Presentation on theme: "SPORTSMANSHIP What is sportsmanship? A behaviour and attitude that shows respect for the rules of a game and the other players. The idea that the activity."— Presentation transcript:
What is sportsmanship? A behaviour and attitude that shows respect for the rules of a game and the other players. The idea that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake, with proper consideration for fairness, ethics, respect and a sense of fellowship with the other competitors.
General examples Full commitment to participation : 1.Showing up at races and training sessions. 2.Working hard during all practices. 3.Acknowledging one’s mistakes. 4.Trying to improve.
General examples Respect and concern for rules and officials.
General examples Respect and concern for social conventions: 1.Shaking hands. 2.Recognizing the good performance of an opponent.
General examples Respect and concern for the opponent: 1.Lending one’s equipment to the opponent. 2.Agreeing to play even if the opponent is late. 3.Not taking advantage of injured opponents.
General examples Avoiding poor attitudes toward participation: 1.Not adopting a win-at-all-costs approach. 2.Not showing temper after a mistake. 3.Not competing solely for individual prizes.
What is gamesmanship? The opposite of sportsmanship The art or practice of winning a game by clever methods and tactics which are not against the rules but are very close to cheating. The use of dubious but legal tactics, such as distracting an opponent, or misrepresenting their own skill level in order to make opponents over- or underestimate them to gain an extra advantage.
WHAT IS DOPING AND WHAT IS IT USED FOR? Doping is used to enhance athletic performance. People look for a help from organic chemistry at every level of the game. International and national sports organizations in collaboration with laboratories are trying very hard to crack down on drug abuse.
WHAT ARE STEROIDS? Steroids are the most popular kind of doping. People use them both in competitive sports and in recreational weight training. They are composed of synthetic derivates of human testosterone so that they may remain intact in the body for a longer period of time. They increase muscle mass. The increase of muscle mass is due to muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and the structure of testosterone are banned in international sports.
HOW CAN DRUGS BE DETECTED? Detecting their presence is very difficult. Tests can identify also very small concentrations of drugs even if its use is discontinued. Tests need to be done both during and before the competition times. The best sample to be taken for testing is athlete’s urine. The method used for the detection is mass spectrometry coupled to gas chromatography.
WHAT ARE STIMULANTS? Stimulants are used for enhancing performances through a reduction in feelings of fatigue. The best known stimulants are amphetamines which are mostly banned, but also coffee and coke in every day’s life. Amphetamines stimulate the Central Nervous System and mimic the sympathetic nervous system activities. Their effects are an increase in blood pressure, heart rate and metabolic rate. The athletes reported also an improvement in hand- eye coordination, strength and endurance.
WHAT ARE DIURETICS? Diuretics are another class of banned enhancing drugs. They are mainly taken by wrestlers or competitive weight lifters. Diuretics are capable of rapid water loss resulting in a reduction of weight, which is advantageous to the athletes who are allowed to compete in lower weight classes. They increase renal flow and muscle temperature during exercise. Diuretics are taken before the weight classification process and then the athlete re-hydrates himself to regain lost weight. Detecting them is harder because diuretics may be used as a method of masking the presence of other drugs.
CATCHING THE CHEATERS Two urine samples are collected according to a strict international protocol for doping control. The first sample is sent to the lab and analyzed until it gives a positive result for a banned substance. The athlete is contacted and at this point he or she has the right to request the opening and the testing of the second sample in front of witnesses. The two methods used for identifying banned sustances are Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: they perform very different tasks but they act together for a common purpose.
CONCLUSION While new performance drugs and harder to detect derivates are sure to emerge in the next few years, we hope that technology can improve its current detection methods. The hope of many athletes and sport organizations is that all cheaters will be caught and we wish there will be only fair games to be played for the rest of time.
DOPING SCANDAL IN CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING AND BIATHLON
The Olympic doping scandal in Turin Six Austrian athletes were banned for life after the Olympics Games of Turin. The decision came after an investigation by the International Olympic Committee.
Which athletes were involved in the doping conspiracy? The athletes involved were the biathletes Wolfang Perner and Wolfang Rottmann, and cross-country skiers Martin Tauber, Juergen Pinter, Johannes Eder and Roland Diethart
How could the Italian police find the illegal substance? The Italian police raided the Austrian lodgings outside Turin.
How did the Austrian Ski Federation react? In Vienna, the head of the Austrian Ski Federation vowed to “get to the bottom” of the Turin scandal. The president said that if the scandal was true, the athletes would be punished. In case they were innocent, the Federation would defend them.
What happened to the Austrian coach Walter Mayer? Walter Mayer fled after the Italian raid. He crashed his car into a police roadblock after crossing into Austria. Mayer was banned by the IOC from the Turin Olympics after the blood- doping scandal in 2002. He ended up briefly in a psychiatric hospital.
What did the Italian police find in the athletes’ rooms? The report of the police showed that a great quantity of medical equipment had been seized: material for collecting, storing, freezing and transfusing blood.
How long will the athletes be disqualified? The athletes have been banned from involvement in any capacity at the Olympics, including athletes, coaches or officials. The athletes also face possible punishment from the International Ski Federation.
Definition Blood doping is the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the blood circulation in order to enchance athletic performance.
There are 2 types of transfusion: Homologous: the RBCs from a compatible donour are harvested, concentrated and then transfused into the athlete’s circulation. Autologous: the athlete’s own RBCs are harvested well in advance of a competition and then reintroduced before a critical event.
Example of research into blood doping “Abnormal hematologic profiles in elite cross-country skiers” By Stray-Gundersen J, Videman t, Penttilä I, Lereim I.
Objective To examine the prevalence of abnormal ematologic profile in elite cross-country skiers. Setting and participants 68% of all skiers and 92% of those finishing in the top 10 places of the World Ski Championships.
Results 17% had highly abnormal hematologic profiles 19% had abnormal values 64% were normal Conclusions Blood doping is both prevalent and effective in cross-country ski racing, and current testing programmes for exposing blood doping are ineffective.
Year 2 survey results 58 students Ski College Leibniz
Questionnaire results Every day52 A few times each week 6 A few times each month 0 Rarely0 Question 1 How often do you participate in sport?
Every day10 A few times each week32 A few times each month12 Rarely4 Question 2 How often do you watch sport ?
AgreeNeutralDisagree Football5845 Skiing38172 Ice-skating192712 Athletics21289 Question 3 Do you think Sportsmen/women generally behave fairly when playing their sport?
AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers1551 Skiers37200 Ice-skaters31224 Athletes24311 Question 4 Do you think Spectators behave responsibly by agreeing with decisions made by Officials when watching sport?
AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers91633 Skiers41161 Ice-skaters28273 Athletes26284 Question 5 Do you think that Officials behave fairly when making decisions on the pitch/track?
AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers2650 Skiers32225 Ice-skaters18337 Athletes173110 Question 6 Do you think Players/Competitors always show that they accept the decisions of Officials, even if they don’t really agree?
AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers4478 Skiers101828 Ice-skaters133015 Athletes83218 Question 7 Do you think Players/Competitors often dispute the decisions made by Officials?
Question 8 Do you think the use of technology impacts fairly on Officials’ decisions? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers35158 Skiers38164 Ice-skaters32225 Athletes33224
Question 9 Do you think the use of technology has increased the level of fair play? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers13 32 Skiers222014 Ice-skaters232114 Athletes222016
Question 10 Who do you feel is primarily responsible for ensuring fair play in sport? Players + Competitors45 Trainers + Managers10 Officials2 Spectators2
Question 11 Do you think the behaviour of Sportsmen/women on the pitch/track sets a good example for young people? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers6646 Skiers41161 Ice-skaters30253 Athletes23314
Question 12 Do you think the behaviour of Sportsmen/women off the pitch/track sets a good example for young people? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers61537 Skiers29245 Ice-skaters21307 Athletes20344
Question 13 Do you think the amount of money involved in sport has an adverse effect on fair play? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers4738 Skiers122321 Ice-skaters123016 Athletes173110
Question 14 Do you think that intense media coverage and the scrutiny of foul play discourages unfair practice? AgreeNeutralDisagree Footballers171823 Skiers183010 Ice-skaters192910 Athletes153310
Conclusions In conclusion, we can say that most of our students practice a lot of sport regularly rather than watch sports events. They think that there’s good fair play in winter sports and athletics, but not in football, where both players and spectators don’t always accept the officials’ decisions or represent a good model of behaviour for young people. Although the use of technology has contributed to increase fair play, the lack of it in football is probably due to the amount of money involved in this sport. In all sports, players and competitors remain the prime responsible for ensuring fair play behaviour on the field.