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PART 3 Groups & Denominations. Denominations Fundamentali st CulturalModerateConservativeLiberal.

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Presentation on theme: "PART 3 Groups & Denominations. Denominations Fundamentali st CulturalModerateConservativeLiberal."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 3 Groups & Denominations

2 Denominations Fundamentali st CulturalModerateConservativeLiberal

3 Orthodox - strict   The Torah is from Heaven – without question   Word of God – unaltered over time   Strictly observe traditional Jewish beliefs and way of life   Pray three times a day,   Wear yarmulkes - a sign of respect for God   Observe Sabbath strictly   Eat Kosher food only   Kashrut - ritual dietary laws that are of divine origin

4 Conservative - middle   Sits between Reform and Orthodox   Recognizes human element in faith   Centred in U.S.   Modernized to meet modern life   Follow moral guidelines, not strict observances   Hold traditional services in Hebrew   Flexible with interpretation of Jewish law   ie men and women sit together in Synagogue

5 Reconstructionist - middle   Modern American-based Jewish movement   Blend tradition with change   Youngest and fastest growing segment of Jewish population   Views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization   an evolving faith changing over time   Holds that contemporary Western secular morality has precedence over Jewish law and theology   Torah is God’s law is a work in progress   Try to make Judaism more meaningful today

6 Reform - liberal Developed during the mid 1800s in Germany Helped to support assimilation while retaining Jewish heritage Promoted integration into European Society Interpret scriptures in light of modern knowledge God allows humans to interpret and work with scripture Introduced practice of using local language for worship

7 Hasidism - ?  Israel ben Eliezer ’s  Hasidim ‘Pious ones’  Less attention to formal details  Focus on communicating with God through action  good deeds  Seek God’s presence in everyday events

8 My Year of Living Biblically  

9 PART 4 Sacred Scripture

10 GOD Sacred Scripture Scripture is the revelation of God’s will Describes development of god’s relationship with ‘chosen people’ Mitzvah Act of performing a good deed or commandment Direction on how to live ethically and keep covenant with God Bible contains total of 613 mitzvoth (248 do, 365 do not) (ie. 10 Commandments)

11 The Hebrew Bible   The central religious text of Judaism   Belief system of Jewish Faith   Primarily written in Hebrew some small portions in Aramaic   Judaism recognizes a single set of books known as the Tanakh - Hebrew Bible (Law of Moses)

12 GOD Written Torah The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh TaNaKh Torah - aka the “Pentateuch” (Greek for ‘5 books’ of Moses) Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Nevi’im - Prophets – Historical accounts of ancient Israel & prophets Khetuvim - Writings – Psalms, Proverbs, Stories, poetry & historical accounts Adds richness to the Torah

13 TORAH  Written on parchment scroll in ancient form by hand and kept in Ark  Means “law” but more accurate  “revelation”  “teaching” or “instruction”  Divided into 54 sections and read from beginning to end in a year

14 Passed down orally from successive Rabbis Talmud - two parts  Second most important source of rabbinic Jewish law  based on Mishnah  Large collection of biblical analysis  complements and interprets the Torah  applies scripture to everyday life Mishnah  Taught and transmitted by Rabbi’s over time  Early rabbinic teachings on how to live according to Torah  Starting point for rabbinic study and analysis Gemera  Comments on the Mishnah Oral Torah - Talmud

15 GOD Written Torah Oral Torah TaNaKh Talmud MishnahGemera

16 Sacred Writings - The Bible Christian Bible includes: Old Testament   the same books as the Tanakh PLUS New Testament   collection of 27 books   Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Epistles   Jesus is it’s central figure

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18 The Ten Commandments - Moses   Born Hebrew then adopted by Pharaohs’ daughter   Realizes his true identity and begins to fulfill prophecy Burning Bush - Met God   God heard the cries of the Israelites   Would lead them from bondage   Moses chosen by God as the person to lead Israelites out of Egypt Exodus   Exodus means ‘departure’ or ‘going out’   Story of departure from Egypt into Sinai and then to Canaan   Return to “the land of milk and honey”   Celebrated by Pesach (Passover)

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20 The Ten Commandments - Moses   How?   10 Plagues inflicted upon Egyptians   10 th plague - Angel of death took all 1 st born in the region   Israelites mark doors of their homes with lamb’s blood   Spirit of the Lord passed over these homes   Forces Pharaoh to comply and release Hebrews from bondage   Celebrated by Pesach (Passover)   Mount Sinai - Met God again   God shared 10 Commandments with Moses   Showed God’s true nature   Gave laws that people needed to follow   Renewal of the Covenant

21 Judaism In Modern World Anti-Semitism Holocaust   (Hebrew., sho'ah)   the annihilation of the Jews (6 million) and other groups of people of Europe (5 million) under the Nazi regime during World War II Middle East Conflict

22 Zionist Movement Zionism   movement originally for re-establishment of Jewish nation in Israel   derived from the word Zion (Hebrew: ציון, Tzi-yon‎),   referring to a hill in Jerusalem and symbolizing the land of Israel   After WW2 - Zionist movement gained strength   Hundreds of thousands of Jews fled Europe for Palestine   leading to fighting over territory with Arabs   UN partitioned Palestine into Arab and Jewish zones   May 14, Jewish territory declared itself the independent State of Israel   Conflict ever since

23 Interesting Facts   The Israeli flag is rooted in Jewish tradition   The white background symbolizes purity   The two stripes and the Star of David emblem inspired by the techeileth dye of the tallit (Jewish prayer shawl)   Jews have regarded the Land of Israel as their homeland,   Holy Land and as a Promised Land   The Land of Israel holds a special place in Jewish religion   encompassing Judaism's most important sites   including the remains of the First and Second Temples

24 The Holocaust   Signifies the mass slaughter of European Jews by the Nazis during WW2   terrible chapter in human history and religious intolerance   Means “destruction by fire”   Hitler planned to wipe out the entire Jewish population as part of his to conquer the world   Blamed the Jews for many of the economic hardships suffered by Germans   Killed over 6 million Jews, over two thirds of the entire Jewish European population   Also executed up to 10 million Poles, Gypsies, Russians, communists, homosexuals and disabled persons

25 Sources of Anti-Semitism   Lacked a homeland forced to live in scattered communities   Cast as outsiders   Different customs, clothes   Perceived as strange, untrustworthy   Interpretation of bible   Some Christians blamed all Jews for murder of Jesus   Frequently forbidden to own land or hold citizenship   Easy scapegoats for any perceived problems   Middle Ages   Christians couldn’t lend money   Jews could and needed to   Perceived as thieves and cheats   dishonest living

26 Anti-Semitism in Canada   Existed in both Canada and the US during the 30's and 40's   Desperate Jews were attempting to escape persecution in Germany   Politicians realized the strong anti-Semitic feelings in the country + their own feelings   Canada’s Immigration policy during WW2   stated that “none was too many”   St. Louis - Ship carrying 907 German Jews was refused permission to enter the USA   Polls showed that 83% opposed allowing Jewish refugees into the country

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30 This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.


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