Korea Divided at 38 th parallel after WWII NK= communist, allied w/ USSR SK= anti-communist, allied w/ US June 1950: NK invaded SK UN forces help SK, push NK out of SK
Korea UN forces invade NK China invades to help NK overwhelmed UN troops Gen. MacArthur wants to use nuclear weapons Cease fire negotiated (1953): Korea stays divided at 38 th parallel, demilitarized zone (DMZ) separates country CONTAINMENT worked!
Korea NK: led by Kim Il Sung, strict communist rule, collective farms, few freedoms SK: not democratic (until 1980s), prospered w/ US help Video– History’s Turning Points, Inside NK, Michael Palin, Full Circle (2:40-8:30) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hg3hDCbSvI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hg3hDCbSvI
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh = nationalist leader, defeated French in 1954 US worried about domino theory– spread of communism in Asia Vietnam divided at 17 th parallel – NV= communist – SV= anti-communist
Vietnam Vietcong = communist guerillas, fought against SV, more people in SV wanted communism US gave military support to SV military, increased after US ship attacked by NV (1964- Tonkin Gulf) US struggled because of guerilla warfare, unfamiliar territory, SV govt unpopular
Vietnam President Nixon began pulling US troops out of Vietnam complete in 1973 1975: NV took over SV, country united Containment FAILED! Video– History’s Turning Points, pictures: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/05/in_pictur es_the_vietnam_war_/html/1.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/05/in_pictur es_the_vietnam_war_/html/1.stm
Cambodia US bombed Cambodia during Vietnam War 1975: communist rebels, Khmer Rouge took over. Led by Pol Pot. Pol Pot used genocide to build his communist society about 2 million killed Vietnam helped overthrow Khmer Rouge brought less repressive government Became democratic in 1993 Video– PBS Frontline http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/watch/player.html?pkg= 102_cambodia&seg=1&mod=0 http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/watch/player.html?pkg= 102_cambodia&seg=1&mod=0
Third World = developing nations, US and USSR tried to get them on their side w/ (1) covert action (spying, assassinations), (2) supporting wars, (3) military, economic, humanitarian aid Some countries stayed non-aligned
Cuba Fulgencio Batista = US supported dictator, overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959 Castro = dictator, turned communist, nationalized (took over) US businesses US stopped trade with Cuba (embargo) 1961: Bay of Pigs invasion: US backed attempt to overthrow Castro FAILED
Cuba 1962: USSR (Khrushchev) started putting missiles in Cuba. US (Kennedy) ordered them out world close to war Result of Cuban Missile Crisis: USSR takes out missiles, US agrees not to invade Cuba Cuba became very dependent on USSR Video– Inside Cuba: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNVTb9oyyN M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNVTb9oyyN M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5BGCjkU2J 0
Nicaragua US backed dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza and his famiy. 1979, Somoza overthrown by communist Sandanistas and Daniel Ortega Sandanistas helped communist rebels in El Salvador.
Nicaragua US supported anti- communist rebels (Contras) Civil War in Nicargua for 10+ years hurt their economy First free elections in 1990 helps end war.
Iran US supported Shah Pahlavi Iranian nationalists upset w/ his rule 1953, Prime Minister nationalized British oil company, forced Shah to flee US put Shah back in power, Shah westernized Iran, decreased power for the religious leaders (ayatollahs)
Iran Ayatollah Khomeini led revolution Shah fled in 1979. Khomeini brought strict Islamic rule, anti-US policies. 1979-1981: Iran Hostage Crisis at US embassy Iran supported anti-US movements in other countries (led to Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988) Video– Rick Steves: 2:50-6:18, 7:55- 11:46 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhvNtczcLfo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhvNtczcLfo
Afghanistan 1950s, increased Soviet influence became communist Late 1970s, revolt threatened the communist government USSR invaded (1979) to support the govt. Becomes USSR’s Vietnam
Afghanistan US gave mujahideen (rebels) weapons US stopped selling grain to the USSR and boycotted 1980 Olympics in Moscow 1989– USSR (Gorbachev) withdrew troops Video– CNN Cold War0-6, 21:33- ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQBFXM1PIh M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQBFXM1PIh M