3Romeo and Juliet Written about 1595 Considered a tragedy West Side Story (Movie) based on R&J
4The Theater Plays produced for the general public Roofless>open air No artificial lightingCourtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries
5Spectators Wealthy sat in cover benches of “Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”)All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterateMuch more interaction than today
6Staging Areas Stage was aplatform that extended into the pit Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stageSecond-level gallery with upper stage, as used in famous balcony scene in Romeo and JulietTrap door for ghosts“Heavens” for angelic beings
7Different from today No scenery Setting was established by references in dialogueElaborate costumes, nit necessary historical thoughPlenty of propsFast-paced, colorful (2 hours)
8Actors Only men and boys Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s rolesWould have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage
9Elizabethan Words An,and: If Anon: Soon Aye: Yes But: Except for E’en: EvenE’er: Ever
11Words (cont.) Whence: Where Wilt: Will, will you Withal: In addition toWould: Wish
12Blank VersePlays, including Romeo and Juliet, were predominantly in blank verse, unrhymed iambic pentameter(10 syllables a line, accent on every other syllable, no end rhyme.
13Prose Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song Only characters in the lower social classes, such as servants, speak in prose Shakespeare’s playsWhy do you suppose that is?Slide 22 starts tragedy
14The sequence of events in a literary work PlotThe sequence of events in a literary work
15Exposition The plot usually begins with this: introduces>>>>settingcharactersbasic situation
16Inciting Moment Often called “initial incident” the first bit of action that occurs which begins the plotRomeo and Juliet “lock eyes” at the party
17Conflict The struggle that develops man vs. man man vs. himself man vs. societyman vs. nature
18CrisisThe point where the protagonist’s situation will either get better or worseprotagonist>good guyantagonist>bad guy
19ClimaxThe turning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from hereThus begins the falling action
21Denouement The final explanation or outcome of the plot If this is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution.
22Tragedy: Aristotelian Generally speaking, a drama that has a tragic ending, whereas comedy has a happy ending, often a marriage, after confusion.Aristotle is accredited with five main characteristics of tragedy.
23Tragedy: Aristotelian 1) Position: the tragic protagonist is a person of “high estate” (such as king, prince, noble) who is happy and esteemed, and whose fall effects the nation, not just himself or his immediate family.
24Tragedy: Aristotelian 2) Tragic flaw: his error or transgression is a result of a flaw in character which leads to his downfall.Common tragic flaws are pride (hubris), ambition, naivety (gullibility), jealousy, over-trusting, and self will.
25Tragedy: Aristotelian 3) Reversal: the protagonist’s actions have the opposite effect of what was intended or desired; reversal of fortune; he is partially, but not wholly to blame, for his own demise. The viewer has a sense that the tragic hero’s misfortunes are greater than he deserved.
26Tragedy: Aristotelian 4) Recognition: (anagnorisis) the revelation of some fact or some person’s identity which brings a “terrible enlightenment” in which he suddenly sees things clearly. tragic hero receives insight which leads to deeper self-understanding or self-awareness (ie. Oedipus and King Lear)
27Tragedy: Aristotelian 5) Catharsis: (katharsis) the audience experiences pity and fear, a sense of pity for the character and fear that we might be capable of a similar tragic error and fate, and increase in understanding of ourselves and others.
28Tragedy: Aristotelian 6) Unity: It is an imitation of a single, unified action that is serious, complete, and probable, and has a certain magnitude.More simply, there are three unities: time (one day), place, action (one plot)(Shakespeare followed the unities in A Comedy of Errors, one of his earliest place and not a tragedy, but not other plays)
30Tragedy Shakespearean The central impression of the tragedy is one of waste.
31Tragedy Shakespearean The tragic world is one of action. Thoughts quickly turn into reality and their actions ultimately lead to their own destruction.
32Tragedy Shakespearean The ultimate power in the tragic world is moral order, where good and social order dominateThe struggle is between good and evil. Evil is the main source of problems and produces death and suffering.Evil disturbs the moral order of the world.
33Tragedy Shakespearean This evil is eventually destroyed and the moral order of the world is re-established.
34Tragedy Shakespearean The central impression of the tragedy is one of waste.
35Tragedy Shakespearean The cycle of a tragedy: Good / Order >Evil >Chaos >Death >Good / Order reestablished
36Tragedy Shakespearean Reading Shakespeare:Pay attention to first scenesWatch for parallel characters and scenes (last scene brings the play full circle)Be attuned to subtle ironyUnderstand use of images, symbols and motifsBe knowledgeable of common themes
37Tragedy Shakespearean Reading Shakespeare cont.:Remember that it is poetry, so read sentences not lines; it is drama, so visualize and note who is or is not on stage, especially if a character is alone and thus giving a soliloquy which reveals his thoughts and motives.Keep track of charactersFive Acts (Introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, catastrophe (resolution/conclusion)
39Metaphorical Language Comparison of unlike things >Paris standing over the “lifeless body” of Juliet, “Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew…”“Thou detestable maw…Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth…” Romeo
40Foil A character whose purpose is to show off another character Benvolio foil for Tybalt
41Round charactersCharacters who have many personality traits, like real people.
42Flat Characters One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy
43Static CharactersCharacters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions or character.
44Dynamic CharacterCharacters that change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better.
45Monologue One person speaking on stage; other character on stage too example-the Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and Montagues to cease feuding
46SoliloquyLong speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. Romeo gives a soliloquy after the servant has fled and Paris has died.
47AsideA character’s speech not intended to be heard by all characters. The character often turns aside and speaks as to himself or to the audience, and other characters freeze or pantamine.
48Pun Shakespeare loved to use them!!! Humorous use of a word with two meanings.Often used by lower class to mock upper class or by clownsSometimes missed by the readers because of Elizabethan double entendre, or sexual innuendo
49Direct Address Words that tell the reader who is being addressed: “A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.”“Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”
50Dramatic IronyA contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true
51Verbal IronyWords used to suggest the opposite of what is meant
52Situational IronyAn event or situation occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audienceThe opposite of what is expected happens
53Comic ReliefUse of comedy within a drama that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness in the plot.