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Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648  Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire, 1547-1555  Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593  Dutch Revolt from Spain, 1566-1648 

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Religious Wars: 1547-1648  Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire, 1547-1555  Civil Wars in France, 1562-1593  Dutch Revolt from Spain, 1566-1648 "— Presentation transcript:

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2 Age of Religious Wars:  Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire,  Civil Wars in France,  Dutch Revolt from Spain,  Anglo-Spanish Conflict – 1571 onward  Thirty Years’ War,  English Civil War (Puritan Rebellion),  English Glorious Revolution,

3 Christian Apologetics Strategy 1: Point out the enormous secular components in all of the “wars of religion” Strategy 2: Point out the betrayal of Christian principles involved in the motives of those who engaged in “religious wars” Mt. 26:52 – Jesus’ rebuke of Peter "Put your sword back in its place," Jesus said to him, "for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. John 18:36 – Jesus’ words to Pilate Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place."

4 Age of Religious Wars:  Two Schmalkaldic Wars in Empire,  Peace of Augsburg, 1555  Division of Hapsburg territories into Imperial & Spanish lands

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6 Age of Religious Wars:  Civil Wars in France, : 3-cornered conflict between Huguenots (Bourbon), “Ultras” (Guise), “Politiques” (Valois)  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572 Charles IX Catherine de Medici 3,000 killed in Paris; 10,000 elsewhere

7 Age of Religious Wars:  Civil Wars in France, :  War of the Three Henries,  Henry III, Henry, Duke of Guise, Henry Bourbon, King of Navarre Henri of Guise Henri III

8 Age of Religious Wars:  Civil Wars in France, :  War of the Three Henries,  Henry III, Henry, Duke of Guise, Henry Bourbon, King of Navarre  Henry IV  Conversion to Catholic Church [“Paris is well worth a mass”]  Edict of Nantes, 1598 – limited tolerance for Huguenots Henri III

9 Age of Religious Wars:  Dutch Revolt from Spain:  Philip II’s contrast to Charles  Alien outsider  threatens Dutch autonomy and prosperity  Castilian bureaucrats  Sidelining States-General  Taxes on trade  Reorganization of Church to better combat Calvinism  Nobles’ Opposition led by William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (aka, the Silent) Amsterdam Stock Exchange Assassinated in 1584

10  Dutch Revolt from Spain:  Duke of Alba’s “Council of Blood” and the “Spanish Fury”  in ,000 killed in sack of Antwerp by soldiers who hadn’t been paid in 2 years  Union of Brussels – religion laid aside as all Netherlands unite under Wm. the Silent vs. Philip  Duke of Parma “pacifies” southern provinces  Calvinist flee to north

11  Division of the Netherlands, 1579  Union of Arras (10 provinces)  Union of Utrecht (7 provinces)

12  Division of the Netherlands, 1579  Union of Arras (10 provinces)  Union of Utrecht (7 provinces)  Act of Abjuration (1581)  declaration of independence  early statement of the compact theory of gov’t.: ”the people were not created by God for the prince, but the prince was made for the good of the people.”  right of revolution when compact is broken

13  Dutch Revolt from Spain:  The Twelve Year Truce ( )  Eventual recognition of full independence of the United Netherlands in the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

14 Anglo-Spanish Conflict Rivalry in the New World Rivalry in the New World Drake’s raids on Spanish colonies (from 1571 on)Drake’s raids on Spanish colonies (from 1571 on) English efforts to capture Spanish treasure shipsEnglish efforts to capture Spanish treasure ships Elizabeth’s share of Drake’s haul in 1581 was double her normal annual revenues for all other sources Elizabeth’s share of Drake’s haul in 1581 was double her normal annual revenues for all other sources Replica of Golden Hind Sir Francis Drake

15 Anglo-Spanish Conflict English intervention in the Dutch revolt English intervention in the Dutch revolt In 1585, Robt. Dudley leads 6,000 man armyIn 1585, Robt. Dudley leads 6,000 man army Dutch ships allowed use of English portsDutch ships allowed use of English ports

16 Anglo-Spanish Conflict Religious crusade of Philip II Religious crusade of Philip II Expels Moriscos & Maranos from SpainExpels Moriscos & Maranos from Spain Mediterranean crusade against TurksMediterranean crusade against Turks Suppression of Calvinism in NetherlandsSuppression of Calvinism in Netherlands Intervention in France on behalf of Guise and “Ultras”Intervention in France on behalf of Guise and “Ultras” 3 Armadas to conquer England3 Armadas to conquer England

17 Mary, Queen of Scots Queen at 1 week of age Sent to France at age 6 Married François Valois, Dauphin Queen of France, Returned to Scotland, 1561 Clashes with John Knox Implicated in murder of her 2 nd husband (and cousin), Henry Steward, Lord Darnley, 1567 Quickly re-married suspected murderer of Darnley, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell Deposed, defeated, escaped from island prison, fled to England, 1568 Imprisoned by Elizabeth Implicated in Catholic plots Executed

18 Mary’s execution Fotheringhay Castle, Feb Mary’s sarcophagus

19 The tomb of Mary and Elizabeth at Westminster Abbey. The Latin translates: "Partners both in throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection."

20 HOUSE OF TUDOR

21 Climax & Defeat of Absolutism in England I. JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND ( ) BECOMES JAMES I OF ENGLAND ( ) A. ABSOLUTIST CONVICTIONS: No understanding of nor appreciation for the dynamics of “Tudor absolutism” TREW LAW OF FREE MONARCHY -- “Kings are God’s Lieutenants on Earth.”

22 B. RELIGIOUS CONVICTIONS: 1. Anti-Puritan -- HAMPTON COURT PALACE CONFERENCE -- uncompromising defense of Anglican forms and organization and a threat to the Puritans to conform or be "harried from the land"

23 English Puritans Disciples of John Calvin Disciples of John Calvin Marian exiles (to Geneva)Marian exiles (to Geneva) Returned following Mary’s deathReturned following Mary’s death Objected to Elizabethan settlementObjected to Elizabethan settlement Act of Uniformity of 1559 Act of Uniformity of 1559 Act of Supremacy of 1559 Act of Supremacy of 1559 Began to be called “Puritans” in 1564 Began to be called “Puritans” in Articles of Articles of 1566 Agitation mounts in 1569 Agitation mounts in 1569 First Puritan parish organized in 1572 First Puritan parish organized in 1572 Elizabeth counterattacks Elizabeth counterattacks Growth among the gentry and residents of London Growth among the gentry and residents of London Became majority in the House of Commons Became majority in the House of Commons

24 2. ANTI-CATHOLIC -- GUY FAWKES & THE GUNPOWDER PLOT (Nov. 5, 1605) -- Catholic plot to blow up King and Parliament

25 “Highlights” of James’ Reign Hampton Court Palace Conference, 1604 Hampton Court Palace Conference, 1604 “No bishop, no king!” (Book of Sports, 1618)“No bishop, no king!” (Book of Sports, 1618) Gunpowder Plot, Nov. 5, 1605 Gunpowder Plot, Nov. 5, st permanent English settlement in New World – Jamestown, st permanent English settlement in New World – Jamestown, 1607 “Authorized” (a.k.a. KJV) translation of the Bible, 1611 “Authorized” (a.k.a. KJV) translation of the Bible, 1611 Peaceful foreign policy Peaceful foreign policy Treaty with Spain, 1604Treaty with Spain, 1604 Mediation of truce in Dutch revolt, 1608Mediation of truce in Dutch revolt, 1608 Delayed involvement in 30 Years’ War (Danish phase)Delayed involvement in 30 Years’ War (Danish phase)

26 “Highlights” of James’ Reign First Puritan migration to New England – “Pilgrims/ Separatists”, 1620 First Puritan migration to New England – “Pilgrims/ Separatists”, 1620 Stormy relations with Parliaments (4 met during reign) Stormy relations with Parliaments (4 met during reign) Addled Parliament of 1614 – deadlocked over grievances; passed no lawsAddled Parliament of 1614 – deadlocked over grievances; passed no laws Protestations of 1621; James ripped page out of H. of C. JournalProtestations of 1621; James ripped page out of H. of C. Journal

27 The Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648) Background Background Religious conflict – breakdown of Peace of AugsburgReligious conflict – breakdown of Peace of Augsburg Spread of Calvinism – Palatinate and Brandenburg (both electorates) have Calvinist rulers as well as other less important states Spread of Calvinism – Palatinate and Brandenburg (both electorates) have Calvinist rulers as well as other less important states Lutheran princes secularization of Church lands Lutheran princes secularization of Church lands Aggressive “Counter Reformation” Catholicism Aggressive “Counter Reformation” Catholicism Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire – Habsburg centralization vs. “feudal particularism” of princes/citiesTensions in the Holy Roman Empire – Habsburg centralization vs. “feudal particularism” of princes/cities Dynastic-nationalist considerations – territorial ambitions of Danish and Swedish kings coalesce with the larger Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry lasting until 1659Dynastic-nationalist considerations – territorial ambitions of Danish and Swedish kings coalesce with the larger Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry lasting until 1659 After the first phase of the war, the chief combatants will be non-Germans, but all the fighting will occur on German soilAfter the first phase of the war, the chief combatants will be non-Germans, but all the fighting will occur on German soil

28 The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) Selection of Archduke Ferdinand (nephew of Emperor Matthias) as King of BohemiaSelection of Archduke Ferdinand (nephew of Emperor Matthias) as King of Bohemia Ferdinand’s campaign against Protestants in Bohemia, revoking toleration guaranteed by his predecessorFerdinand’s campaign against Protestants in Bohemia, revoking toleration guaranteed by his predecessor “Defenestration of Prague” to protest Ferdinand’s actions“Defenestration of Prague” to protest Ferdinand’s actions Deposing of Ferdinand as king of Bohemia (just after he had been elected Emperor in 1619) and selection of Frederick V of the Palatinate, leader of the Protestant Union and son-in-law of James I of England, as King of BohemiaDeposing of Ferdinand as king of Bohemia (just after he had been elected Emperor in 1619) and selection of Frederick V of the Palatinate, leader of the Protestant Union and son-in-law of James I of England, as King of Bohemia

29 The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) Ferdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of BavariaFerdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov. 1620Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov Maximilian of Bavaria

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31 The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) Ferdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of BavariaFerdinand rallied Catholic League under leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov. 1620Defeat Frederick at Battle of White Mountain, Nov Ferdinand takes land of Protestant nobles, declares Bohemia a hereditary kingdom, and outlaws ProtestantismFerdinand takes land of Protestant nobles, declares Bohemia a hereditary kingdom, and outlaws Protestantism Maximilian invades/takes most of PalatinateMaximilian invades/takes most of Palatinate Frederick flees to Netherlands which has been invaded by Spanish ending the 12 Year TruceFrederick flees to Netherlands which has been invaded by Spanish ending the 12 Year Truce Maximilian of Bavaria

32 The Danish Phase (1625 – 1629) The Danish Phase (1625 – 1629) The Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) The Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) Outcomes Outcomes Peace of Westphalia (1648) – Empire’s political fragmentation guaranteed in international lawPeace of Westphalia (1648) – Empire’s political fragmentation guaranteed in international law Social and economic effectsSocial and economic effects 1/3 rd of urban population 2/5ths of rural population died, mostly from famine accompanying collapse of agricultural economy 1/3 rd of urban population 2/5ths of rural population died, mostly from famine accompanying collapse of agricultural economy Empire had 7-8,000,000 FEWER inhabitants in 1648 as in 1618 Empire had 7-8,000,000 FEWER inhabitants in 1648 as in 1618

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34 II. CHARLES I ( ; r )

35 A. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT 1.Downward spiral in 1 st 3 parliaments ( ) a. Foreign policy: Disastrous intervention in 30 Years’ War b. Religion: French marriage, relaxation of laws against Catholics, promotion of non-Calvinist clergy c. Finances: Parl. refuses to grant revenues, king resorts to forced loans/imprisonment of those who refuse to pay d. Politics: attempt to impeach chief advisors, assassination of the Duke of Buckingham, passage of the Petition of Right, 1628 e. Resolutions condemning extra-Parliamentary taxation and “innovations in religion”, 1629

36 II. CHARLES I ( ; r ) II. CHARLES I ( ; r ) A. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT 1.Downward spiral in 1 st 3 parliaments ( ) 2.Period of Personal Rule (Eleven Year Tyranny ) – Charles bids to establish a Continental style absolutism; political grievances mount a. Increasing resort to non-Parliamentary sources of revenue b. Increasing encroachment on local governments c. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford was chief architect

37 A. Political Dimensions: KING VS. PARLIAMENT B. Religious Dimension 1.Growing tensions between Puritans and Anglican establishment (headed by King and Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud) 2.Attempt to introduce Book of Common Prayer in Scotland, Stool riot, Scottish National Covenant, st Bishops’ War, nd Bishops’ War, 1640

38 1. Short Parliament (4/13 to 5-5/1640) -- forced by Bishops’ War; dissolved after only 3 weeks following a barrage of criticism of king 2. “Long Parliament” (11/3/1640 to 1660) a. a.Dismantles apparatus of absolutism (1 st phase: to 10/1641) 1) Triennial Act – Parl. must meet at least every 3 years 2) Act of Dissolution – Long Parl. not to be dissolved w/o its own consent 3) Tunnage and Poundage Act – limited king’s revenue to 2 months at a time; abolished Ship Money 4) Abolish Court of Star Chamber and of High Commission Revolutionary Era

39 1. “Long Parliament” (11/3/1640 to 1660) a.Dismantles apparatus of absolutism (1 st phase: to 10/1641) b.Parliament divides; Charles ties to exploit breakdown of Puritan consensus 1) Issue of religious reform a)Presbyterians (Root and Branch party) – want a “national church” organizationally b)Independents – reject “national church” in favor of total congregational autonomy 2) Political issue: Grand Remonstrance: Nov a)Parliament demands control of King’s ministers b)Parliament demands control of the army Revolutionary Era

40 3) Charles’ response a)“By God, not for an hour.” b)Attempt to arrest Pym and other opposition leaders – Jan.4, 1642 c)Charles and family leave London for Nottingham on Jan. 10 d)Royalist party in Parliament sets up rival parliament in Oxford Revolutionary Era

41 C. THE WAR -- Roundheads (London Parliament and its army) vs. Cavaliers (King's army and Oxford Parliament) C. THE WAR -- Roundheads (London Parliament and its army) vs. Cavaliers (King's army and Oxford Parliament)

42 CHARLES I AT BATTLE OF NASEBY JUNE 14, 1645 Oliver Cromwell

43 Cromwell and Army now in control Cromwell and Army now in control Pride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering WestminsterPride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering Westminster The Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s PurgeThe Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s Purge Organized trial of Charles IOrganized trial of Charles I “Final Solution” to Charles I

44 TRIAL& EXECUTION OF CHARLES I JAN. 30, 1649

45 Cromwell and Army now in control Cromwell and Army now in control Pride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering WestminsterPride’s Purge (12/1648) – Col. Pride sent to “cleanse” Parliament; 150 Presbyterian members barred from entering Westminster The Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s PurgeThe Rump – 53 Independents remain after Pride’s Purge Organized trial of Charles IOrganized trial of Charles I Restructured English government Restructured English government “Final Solution” to Charles I

46 1. Abolition of the Monarchy 2. Abolition of House of Lords 3. Proclamation of “THE COMMONWEALTH” a)Republic in form b)Military dictatorship in reality 4. “Disestablishment” of CHURCH OF ENGLAND RELIGIOUS TOLERATION FOR ALL PROTESTANTSRELIGIOUS TOLERATION FOR ALL PROTESTANTS Restructuring of Government


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