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I. Preparing for War A.Northern Strengths 1.Large population 2.90% of nation’s manufacturing 3.Country’s iron, coal, copper, gold 4.Controlled the seas.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Preparing for War A.Northern Strengths 1.Large population 2.90% of nation’s manufacturing 3.Country’s iron, coal, copper, gold 4.Controlled the seas."— Presentation transcript:

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2 I. Preparing for War A.Northern Strengths 1.Large population 2.90% of nation’s manufacturing 3.Country’s iron, coal, copper, gold 4.Controlled the seas 5.21,000 miles of RR track B.Northern Weaknesses 1.Military leadership a) 1/3 of officers resigned and returned to South

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4 I. Preparing for War C.Southern Strengths 1.Size 2.Defending own territory 3.Military leadership D.Southern Weaknesses 1.Economy could not support long war 2.Control of Mississippi could split in 2 3.Lacked major RR 4.Wealth in land and slaves, not money

5 I. Preparing for War E.Lincoln vs. Davis 1.Abraham Lincoln a)Born in Kentucky b)Poor family, little schooling c)Lawyer before politics d)Believed in the preservation of the Union 2.Jefferson Davis a)Born in Kentucky b)Attended military Westpoint c)Fought in Mexican War d)Secretary of War under President Pierce e)US Senator f)Believe in state’s rights

6 II. Bull Run: A Great Awakening A.Union’s War Strategy 1.Surround South by land and sea to cut off trade 2.Divide into sections so they could not help each other 3.Capture Richmond, VA (Confederate capital) B.Rose Greenhow’s Dilemma 1.Southern supporter - learned of Northerners desire to attack Richmond C.Battle of Bull Run 1.Greenhow succeeded in delivering information 2.Southern troops waiting at creek – Bull Run a)Rebels (south) held until reinforcements arrived b)Charged Union forces who fled

7 II. Bull Run: A Great Awakening D.Women Support the War 1.Jobs a)Ran farms and businesses b)Worked in factories 2.Military a) messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers, spies 3.Volunteers a)Dorothea Dix 1 – appointed director of Union army’s nursing service 2 – strict rules (over 30, plain appearance, strong) b)Clara Barton 1 – followed Union armies into battle 2 – founder of Red Cross

8 III. Antietam: Bloody Affair A.Union Blockade – Anaconda Plan 1.Union navy blocked Southern ships, shut ports 2.Confederacy asked Britain for helped a) British refused B.Dividing the Confederacy 1.Union forces gain control of Mississippi a)Admiral Farragut led 46 ships north to New Orleans (which surrendered) b)General Grant moved South along Mississippi C.Attacking Richmond 1.General McClellan sent 100,000 men to capture Richmond 2.South succeeded in protecting again

9 III. Antietam: Bloody Affair D.Battle of Antietam 1.Confederate General Lee sent troops into slave state Maryland in hopes of persuading them to join Confederacy 2.Lee’s forces pounded by McClellan’s near Antietam Creek a)Lee pulled back to Virginia b)2,100 Union soldiers killed, 10,300 wounded c)2,770 Confederates killed, 11,000 wounded “In one day, more Americans were killed than in the War of 1812, and the Mexican War combined. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day of the war” E.New Realities of War 1.Improved weapons made killing at a distance easier (rifles, cannons) 2.No understanding of the causes of infection (high hospital death rate) 3.Unsanitary army camp conditions

10 IV. Gettysburg: Turning Point A.Emancipation Proclamation 1.Declared slaves in all Confederate states to be free 2.South ignored document B.Draft 1.Both sides ran out of volunteers 2.Southern Draft law said that all white men could be called for 3 years of military service 3.North passed similar law for men a) Drafted man could avoid the army by paying a substitute to take his place

11 IV. Gettysburg: Turning Point C.Battle of Gettysburg (3 days) 1.Union army of 90,000 led by General Meade occupied 4 miles on Cemetery Ridge a) 17,500 wounded or killed 2.Confederate army of 75,000 were a mile west at Seminary Ridge a)Spent 3 days looking for weak spots in Union line b)Pickett’s charge – 15,000 men charged across to Union side only to be struck down c)23,000 wounded or killed (1/3 of army) d)South would play defensive role for rest of war

12 IV. Gettysburg: Turning Point D.Opposition on the Union Home Front 1.Northern Democrats more interested in restoring peace than saving the Union or ending slavery (“Copperheads”) 2.Confederate Sympathizers a) Habeas corpus suspended – people suspected of disloyalty were jailed without trial E.Draft Riots 1.Northerners resented being forced to fight to end slavery 2.July 1863, NYC a)Angry whites burned draft offices and battled police for 4 days b)100 black New Yorkers died c)Order restored by troops from Gettysburg

13 IV. Gettysburg: Turning Point F.Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address 1.Men who had died in Gettysburg battle buried in new cemetery overlooking battlefield 2.Lincoln invited to dedicate new burial ground a)War was testing whether a nation “conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men were created equal” could survive b)The men on the battlefield “shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

14 V. Vicksburg: Besieged City A.Technological Firsts 1.To use RR to move troops and supplies 2.Telegraphs used to communicate between armies 3.Recorded in photographs 4.Combat between armor-plated battleships B.Warships 1.Merrimac a)Taken by Confederates from abandoned navel yard in Virginia b)Covered with iron plates and renamed Virginia 2.Monitor a) Union ship with flat deck and 2 guns on revolving turret 3. March 1862 – ships exchanged gunfire for 4 hours. Neither was victorious. C.Control of the Mississippi 1.Union controlled both ends of the Mississippi a)South could not move men and material along river b)North could not move men and material as long as South controlled Vicksburg

15 V. Vicksburg: Besieged City D.Vicksburg 1.Whoever controlled Vicksburg could control movement on the Mississippi 2.Union boats shelled city while armies bombarded from land for 6 weeks (May – July 1863) a)Troops made it to city through trenches and tunnels b)City people dug caves into hillside for protection. Ate horses, mules, cornbread, dried peas c)Low on food and supplies, Confederacy surrendered and was divided. E.Problems on the Confederate Home Front 1. Union armies destroyed crops and cut rail lines

16 VI. Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War A.Recruitment Opens 1.Congress opened recruitment up to blacks (1862) a)186,000 enlisted in Union army b)30,000 joined Union navy B.Massachusetts 54 th Regiment – led by Robert Gould Shaw 1.Paid less than white soldiers a)Protested by not accepting any pay b)Lincoln convinced Congress to grant black soldiers equal pay C.African Americans at War 1.Troops had to cross 200 yards of sandy beach to reach Fort Wagner a)54 th regiment pulled back after losing ½ of men b)Earned widespread respect African American regiments fought 500 battles with little training, poor equipment and less pay

17 Massachusetts 54 th Regiment

18 VII. Appomattox: Total War Brings an End A.Northern Plan to End War 1.Grant to lead force against Lee & capture Richmond 2.Sherman to lead army into Georgia & take Atlanta B.On to Richmond 1.Grant invaded Virginia with 100,000+ men a)Lee’s army had 60,000 b)Lost 18,000 men in 2 days c)Followed Lee to Cold Harbor and lost 7,000 men in 15 minutes d)Grant’s losses equaled Lee’s troops – Grant replenished with fresh troops, Lee could not

19 VII. Appomattox: Total War Brings an End C.Total War 1.War on the enemy’s will to fight and ability to support an army a)Grant ordered Sheridan to wage total war on Shenandoah Valley in Virginia b)Sherman had same orders for Atlanta – army set city ablaze D.Reelection of Lincoln 1.Victory for South lie in Lincoln’s defeat 2.Sheridan’s destruction of Shenandoah and Sherman’s capture of Atlanta rescued Lincoln’s campaign

20 VII. Appomattox: Total War Brings an End E.Sherman’s March Through Georgia 1.After burning Atlanta, headed to Savannah 2.Troops destroyed everything they found of value a)Fields, food supplies burned b)Houses robbed c)Roads lined with dead animals the troops could not eat or carry 3.From Georgia, went north and destroyed opposition in the Carolinas

21 VII. Appomattox: Total War Brings an End F.End at Appomattox 1.Grant’s forces battled Lee’s army for 9 months at Petersburg and then moved on to Richmond a)Quickly surrounded Lee’s army (April 1, 1865) b)Lee decided to go see Grant 2.Lee arrived at the Appomattox Courthouse to surrender his army to General Grant (April 9, 1865) a)Confederate soldiers could go home if they promised to fight no longer b)Could take their own horses and mules with them c)Officers could keep their swords and weapons d)Food was ordered to be sent to Lee’s men

22 VII. Appomattox: Total War Brings an End G.Aftermath 1.Billions spent 2.Every family had lost a member a) 620,000 Union & Confederate soldiers dead 3.South’s environmental destruction a) 2/5 livestock destroyed 4.Technology of the Industrial Revolution a)Railroads b)Telegraphs c)Armored ships 5.Issues unresolved a)South’s old way of life? b)State’s rights? c)Status of African Americans?


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