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Chapter 21 Section 1 Roosevelt and Progressivism.

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1 Chapter 21 Section 1 Roosevelt and Progressivism

2 What does “progressive” mean? Forward thinking people who wanted to improve American life. To make progress.

3 Progressives(reformers)... Many Groups Forward Thinking Inspired by Religion & Science Public Interest Should Guide Government

4 What problems in the U.S. needed reform in the late 1800s? Political Corruption Power of Big Business Conditions of American Society

5 Progressives wanted to change America: Expand Democracy (political reform) Create Economic Reform Promote Social Reform

6 Gilded Age Politics: 1870s-1890s Elections often close Highest voter turnout for Presidential elections in US history Neither party could keep control of Congress

7 Political Concerns of Americans during the Gilded Age: Growing power of “special interest” groups (bankers, wealthy industrialists- lobbyists). Political Corruption (bribery, voter fraud)

8 Muckrakers: Journalists who exposed corruption & problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s.

9 Some Important Reformers and Muckrakers: Ida Tarbell Trusts & Big Business. (Wrote a book about the Standard Oil Trust.)

10 Upton Sinclair (Meatpacking Industry) Wrote The Jungle to expose the plight of immigrant workers but created an outrage over meat packing practices.

11 Jacob Riis (Tenement Slums). Wrote a book, “How the Other Half Lives” John Dewey (Progressive Education Reform= democratic ideals, problem solving).

12 Lewis Hine (Child Labor). Published photos and stories to show condition of children working.

13 Expanding Democracy: Ending the “Spoils System.” Elected official giving out government jobs to loyal supporters (patronage).

14 Baltimore- Washington Station, 1881.

15 Charles Guiteau assassinates Garfield, 1881 Washington, DC train station.

16 1883: Congress passes the Pendleton Civil Service Act. * Civil Service Commission Created. * Exams for government jobs (based on merit, not patronage).

17 Political Reform at the State and National level:

18 The Will of the People... Primaries Primaries (to pick Candidates) Initiative Initiative (voters propose laws) Referendum Referendum (people to vote a bill into law) Recall Recall (voters can remove elected officials from office)


20 Robert LaFollette (Wisconsin Idea) Governor of Wisconsin. First state-wide progressive plan for reforms.

21 Reforming City Governments:

22 GRAFT: form of political corruption defined as an unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. Examples 1.Exchange a political donation for political favor. 2.Skim money directly from government funds 3.Commit acts like insider trading

23 GRAFT: form of political corruption defined as an unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. Examples 4. Politician buying land that he/she knows will soon be needed for government development. 5. Bribery by another for personal gain (often difficult to prove).

24 William “Boss” Tweed Leader of the Tammany Hall “Tweed Ring.” Controlled politics and cheated New York City out of millions. 1860s & 1870’s

25 Thomas Nast: First real political cartoonist in US. Credited with getting Boss Tweed & cronies; the elephant and donkey as political symbols.

26 Thomas Nast: Also is credited for the familiar image we know as Santa Clause in the red suit (from the poem “T’was the Night Before Christmas”).

27 “The Brains” that achieved the Tammany Victory at the Rochester Democratic Convention.

28 A Thomas Nast cartoon lampoons New York City political boss William Marcy Tweed and his cronies as vultures.




32 “Wholesale” and Retail.” (Who is the bigger thief?)



35 William Tweed After serving 1 year in jail, he was charged with other crimes, sued by NYC. Fled to Spain. Sent back to U.S. and sent to prison. Died in Jail in 1878

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