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Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration 1400-1600.

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration 1400-1600."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

4 Renaissance Defined BIG Idea: During the Renaissance, Western Europeans experienced a profound cultural awakening, signaling the beginning of modern times. BIG Idea: During the Renaissance, Western Europeans experienced a profound cultural awakening, signaling the beginning of modern times.

5 Renaissance : Rebirth of interest in classical ideas and cultures. : Rebirth of interest in classical ideas and cultures. –What are the classical cultures? Ancient Greek knowledge was preserved in the Byzantine and Muslim empires. Ancient Greek knowledge was preserved in the Byzantine and Muslim empires.

6 Humanism Focused on Liberal Arts. Focused on Liberal Arts. –Philosophy, History, Art, Literature Individualism: emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual. Individualism: emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual. –“Man is the measure of all things.” –Renaissance Man: individual skilled in many areas.

7 Was religion important in Medieval life? Was religion important in Medieval life? Secular: focus on worldly, not religious themes. Secular: focus on worldly, not religious themes. –Laypeople, not monks, became the leading intellectuals. –Worldly immortality via art and literature.

8 Think back to our last unit. What social changes occurred during the late middle ages that broke down feudalism? What social changes occurred during the late middle ages that broke down feudalism? What specific event encouraged new learning in Europe at the beginning of the 13 th Century (the 1200s)? What specific event encouraged new learning in Europe at the beginning of the 13 th Century (the 1200s)?

9 Italy birthplace of the Renaissance. birthplace of the Renaissance. –Why? Geography Geography –At a trading crossroad Classical past was visibly present in Italy. Classical past was visibly present in Italy.

10 New Social Order Upper: merchants and bankers replaced the landed nobility. Upper: merchants and bankers replaced the landed nobility. –Banking & checks replaced heavy coins. Middle: shop-keepers and artisans. Middle: shop-keepers and artisans. Lower: rural peasants and poor urban workers. Lower: rural peasants and poor urban workers.

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12 Assignment/Activity No homework!

13 Renaissance Masters & Masterpieces

14 A return to Greek and Roman styles. A return to Greek and Roman styles.

15 Architecture Brunelleschi’s Cathedral of Florence

16 Michelangelo’s “David”

17 Painting Perspective, giving depth. Perspective, giving depth. Emotions Emotions Frescos: painting on damp plaster. Frescos: painting on damp plaster.

18 Da Vinci’s “The Last Supper”

19 Da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa”

20 Raphael’s “School of Athens”

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22 Michelangelo’s “Sistine Chapel”

23 The Renaissance Man

24 Activity Visit the Irving Museum of Renaissance Art. Visit the Irving Museum of Renaissance Art. –Look around and select your favorite piece of Renaissance artwork. –Explain how it reflects Renaissance themes and/or styles. –Tell me why you like it.

25 Renaissance Writing BIG Idea: New printing technology allowed Renaissance ideas to spread. BIG Idea: New printing technology allowed Renaissance ideas to spread.

26 From parchment, or animal skin, to paper in 12th century Europe. –F–F–F–From China

27 A medieval book created by a monk.

28 How did the moveable type printing press help the Renaissance spread? How did movable type help the Renaissance spread?

29 The Printing Press Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1450s. Used individual, moveable type.

30 Books could be made cheaper and faster, and thus became more abundant in Europe.

31 Literature Machiavelli “The Prince” Machiavelli “The Prince” –(We’ll read some of this.) William Shakespeare William Shakespeare

32 Who’s this guy?

33 ELT: Give examples of how philosophical beliefs have influenced various aspects of society throughout history. Why are politicians lying liars? Let’s take a look at The Prince by Machiavelli.

34 The Protestant Reformation BIG Idea: In 16 th Century (1500s) Germany, a desire for church reform led to a new form of Christianity called Protestantism. BIG Idea: In 16 th Century (1500s) Germany, a desire for church reform led to a new form of Christianity called Protestantism.

35 What was religion like in medieval Europe?

36 Martin Luther German monk/professor German monk/professor Justification by faith: Luther’s concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation, or acceptance into heaven. Justification by faith: Luther’s concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation, or acceptance into heaven.

37 What’s going on here?

38 Luther’s Protest Against Indulgences: certificates sold by the Catholic Church to reduce or cancel punishment for a person’s sin. Indulgences: certificates sold by the Catholic Church to reduce or cancel punishment for a person’s sin.

39 Oct. 31 st, 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses.

40 Luther’s 95 Theses (1517) Criticized indulgences and other church corruption. Criticized indulgences and other church corruption. Copies spread fast due to movable type. Copies spread fast due to movable type. –Popular

41 Why was Germany, or the Holy Roman Empire, exceptional at this time? How could this political landscape have prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from silencing Luther?

42 “ I am bound by the Sacred Scriptures I have cited…and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant (take back) anything.” –Martin Luther In 1521, the Pope excommunicates Luther as a heretic. In 1521, the Pope excommunicates Luther as a heretic. Pope Leo X

43 Luther’s other opinions Supported the feudal social hierarchy. Supported the feudal social hierarchy. –Luther’s call for religious freedom led to peasant calls for freedom from feudalism. –Lords violently put down peasant revolts and Luther sided with the lords. Virulent anti-Semite Virulent anti-Semite –Luther’s anti-Semitic writings were reproduced by the Nazis.

44 Lutheranism First protestant faith. First protestant faith. Bible as the only source of religious truth. Bible as the only source of religious truth. –Readings during religious services. –Catholicism stressed good works and church rituals.

45 Assignment ELT: Give examples of how religion has influenced aspects of society throughout history. ELT: Give examples of how religion has influenced aspects of society throughout history. Let’s take a look at the 95 Theses. Let’s take a look at the 95 Theses.

46 The Spread of Protestantism BIG Idea: The Reformation spread throughout Europe (1500s) and began to divide.

47 Calvinism Strict code of conduct. Strict code of conduct. All powerful, All knowing God. All powerful, All knowing God. Predestination: God determines the fate of every person in advance. Predestination: God determines the fate of every person in advance.

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49 What’s going on?

50 Anabaptists What does baptism symbolize? What does baptism symbolize? Only baptized adults Only baptized adults –Free and informed decision Separation of church and state Separation of church and state –Fled to North America (1600s) –Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish

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52 Anglicanism (a.k.a. The Church of England) Henry VIII split with the Catholic Church when the pope refused him a divorce. Henry VIII split with the Catholic Church when the pope refused him a divorce. A blend of Protestantism and Catholicism. A blend of Protestantism and Catholicism.

53 The Catholic Reformation Council of Trent 1545 Council of Trent 1545 Ended indulgences. Ended indulgences. Valued sacraments and the bible. Valued sacraments and the bible.

54 Bernini’s St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

55 Laocoon by El Greco

56 Activity ELT: Trace the history of how principal world religions developed and spread. ELT: Trace the history of how principal world religions developed and spread. Show me the religions of Europe during the Renaissance geographically. Show me the religions of Europe during the Renaissance geographically. –Turn to page 424 in World History: The Human Experience.

57 In your journal, create and complete the chart above. Enter someone of your choosing in the ? row (you, a relative, etc.). In your journal, create and complete the chart above. Enter someone of your choosing in the ? row (you, a relative, etc.).

58 Exploration BIG Idea: 15 th Century Europeans sought a better trade route to Asia, excluding Arab middlemen.

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60 Technology Educated townspeople expanded upon classical knowledge to improve maps and ships. Educated townspeople expanded upon classical knowledge to improve maps and ships. –Cartographer: mapmaker –Ptolemy’s Grid System

61 Caravel Caravel –Multiple-masts –Triangular Sails –Drew little water

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63 Portugal Vasco da Gama pioneered a water route around Africa to India. Vasco da Gama pioneered a water route around Africa to India. –Direct route to Asia Controlled the spice trade. Controlled the spice trade.

64 Spain Columbus attempts to sail west across the Atlantic to reach India. Columbus attempts to sail west across the Atlantic to reach India. Reaches the Caribbean islands. Reaches the Caribbean islands. Amerigo Vespucci later suggests Columbus discovered a “new world” Amerigo Vespucci later suggests Columbus discovered a “new world”

65 Spanish Conquistadors Used “Guns, Germs, and Steel” to conquer Native Americans and establish an empire. Used “Guns, Germs, and Steel” to conquer Native Americans and establish an empire.,, &

66 Cortés with Montezuma II Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs. Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs.

67 Pizarro and Atahuallpa Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca. Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca.

68 Columbian Exchange The transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe, Africa, & Asia on one side, and the Americas on the other beginning in The transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe, Africa, & Asia on one side, and the Americas on the other beginning in 1492.

69 Columbian Exchange Flow Chart

70 Slave Trade Empires in the Americas used native, then African slave labor to grow crops. Empires in the Americas used native, then African slave labor to grow crops. Purchased from African merchants. Purchased from African merchants. –Increased warfare and depopulation in Africa.

71 Triangular: between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Triangular: between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

72 10-24 enslaved Africans enslaved Africans. 1/5 died on the middle passage. 1/5 died on the middle passage.

73 Assignment/Activity ELT: Analyze how forces of change have influenced societies throughout history. ELT: Analyze how forces of change have influenced societies throughout history. Let’s learn more about the Columbian Exchange from the leading scholar in the field. Let’s learn more about the Columbian Exchange from the leading scholar in the field.

74 Commerce in Europe (1600s) BIG Idea: Overseas trade and the conquest of empires expanded Europe’s economy and formed the roots of modern capitalism. BIG Idea: Overseas trade and the conquest of empires expanded Europe’s economy and formed the roots of modern capitalism.

75 Mercantilism : nations competed for wealth. : nations competed for wealth. –Nations overpowered cities. –Government banks replaced banking families. Tried to export more than they imported. Tried to export more than they imported. ?=?=

76 Commercial Revolution Grow of entrepreneurs, or profit- seeking business owners. Joint-stock company: many people invested in an overseas venture. –S–S–S–Shared the risks and profits.

77 Demographic (Population) Changes Population doubled. Population doubled. –From 55 million in 1450 to 100 million in Increased Urbanization. Increased Urbanization. Merchants (businesspeople) prospered, Nobility declined. Merchants (businesspeople) prospered, Nobility declined.

78 Assignment ELT: Describe characteristics of specific economic systems and how these systems have existed in different ways at different times throughout history. ELT: Describe characteristics of specific economic systems and how these systems have existed in different ways at different times throughout history. Let’s take a closer look at Joint-Stock Companies, the precursor to modern- day corporations. Let’s take a closer look at Joint-Stock Companies, the precursor to modern- day corporations.

79 Works Cited Atahuallpa and Pizarro. Private collection. Web. 26 Oct Bernini. Canopy above St. Peter's Tomb. St. Peter's Basilica, Rome. Web. 25 Oct Bernini. The Throne of St. Peter St. Peter's Cathedral, Vatican City. Web. 25 Oct Binding/Unknown J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Web. 24 Sep Brunelleschi, Filippo. Cupola of Florence Cathedral Private collection, Florence. Web. 18 Oct Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Sistene Chapel, Vatican City. Web. 18 Oct Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Creation of Adam Sistene Chapel, Vatican City. Web. 18 Oct Buonarroti, Michelangelo. David Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence. Web. 18 Oct

80 Caravel Image Private collection. Web. 26 Oct "Columbus Voyage." Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exporation. World Book, Inc. 10 Aug da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa Musée du Louvre, Paris. Web. 18 Oct da Vinci, Leonardo. The Last Supper Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Web. 18 Oct da Vinci, Leonardo. Vitruvian Man Private collection. Web. 18 Oct El Greco. Laocoon Samuel H. Kress Collection, Washington, D.C. Web. 25 Oct Farah, Mounir A., and Andrea B. Karls. World History The Human Experience. New York: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, Print. Flowers, David D. John Calvin. Private collection. Web. 24 Oct Geneva, Switzerland. Map. Britannica Online for Kids Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc, Web. 24 Oct Get Out of Jail Free. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct

81 Gutenberg's Printing Press. University of South Florida. Web. 24 Sep Heidelbach, Willi. Metal Moveable Type Private Collection. Web. 24 Sep Hernan Cortes with Montezuma II. Historical Picture Archive/Corbis. Web. 26 Oct Hull, Kay. Baby Goat. Private collection. Web. 24 Sep Initial V: An Angel Before Micah J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Web. 24 Sep Lutheran Symbol. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Luther, Martin. Von den Juden und Ihren Lügen Private collection. Web. 20 Oct Martin Luther PBS DVD VIDEO. DVD-ROM. Martin Luther's 95 Theses. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Martin Luther. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Middle Passage. Newsweek Magazine. Web. 26 Oct

82 Ninja Turtles Pritvate collection. Web. 19 Oct Nixon Resignation Private collection. Web. 20 Oct Parchment Making (Modern). J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Web. 24 Sep Pope Selling Sinful Indulgences. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct "Predestination Cartoon 1." Cartoon. CartoonStock N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct President Bush. Private collection. Web. 20 Oct Protest. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Sacraments. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Sanzio, Raphael. The School of Athens Apostolic Palace, Rome. Web. 18 Oct

83 Shakespeare. Private collection. Web. 20 Oct Shakespeare Reading. Private collection. Web. 20 Oct The Columbian Exchange. Private collection. Web. 27 Oct The Wives of Henry VIII. Private collection. Web. 25 Oct Titian. Pope Leo X. Private collection. Web. 13 Oct Touchton, Ken. Baptism Florida Baptist Witness, Jacksonville. Web. 25 Oct Trade Triangle. Private collection. Web. 26 Oct Vasco da Gama's Route Private collection. Web. 26 Oct Vitruvian Homer. Private collection. Web. 18 Oct


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