Presentation on theme: "The 1920’s CHAPTER 24. I.Prosperity I.Consumer Society II.People’s Capitalism III.Rise of Advertising and Mass Marketing IV.Marriage and Sexuality V.Age."— Presentation transcript:
The 1920’s CHAPTER 24
I.Prosperity I.Consumer Society II.People’s Capitalism III.Rise of Advertising and Mass Marketing IV.Marriage and Sexuality V.Age of Celebrity VI.Business Civilization VII.Industrial Workers VIII.Women and Work IX.Women’s Movement II.Politics of Business I.Harding II.Coolidge III.Hoover
III.Farmers, Small Torn Protestants, Moral Traditionalists I.Agricultural Depression II.Cultural Dislocation III.Prohibition IV.Ku Klux Klan V.Immigration Restrictions VI.Fundamentalism and Scopes IV.Ethnic and Racial Communities I.Europeans II.Blacks and Harlem Renaissance III.Mexican Community V.Lost Generation and Disillusioned Intellectuals
I. Prosperity I. Consumer Society 1920’s – US wealthiest War boom for industry – 1898 – 1920, 20 year cycle Mass Production Industrial Production increases Due to new technologies Cars – II. People’s Capitalism Development of credit Little money after bills By 1930 – 15% on credit
III. Rise of Advertising and Mass Marketing New technology created new products New products need to be sold Incomes in Middle Class go up – afforded women opportunity to remain at home. 1)Soap ads 2)Books 3)Vacuums 4)Cosmetics
IV. Marriage and Sexuality Changing attitudes -Husbands and wives encouraged to pursue sexual satisfaction / intimacy -More time together -Younger women – pursuit of pleasure. Young, middle class. -Flappers -Desire for independence -Femininity v. political
V. Age of Celebrity Mass Marketing + film + popular culture = marketing dream Recognized impact on public Combine marketing with popular activities – those who performed the activity became celebrities Role of Media
VI. Business Civilization Business of America is Business – Coolidge, 1924 The Man Nobody Knows, Bruce Barton, VII. Industrial Workers Many industrial workers benefited from nations prosperity -Rising wages (real wages increase 30-50%), steady income -Yellow Dog Contracts
IX. Women’s Movement Momentum lost after 19 th Amendment, High expectations, low returns Done in by their own success Which Voice and Who Speaks for Women
II.Politics of Business I.Harding Return to Normalcy Party bosses Easily manipulated Ohio 1923 Albert Fall, Secty Interior Harry Dougherty, Atty Gen Charles Forbes, Veterans Bureau II. Coolidge Best government is the government that governs least. Business of government is business. Supported less government Supported lower taxes Supported decreased government regulation of business
III. Hoover Looked back on his time as Food Director and Commerce Secretary when he approached the presidency. Government was a tool to persuade business to abandon wasteful ways Community where government and business share information and technology – cooperative approach. Associationalism Cooperative work effort -Managed to convince steel executives to cancel 12 hour workdays -Supported labor’s right to organize and endorsed 1926 Railway Labor Act -Worked to standardize size and shape of products to increase their usefulness and strengthen sales -Encouraged farmers to join in support of Cooperative Marketing Act
III. Farmers, Small Town Protestants, Moral Traditionalists I. Agricultural Depression WWI – Demand high War ends, demand drops. Markets flooded, income drops Technology – tractor Farmers displaced Tariffs Veto II. Cultural Dislocation 1920 – slight majority lived in urban areas Backbone – no longer farmer Urban area – (modernists). Distrust for urban ways
III. Prohibition 18 th Amendment, Prohibited manufacture, sale of alcohol Support from farmers, middle class urban, feminists, reformers 107 Million Americans, 1500 agents Al Capone Italian, Jewish, Irish IV. Ku Klux Klan Formed late 1860s. Died out after Reconstruction. New Klan begun in 1915 by William Simmons. Inspired by DW Griffith’s – Birth of a Nation Significant female membership. Focus on Catholics and Jews Racial purity Marcus Garvey
V. Immigration Restrictions KKK White Protestants Labor Unions 1924 Johnson-Reed Immigration Act: limited outcry limited entry of foreigners : 1,800,000 immigrants Overwhelming the country Exclusion to 1924 Act: British, German, Scandinavian By 1927 – total numbers 150,000 Exclusion – Mexicans
VI. Fundamentalism and Scopes Protestant fundamentalism Bible is God’s word. Every event depicted was true exactly as depicted Rise of fundamentalism 1870s- 1920s. Fundamentalism opposed to science and liberal Protestantism John Scopes TN, 1925 Clarence Darrow - Defense William Jennings Bryan – Prosecution -Bryan as expert on Bible -Test of 1 st Amendment and removal of references to Darwin in texts.
IV. Ethnic and Racial Communities I. Europeans Concentrated in NE and Midwest / Urban areas large number semi/un skilled economic hardship Cultural and religious discrimination Attempts to Americanize Growing numbers = increased political clout 1928 – first Catholic nominated for president – Al Smith. ?? What region supported him and why??
II. African-American and Harlem Renaissance Migration continued – cities north jobs New York, Chicago, Detroit Segregation White flight Music / Arts Blues / Ragtime / Jazz Harlem Renaissance
1920 – 1930, unprecedented outburst of creative activity Began as a series of literary discussions in the lower Manhattan (Greenwich Village) and upper Manhattan (Harlem) sections of New York City, this African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as the Harlem Renaissance. literary movement + and more than a social revolt against racism. redefined African-American expression One of the factors contributing to the rise of the Harlem Renaissance was the great migration of African-Americans to northern cities (such as New York City, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.) between 1919 and 1926.
III. Mexican Community Mexican and Blacks shared similar experiences / treatment 500,000 in 1920 – Agricultural and Construction work Earned less than whites Barred from certain jobs: machine operators or skilled jobs Transient Temporary jobs Locked into hard labor for low wages
V. Lost Generation and Disillusioned Intellectuals Poets, authors, artists who left the United States for Europe or Caribbean. -Belief was that average American was anti-intellectual, small minded, materialistic, puritanical. -Mass consumption, consumerism, wealth Critical of social, economic, and racial conditions Effect WWI had on masses – distrust Disenchanted with America – fled. Sought alternatives. Democracy had been eroded by power held by few. Power and wealth threatened democracy (harkens back to Progressive fears – private power overwhelming public authority)
Postwar period saw an increase in middle-class wealth and buying power, a significant growth in advertising, new use of leisure time, and an increase in installment buying. Dawes Plan resulted in the reduction of Germany’s war debt. KKK – many females, achieved some degree of political power in some states, their initial focus was on Catholics and Jews, emphasizing traditional morality. Kellogg – Briand Pact: 15 nations outlaw war, settle disputes peacefully.