Normandie - Normandy Départements: Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie) Seine-Maritime Eure Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie) Orne, Calvados Manche Major Cities: Rouen, Caen Le Havre Cherbourg Climate: 'Maritime' climate mild winters (frost & snow not too frequent). Summers warm but not hot hours per day. Rain all year (small increase in winter
Normandie (Normandy) is a north-western region of France bordering onto Brittany in the south-west and Picardy in the North-east and onto the Loire and Isle de France towards the center of the country. The “normandie” is generally divided into the Upper Normandie and the Lower Normandy. Major Industries: Agriculture: Dairy - milk, butter, and cheese - Camembert Apples Grain Thoroughbred horses Calvados - apple brandy Fish & Seafood – fisheries and farming (oysters) Tourism Port industries in Le Havre Ship building
History in brief Normandy was part of ancient Gaul, conquered by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC. The Franks overran the area in the 5th century and in the 9th century, the Normans began to settle there and subsequently given the area by the French king CHARLES III. In1066, Duke William conquered England, and was crowned WILLIAM I. Succession disputes among his sons divided Normandy and England, but the English king HENRY I obtained Normandy in In 1144, Normandy was reunited with England when HENRY II, succeeded to the English throne in In 1204, when PHILIP II of France conquered the area, Normandy was a French possession, but the English twice invaded it during the HUNDRED YEARS' WAR ( ). They were finally expelled in In World War II the Normandy Invasion was the first step in the Allied invasion of Europe.
Cuisine of Normandy Normandy cuisine is based on the superior quality of their dairy products, butter, cream and more as well as on the products of the seas (channel) and fruits grown in vast orchards. Rich, heavy cream based sauces accompanied meat, fish and vegetable dishes. Cheese from the region have achieved world acclaim and AOC status – Camembert, Livarot, Pont L’eveque, Brillat- Savarin and Neufchatel “A la normande” - means "in the style of Normandy," referring to dishes based on the cooking of that region, commonly, it refers to fish ( sole) garnished with shellfish (oysters, shrimp and mussels), mushrooms and truffles. These dishes are served in normande sauce, a fish stock-based velouté enriched with butter, cream and egg yolks. Other Normandy-style dishes are made with regional products such as butter, fresh cream, apples, apple cider and calvados
Fish & Seafood Oysters Whelk Sole – Dover sole Lobster – Normandy lobster Mussels – Moules de bouchot Turbot Scallops – Coquille St Jacqes Crevettes - Shrimps Dairy &Cheeses Livarot Pont L’eveque Camembert Brillat-Savarin Neaufchatel Butter and Cream - D’Isigny (AOC) Meat Lamb – Pre-sale Veal Andouille en vire - Chitterling Boudin de Mortagne –Black pudding Poultry Normandy geese & Guinea fowl – Dinde et oie de Normandie Poulet de Gournay - Chicken Canard Rouannaise - Duck Fruits Apples Pears Cherries – Duclaire cherries Products – Normandy
Products of Normandy – Fish & Seafood Seafood Normandy is the largest producer of huîtres creuses in France - every third oysters consumed in France comes from Normandy. Oyster culture thrives in Normandy as the region has the strongest tides in Europe. Coquilles St-Jacques (scallops) are harvested from October to May. Normandy is the number 1 for scallops, producing between 50 and 75% of the country’s scallops! Lower Normandy (La Manche) produces 25-30% of France’s mussels. All mussels from Normandy are marketed as Moules de Bouchot, which was registered in 1994 and guarantees high-quality mussels. Sole has traditionally been the most highly regarded fish in Norman cooking, especially along the coast of the Seine Maritime but Turbot, Sea bass and Sea bream are all sought after fish of the area.
Products of Normandy – Dairy - Meat Dairy farming and dairy are a main business throughout Normandy and butter is known by “crus”, just like wines and champagnes. Isigny (AOC) is particularly renowned for its butter and cream production. Cheeses too feature on any menu and restaurants in Normandy tend to keep up the proper tradition of the cheese course. Camembert, Pont l’eveque, Brillat-Savarin, Neufchatel, Boursin and Livarot Cattle in this major dairy area are mostly served to eat as veal – male castradet calves that can not be used for dairy production. Pré-salé lamb - Meadow-salted lamb - is a particular specialty of the western Manche coast, reared on the salt marshes of the Cotentin and Mont Saint-Michel Bay area as well as on the salt meadows of the coastal havres and providing tender meat with distinct, salty taste.
Products of Normandy – Dairy - Cheese Camembert History Legend has it that an inhabitant of Camembert, Marie Harel, invented the cheese which bears the village's name. She apparently was given given the "secret" of its manufacture by a priest. During the French Revolution (beginning in 1789), all Roman Catholic priests in France were required to swear allegiance to the newborn republic. Some chose to hide in the countryside while waiting for better days. In 1790, during the month of October, the Abbé Charles- Jean Bonvoust supposedly sought refuge with Marie at her farm. He came from the Brie, near Paris. In return for the shelter offered he gave to Marie the "secret" of making Camembert cheese. A nice legend, but the region was famous for its cheeses well before. In 1569, Brugerin de Champier referred to "augeron cheeses", as did Charles Estienne, another writer, in Thomas Corneille, spoke in 1708 of "the cheeses of... Camembert" in his treatise on geography. During the 19th century, thanks to birth of the railroad circa 1850, Camembert cheeses conquered the markets of Paris and France. In 1890 the now-familiar small round wooden container was invented - and Camembert cheeses were exported throughout the world.
Products of Normandy – Dairy - Cheese Camembert Manufacturing Making a Camembert cheese takes about three weeks. Traditional Camembert is made from the raw milk of Norman cows, a milk high in fat content and proteins. The milk is heated (but not above body temperature) and then natural rennet is added to aid curdling. This curdled milk is then ladled carefully by hand, without breaking, into individual cheese moulds. Five ladel, one after another are required so as to fill each mould. The whey is drained and the curd remains to give the cheese its creamy texture. When the cheeses have drained sufficiently, they are turned over. On the second day, the cheeses are removed from the moulds and taken to the salting room, which is at a temperature of about 18° to 20°C. Here dry salt is shaken onto all surfaces of each cheese, followed by the addition of the penicillium camemberti bacterium. On the third day, the cheeses are placed in the drying room, which is kept at 10° to 14°C. The ripening period is twelve days, depending on the season, after which the cheeses are ready for packing. They are further aged for four or five days at about 9°C before being sent to market.
Products of Normandy – Dairy - Cheese Washed rind cheeses - washed with salty water and turned regularly during the maturing process. Livarot Named after a village in Normandy. The straps of Livarot are reminiscent of a uniform's stripes, hence the nickname "The Colonel". Livarot is circled by five straps of leaves or paper that prevent the cheese from collapsing during maturing. The artisanal Livarot is produced following ancient methods. Pont Leveque Pont l'Eveque is one of the world’s ancient cheeses produced near the coast of Normandie on small farms using rich salty and almost pasteurized cow's milk. It dates back to the thirteenth century and was called d'Angelot. The cheese then took the name of the village in Normandie where it is mainly produced. Pont L’Eveque is a small square-shaped cheese of a pale yellow color and with a white-orange rind.
Traditional Dishes of Normandy Agneau de pré-salé – Pre sale lamb Meadow-salted lamb. The flavor of lamb from the meadows of Cotentin and Saint-Michel bay are periodically covered by seawater. La Baie de Mont St. Michel therefore boasts the famous pre-salé – lambs grazing on the meadow-grass have a very distinctive, salty taste. Marmite Dieppoise Specialty fish stew from the upper Normandy. Burbot (fresh water fish related to cod) Turbot, Mussels (buchot) Langoustine are simmered in a broth flavored with cayenne pepper, paprika or curry and refined with butter and cream. Tripes a la Caen Veal tripes gently braised for hours in cider and calvados (these days white wine is often substituted) until they are tender and full of flavor. Refined with cream before serving
Traditional Dishes of Normandie Andouille en vire (Chitterling in English) Made from pig’s stomach and intestines, the bundles of gut are tied, encased in more intestine and smoked over open fire for up to 6 weeks, then simmered with herbs for up to 8 hours. Andouille is generally served as a starter. Sole Normande & Sole Dieppoise Sole Normande - gently poached and served a sauce, thickened with butter, eggs and the cream. Sole Dieppoise is also poached and served in a white wine sauce garnished with mussels and shrimp. A la Normande / Vallée d’Auge Many meat or poultry dishes are described as à la Normande/Vallée d’Augée e.g. Escalope de volaille à la Normande (Poultry à la normande) The ‘à la Normande’ bit refers to the sauce and generally means an addition of cream and butter, and sometimes mushrooms.
Traditional Dishes of Normandie Canard Rouennaise – Canard “a la presse” Medium rare roasted duck is removed from the oven. The liver is liquefied in a kitchen mixer the legs and breast are removed and set aside in the oven. The carcasses is pressed (hence a la presse) to ensure maximum blood and juices are extracted. These juices together wit the liver puree is cooked into the sauce for the breast and the leg that is to be served. Boudin de Mortagne A.K.A Black pudding. Sausage made out of pork blood, pork fat and onions. Teurgoule Rice pudding made from full fat milk and flavored with cinnamon The pudding is traditionally baked in a bakers oven while it is cooling down from a prolonged period of time Normandy apple tart Traditional apple tart with calvados batter filling
Traditional Dishes handled in the applied Loboratoroies sessions Crème curry Dubarry Fillet of sole and St Jacques Dieppoise History & origin of the dish Ingredients Cooking Method
CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Bretagne - Brittany
Départements: The Finistère, Côtes d'Armor, Ile et vilaine, Morbihan. Major Cities: Nantes, Rennes, Brest Climate: 'Maritime' climate mild winters (frost & snow not too frequent). Summers warm but not hot. Rain all year (small increase in winter
Bretagne (Brittany) is the western most peninsula of France and Europe as well. It is bordered in the north by the Gulf of Saint Malo (English Channel) and the Atlantic ocean in the south west. Brittany borders onto Normandy and the Pays de Loire toward the inner of the country. Major Industries: Agriculture: Around 62,000 farms and 102,000 farmers (10% of the workforce). 55% of pig production, 50% poultry and 20% milk/dairy production. Brittany produces 92% of domestic cauliflower and 75% of artichoke. Seafood Fisheries – lobster, oysters, scallops mussels Tourism Cars Telecommunication equipment
History in brief 3rd century, the Bretons fled both the problems of the land as well as the invasions of the Saxons. They left the British Isles to settle in Armorica named it - Brittany. The first saints came with them and they evangelized the new country. 7th century, the Franks tried to force the Bretons to submit to their power. In order to put a stop to these rebellions. Louis-le-Pieux, the king of France, appointed Nominoë as the first Duke of Brittany (842) 1203, in order to stave off the ambitious English expansionism, the Breton bishops and barons chose a French prince from the "Capétiens" House as their duke : Pierre de Dreux, otherwise known as Pierre Mauclerc. Under his reign, Brittany enjoyed a long period of peace a century during, and asserted herself as an autonomous dukedom : The Golden Age of Brittany. Prosperity and independence : Treaty of Le Verger : submission of Brittany to France : Claude of Brittany becomes the queen of France : Suppression of the Parliament of Brittany. Brittany has no legal existence. She is divided into five "départements " : The Vichy Government cuts the "département de Loire Atlantique" off Brittany.
Cuisine of Brittany - Bretagne Brittany is not a region traditionally associated with fine food. The only true Breton specialities are pancakes (thin - crepes - sweet filling) and galettes (thicker - savoury filling) and cotriade, a fish stew traditionally made from conger eel and the remains of the catch of the day. Breton cuisine is simple, with little use of sauces, and features much fish and seafood. Palourdes farcies (baked clams with garlic, herbs and shallots) and pot au feu d‘ homard (lobster stew with shrimps, scallops, mussels and oysters). Brittany's young lambs, raised on the salt meadows (pre sale) and the locally grown vegetables dominate the cuisine. The region's few cheeses are all made from cow's milk and tend to be relatively mild.
Fish & Seafood Oysters – de Cancale & Belon Spider crabs Lobster – Blue/Brittany lobster Mussels – Moules de bouchot Langouste – Langoustine – Scampi (Norway lobsters) Scallops – Coquille Saint Jacques Sea snails - Bigorneau Seabass – Bar de ligne Poultry Capon from Janze Meat Lamb – Pre-sale Andouille de Guemene Salted lard Pates from Rennes Pate Breton Vegetables Artichoke Cauliflower New potatoes Fruits Strawberries – de Pougastel Chestnuts – de Redon Apples – Reinette d’ Armorique Condiments Sea salt - Fleur de sel, Sel gris Products – Bretagne - Brittany
Products of Brittany – Fish & Seafood Oysters from Cancale According to history has Louis XIV had his oysters brought to Versailles from Cancale. Oyster farming is still a major activity in the and the oyster beds cover about 7.3 square kilometers and yield approximately 25,000 tons of oysters a year. The indigenous oyster of the Breton coast is the huître plate or ostrea edulis (Belon -flat oyster). Although slow and difficult to grow it is still being farmed in Cancale. But also Crassostrea gigas (Rock, cupped oyster- Creuse) is farmed, which is growing faster and has generally more flesh.
Products of Brittany – Fish & Seafood Seafood Seabass – Bar de ligne These bass are sea / line caught and is a speciality due to their white sweet and firm flesh Blue Lobster – Homard blue de Breton Considered the best tasting lobsters. Blue lobsters have claws (like Boston lobsters) and a blue tint before cooking Spider crabs – Araignee de mer France fishes about 70 % of Europe's Spider crabs, mainly off the Atlantic coast of Brittany and in the English Channel. Langouste – Langoustine Also known as Norway lobsters, Scampi or Dublin bay lobsters. They are small lobsters that only grow to about 25 cm in length.
Products of Brittany – Fish & Seafood Bouchot mussel Blue mussels from Brittany France generally marketed at 5cm length. Bouchot mussels take it’s name from their farming method and are renown for their sweet taste, orange flesh and large meat to shell ratio. Bouchot method Originated in France, bouchouts are generally rows of about 125 x 50 m poles at 20 cm intervals placed in the intertidal zone. Spat collection is on the seaweed side of a bouchot. Growing and fattening mussels is on the landward side. The wooden poles (oak trunk) of a bouchot are 4 to 6 m long with 3 m inserted into the seabed. Poles to catch mussel seeds are placed from January to April. Seeds are left on the poles until they reached at least 20 mm. Then they are grown further on nylon nets. Harvest of seed is done in August-December. Harvest of marketable mussel (minimum, 4 cm shell length) is done in May- February by hand, and using a small boat.
Products of Brittany – Fleur de sel – Sel gris Fleur de sel ("Flower of salt") and Sel Gris (grey salt) are all natural sea salt - unprocessed, unrefined, unadulterated products of Brittany (Guerande). The tide brings the water from the Atlantic into the salt pans where it must be harvested on that day. Fleur de sel is hand-harvested/collected by “skimming” the young salt crystals off the top of the water, before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans. Rain will destroy the days harvest. Only salt of a daily collection is sold as Fleur de sel. The presence of Dunaliella salina (a type of pink micro-algae commonly found in salt marshes) can give it a light pink tint. Due to its relative scarcity, Fleur de sel is one of the more expensive salts. It is sold still slightly “wet”. Due to the small size of the crystals, fleur de sel dissolves faster than regular salt. Hence it is best used after cooking, sprinkled on the food. "Sel Gris" (Grey salt) Once the salt has begun to sink, it takes on a greyish colour from the clay bottoms of the salt pans. This salt is harvested and sold as Sel gris or grey salt.
Traditional Dishes of Brittany - Bretagne Meat dishes Pre sale lamb – Salt grass raised lamb from Manche “pre-sale” Various cooking methods according to the parts of the animals Kig Ha Farz – Buckwhet dumplings It means meat or dough in old Breton language. Slated pork and other cuts of meat such as brisket of beef and pork knuckles are cooked together with vegetables in a pot. A dough of buckwheat, lard and eggs is submerged in the same pot in a linen cloth and cooked at the same time. Pate Breton Course pork pate typical for Brittany
Traditional Dishes of Brittany - Bretagne Seafood dishes Cotriade Fish stew made with Conger eel and left over of the catch of the day. Pot au d’ hommard – Lobster Pot au feu Cooked with vegetables in cider. Often other seafood is added such as Langoustine, Mussels and clams or fish. Moules Mariniere Bouchot mussels steamed with white wine, onions and herbs Palourdes farci – Baked stuffed clams Clams in the half shell baked with shallots, garlic and herbs
Traditional Dishes of Brittany - Bretagne Crepes Crepes (sweet fillings) and Galettes (buckwheat crepes with savory filling) are generally considered the most famous “culinary” heritage from Brittany Crepes are above all a meal before being considered a dessert. Sweet crepes can be filled with almost anything from stewed apples to chocolate sauce and fruit compotes, while “Galettes” savory are typically filled with ham, sausages, mushrooms, cheese, creamed chicken, egg or similar.
Traditional Dishes of Brittany – Bretagne - Dessert & Confiserie Kouign amann A round, crusty Breton cake, made with a layered and sugar sprinkled bread dough. The cake is slowly baked until the butter puffs up the dough and the sugar within the layers caramelizes. The name derives from the Breton words for cake ("kouign") and butter ("amann"). Gavottes Gavottes are lacy crêpes, rolled up and wrapped in gold paper. Gavottes coated in milk or dark chocolate make their way into restaurants and homes.
Traditional Dishes handled in the applied Laboratoroies sessions 1- Lobster à la Morbihannaise 2- Pan-Roasted guinea fowl with calvados sauce (cuisson poelee) 3- Pork tenderloin with cider sauce (cuisson roti) History & Origin of the dish Ingredients Cooking methods