Presentation on theme: "Lesson 24: The ‘Middle’ Middle Ages "Let us all hasten to approach to perfect manhood, to the measure of the completed growth of the fulness of Jesus Christ,"— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 24: The ‘Middle’ Middle Ages "Let us all hasten to approach to perfect manhood, to the measure of the completed growth of the fulness of Jesus Christ, in Whom let us love one another, praise one another, correct one another, encourage one another, pray for one another, that with Him in one another we may reign and triumph." Columbanus “How the Irish Saved Civilization” The Christianization of England Willibroad Willilfred or Boniface
Charles the Great reigns 771-814 Creates the first great empire since Rome “The Moses of the Middle Ages” – led Germanic people out of barbarism by giving a new code of civil & ecclesiastical laws. He was 7 feet tall and had long flowing white hair, He love hunting, swimming, and riding, but had a real interest in culture – music & literature.
Major Contributions of Charlemagne Military Conquest – 50 campaigns conquering Lombards in Italy, Muslims in Spain, expanding German frontier (Bavaria), defeating pagan Avars in Hungary, and 18 campaigns over 30 years against Saxons. Expand the kingdom. Forced conversions of enemy ended in 797. This established order during a period of barbarian chaos. Able Administrator – He had an unique gift in organization and administration that enable him to sustain a large empire.
Carolingian Renaissance Charlemagne recruited Alcuin from England to come and establish a palace school. This palace school carried on the Roman higher education and was instrumental in Germanic people assimilating classical and Christian learning flowing out of the Roman empire. Alcuin in charge of all learning in the empire. The monasteries became focal point of knowledge of culture in West 1.Language – developed our modern printed letters. 2.Literature – directed monk-scholars to preserve ancient works & established libraries to contain them. 3.The Bible – Revised the text of the Latin Bible 4.Education – established that every parish must have a school and encouraged the study of logic, philosophy, and literature.
The Emperor of the Romans Pope Leo III was forced to flee Rome by factions in Rome. He fled to Charlemagne and Charlemagne returned with his army to support Leo III. As a return favor, on Christmas Day, 800, Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor while he was kneeling to receive communion. “To Charles Augustus, crowned by God, great and peace-making emperor of the Romans, long life and victory!” This made Charlemagne supreme ruler of the Western world much to the dismay of the Byzantine emperors. Chiefly this made the King subservient to the pope, though he would fight this and seek to maintain control of the church in his kingdom.
THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES Gottschalk- true Augustinian theology Communion Controversy Paschasius Radbertus (785-860) Ratramnus of Corbie ( d. 868) “real presence” “spiritual presence” Lateran Council of 1215Transubstantiation became fixed dogma
Other Notable Scholars John Scotus Engina (810-877) Dionysius the Areopagite Division of Nature Agobard of Lyons (779-840) Concerning Images Concerning Hail & Thunder
The Collapse of the Empire Louis the Pious (814-840) Louis the German (843-876) Charles the Bald (843-877) Lothair (843-855)
The Collapse of the Empire Louis the Pious (814-840) Louis the German (843-876) Charles the Bald (849-877) Lothair (843-855) Western Europe Under Attack
Three Lines of Attack 1.Muslims 2.Magyars 3.Norsemen
THE CONVERSION OF THE NORSEMEN AND CENTRAL EUROPE
“SACRED KING” “Alfred, unshakeable pillar of the people of Wessex, a man full of justice, vigorous in war, wise in speech, and- above all else-learned in holy literature….O Redeemer Christ, save his soul!”
German Empire and Feudalism Henry I (919-36) Otto the Great (936-973) Holy Roman Emperor 962
FEUDALISM Royal land grant feudum Lord gave land for church and church property “manse” Lord (secular) appointed bishop or abbot (invested) Lay Investure
Cluniac Revivals Strong support for the ideal of “sacred kingship” Supply of well trained civil servants An army from the huge lands owned by the monasteries Efficient monasteries where the Cluniac monks honored God and prayed for society