to widow Dolley Todd. The lively and popular Dolley often overshadowed her soft-spoken husband.

14 U.S. played a game of chicken w/ France & Britain In 1810 Napoleon Bonaparte promised to end France’s trade restrictions w/ US  US resumed trade w/ French.  However, French continued to seize American ships.  Americans were unsure of who their enemy was—British or French. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

15 OH became a state in 1803  more farmers began settling in OH Valley on land that had been guaranteed to Native Americans. Tecumseh, a powerful Shawnee chief, built a confederacy among Native American nations in Northwest Wanted to halt white movement onto Native American lands. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

16 The Prophet was Tecumseh’s brother He urged Native Americans to return to customs of their ancestors. He attracted a huge following & set up a village in northern IN called Prophetstown. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

17 William Henry Harrison, gov.of IN territory, was alarmed by Shawnee brothers.  wrote a letter to Tecumseh, telling him US had many more warriors than Native Americans.  Tecumseh went in person to speak to white people. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

18 Harrison attacked Prophetstown in 1811 in Battle of Tippecanoe. Many Native Americans, including Tecumseh, fled to Canada. This flight to Canada led Americans to believe British were supporting Native Americans. (Canada is British) II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

19 A group of young Republicans known as War Hawks pressured Prez. Madison into declare war on Britain. They wanted:  revenge for British actions against Americans  to expand United States power. Their nationalism, or loyalty to their country, appealed to many Americans. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

20 Henry Clay & John Calhoun led War Hawks. By spring of 1812 Madison had decided that war w/Britain was inevitable. Ironically, he had not received word of Britain’s decision to end searches & seizures of American ships. II. War Fever (pages 341–345)

21 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) Since Jefferson believed in small gov’t he reduced size of military  Only 16 ships in U.S. navy  Army  small  poorly trained  badly-equipped  no experience

22 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) Army would rely on volunteers if U.S. had any chance  Congress offered anyone willing to fight $124 & 360 acres of land  Many took offer underestimated how hard it would be & deserted after few months Not everyone in U.S. is behind war  “Mr. Madison’s War” Even though Britain is busy fighting France they send ships to blockade U.S. east coast

23 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) War Hawks had planned to conquer Canada  Felt that Canadians would voluntarily become Americans rather than stay under British rule Fighting starts July 1812- U.S. Gen. William Hull led troops from Detroit (MI) toward Canada  Met Tecumseh & his warriors.  Hull surrendered Detroit to small British force in Aug.

24 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) 1813- U.S. wanted to win control of Lake Erie Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of Lake Erie naval forces assembled fleet  Sept. 10, 1813 Perry’s tiny fleet fought British  Perry’s ship was attacked & about to be lost-he rowed to another & raised colors  In bloody battle, Perry’s ships defeated British naval force. “ We have met the enemy and they are ours”  Lake Erie is under American control

25 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) After loss at Lake Erie British retreat back to Canada  Tecumseh & his people are British allies  Gen. William Henry Harrison is on their tail  At Battle of Thames U.S. wins & Tecumseh is killed  W/out Tecumseh’s leadership alliance fell apart U.S. still could not conquer Canada By end of 1813 Americans had won some battles on land & at sea.

26 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) Americans had 3 of fastest frigates, or warships, afloat  Successfully destroyed British ships.  Constitution- “Old Ironsides” American privateers, armed private ships, also captured numerous British vessels. Boosted American morale

27 I. War Begins (pages 354–355) March 1814- Andrew Jackson (TN planter) led attack against Creek tribe in AL.  U.S. won bloody battle slaughtering more than 550 Creek  Defeat at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend forced Creek to give up most of their lands to U.S.

28 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) In spring 1814 Britain defeated France- free to join War of 1812 August 1814 British sailed into Chesapeake Bay U.S. army met them as Madison watched  U.S. no match for Brits  British made way to D.C. Dolley Madison was waiting for husband (close enough to hear cannon fire)  Before leaving White House she wisely grabbed important papers & portrait of Washington  Soon after she left, British arrived & burned White House & surrounding buildings


30 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) British left D.C., & sailed to Baltimore.  Baltimore was ready for British attack  Brits attack on Sept. 13 th  Fort McHenry in Baltimore was strong defense  By morning of Sept. 14 U.S. flag was still flying over Fort McHenry- British withdrew  Francis Scott Key wrote a song about battle that is now our national anthem, “The Star- Spangled Banner.”

31 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) British troops entered NY state from Canada to capture Plattsburgh (key city on shore of Lake Champlain). U.S. naval force on Lake Champlain defeated British  British retreated to Canada.

32 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) Britain decided to end war- fighting would cost them too much w/ little to gain.  On Dec. 24, 1814, Britain signed peace agreement called Treaty of Ghent.  Didn’t really solve anything (impressment, neutral rights, borders)

33 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) Before news of treaty became known, another battle broke out in New Orleans.  Jan. 8,1815 British attacked New Orleans - again & again  Andrew Jackson & his troops were dug in & ready  Americans held them off killing 2,000 British soldiers & only losing 7  This huge victory at New Orleans:  Was source of national pride & confidence  Made Jackson huge hero


35 II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) New England Feds had opposed war from start  In Dec. 1814 they gathered at Hartford Convention (CT)  Discussed secession  Wrote up list of amendments to Const.  After convention, word arrived about Jackson’s victory in New Orleans & peace treaty.  Federalist party seems pretty unpatriotic & lose power

36 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) “The Era of Good Feelings” was time after War of 1812 when sense of national unity was forged in America. Prez James Monroe represented united America- free of political strife.  He toured nation  everywhere he went people celebrated his visit.

37 James Monroe president 1817-1825 Monroe easily elected after Madison’s 8 yrs Reelection of 1820- received all but 1 electoral vote (NH elector felt Washington should be only unanimously elected prez) Born: 4/28/1758 Died: 7/4/1831 age 73 Along w/ Jefferson & Adams 1 of 3 prez to die on 4 th of July Graduated from College of William and Mary Married to Elizabeth Monroe 2 daughters Occupation: lawyer Offices held: Member of Continental Congress, Senator, Minister to France, Gov. of VA, Minister to France and England, Sec. of State, Secretary of War 1st prez previously a senator. 1st prez inaugurated outdoors. 1 st prez to ride a steamboat 1st prez to have daughter married in White House. Monroe was 3 rd prez in a row from VA Last prez to serve in Revolutionary War

38 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s sec. of state, worked to resolve disputes w/ British  America needed good relations w/ Britain Rush-Bagot Treaty sets limits on # of naval vessels Britain & US could have on Great Lakes.  Treaty also provided for disarmament (removal of weapons) along border btwn US & British Canada.

39 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) US & Britain worked together to set American- Canadian boundary farther west. In a 2nd agreement w/ Britain, Americans set boundary of Louisiana Territory btwn US & Canada at 49th parallel.  Both countries agreed to demilitarize border- border w/out armed forces.

40 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) Americans also gained right to settle in OR Country, vast area extending from CA to AK. In early 1800s, Spain, Britain, Russia, & US claimed Oregon Country.  Spain & Russia eventually gave up their claims  U.S. and Britain based their claims on explorations of fur trappers & traders.  American presence in OR Country grew  Treaty of 1846, Britain & US ÷ OR.

41 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) US & Spain had disputes over borders in FL Americans had wanted Florida for a long time  Native Americans (Seminoles & Creeks) from FL raided GA  Seminoles gave refuge & welcomed escaped slaves (“black Seminoles”); sometimes married  Slaves fled to FL & Spanish officials protected; after War of 1812 African Americans occupied a fort in Florida “Negro Fort” & invited slaves to settle

42 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) Andrew Jackson demanded Spain demolish Negro Fort  Spain refused  Jackson came w/ gunboats to attack  Black settlers fought back, but had to flee & join up w/Seminoles In 1818 Gen. Andrew Jackson went beyond his instructions & invaded Spanish East Florida  He was supposed to be stopping Seminole raids on American territory  Instead, he seized control of 2 Spanish forts.

43 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) Spain’s minister protested Jackson’s actions  Sec. of War John Calhoun said that Jackson should be court- martialed (tried by a military court)  Sec. of State John Quincy Adams disagreed.

44 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) The raid demonstrated strength of U.S. military. Adams-Onís Treaty:  Gave FL to U.S. for $5 mill.  Spain was busy fighting in Latin America  Spanish officials tried to keep Americans out of western territories held by Spain they found this to be increasingly difficult.  U.S. gave up claims to TX

45 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) Mexico won its freedom from Spain in 1821 & gained control of western territories. Mexican govt. at 1 st welcomed American traders & settlers into its lands, but later questioned this policy.

46 I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) US tried to buy territory from Mexico  Mexico refused. American settlers in TX revolted (ch. 11) Texas gained its independence in 1836 & statehood in 1845. These events angered Mexico.  Mexico & U.S. went to war following year  Mexico was defeated.  Both countries signed peace treaty in 1848, giving US what is today CA, AZ, & NM, as well as other western states.

47 II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) Latin American countries inspired by American Revolution begin efforts to gain their own independence Remember Spain (& Portugal) had been colonizing S. America & Central America for over 300 years Mexico  Miguel Hidalgo- priest who led rebellion against Spanish govt. of Mexico.  Although Hidalgo was executed, Mexico gained its independence in 1821

48 II. The US and Latin America (pages 366–367) S. & Central America  Simón Bolívar led movement that won freedom for present- day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Bolivia, & Ecuador.  Known as “the Liberator” & "George Washington of South America."  Bolivia was named in Bolivar's honor, in 1825. The constitution, which he drew up for Bolivia, is based on U.S.’s

49 Bolivar the hero Many countries have statues of Bolivar (including U.S.) He has been commemorated on stamps & currency

50 II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367)  José de San Martín achieved independence for Argentina then helped Chili, Peru & Ecuador Spain lost all colonies except Cuba & PR America supported independence of Latin American colonies because they hoped:  to weaken European empires  gain more trading partners  spread democracy.

51 New Republics New countries modeled themselves after U.S. Differences btwn. new countries & U.S.:  All different countries instead of 1  Land made it difficult if not impossible to unite as 1  New countries did not have experience of self- rule because Spain ruled everything- democracy was hard to achieve

52 II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) France, Austria, Russia, & Prussia wanted to help Spain regain its American holdings. Britain was against this  Wanted to issue joint statement w/US warning other nations Prez.Monroe decided to go it alone In Dec. 1823 Monroe declared that Americas were no longer to be considered for colonization by European powers. Monroe warned that no European country should interfere in U.S. affairs.

53 II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) “… as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers...” “In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so.”

54 II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) These are strong words that may have to be backed by force  Proclamation later called Monroe Doctrine.  A doctrine is a statement of fundamental govt policy  Ironically, most of the Monroe Doctrine was actually written by John Quincy Adams Monroe doctrine has served as US foreign policy guidelines since it was issued

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