Presentation on theme: "November 10, 2010 How did the U.S. interventions in Asia affect Americans? What caused a renewed Civil War in China? What was the outcome of this war?"— Presentation transcript:
November 10, 2010 How did the U.S. interventions in Asia affect Americans? What caused a renewed Civil War in China? What was the outcome of this war? How did the Korean War start and what was its outcome? Homework: Section 3 Notes due Friday and Quiz on Sections 1 and 2 on Friday.
The Cold War Heats Up: The four questions one must always ask when the U.S. gets involved in any conflict/war during the Cold War 1.Which side did the U.S. support, and why? 2.What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war? 3.What was the outcome of the war? 4.How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
Meet the Chinese Leaders: Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist Leader Ruled Southern & Eastern China He and his followers showed great courage and determination in resisting Japan during the war Relied heavily on U.S. aid U.S. found his government inefficient and hopelessly corrupt Policies of his government undermined Nationalist support: What is the story of the rice prices? Mao Zedong Communist Leader Ruled the rest of China Relied heavily on financial aid from the Soviet Union Attracted peasants with: Learning to read Improving food production Land reform
Renewed Civil War: What caused China to go back into a civil war after WWII? Why did Americans favor the weak and corrupt Nationalists? U.S. played peacemaker from 1944-1947 while supporting the Nationalists Failed to negotiate peace Truman refused to commit soldiers but sent military equipment and supplies
Civil War Continues: U.S. aid not enough to save the Nationalists (why?) Chiang and his demoralized government fled to Taiwan Communists ruled all of mainland China and establish: The People’s Republic of China U.S. refuses to accept this as China’s true government
Americans React to Communist Takeover: American public stunned that China became communist Containment failed! Some attacked Truman for supplying limited aid to Chiang State Department said that what happened in China was result of internal sources U.S. failed to help Chiang’s inability to maintain support of his people U.S. not prepared to go to war over China Fear of communism grew out of control
So I ask, When it comes to China: 1.Who did the U.S. support, and why? 2.What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of their civil war? 3.What was the outcome of their civil war? 4.How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
The Korean War: Discussion Questions 1.How did Korea become divided into two countries? 2.How did the Korean War start? 3.Which side did the U.S. support, and why? 4.What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war? 5.What was the outcome of the war? 6.How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
Korean War How was Korea divided into two parts? Japanese troops surrendered the territory north of the 38 th parallel to the Soviets Japanese troops south of the 38 th parallel surrended to the U.S.
The Koreas North Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Kim II Sung leader Capital in Pyongyang Communist Backed by Soviet tanks, airplanes, and money in an attempt to take the peninsula South Korea Republic of Korea (South Korea) Syngman Rhee leader Capital maintained in Seoul Democratic nation Backed by only 500 American soldiers
North Korea attacks South Korea June 25-27, 1945 North Korea goes across the 38 th parallel in surprise attack Within days, North Korean troops were deep into South Korea When the matter came to vote in the UN Security Council, the Soviet Union was not there Soviets boycotting because of Nationalist China (Taiwan)
The U.N. and U.S. Step Up June 27, 1945 – Truman ordered troops in Japan to support South Korea He also supported Taiwan with a fleet in the water In all, the UN and U.S. sent 520,000 troops to aid South Korea General Douglas MacArthur of the U.S. was the commander
The Fight in Korea June-July, N. Korea pushed S. Korea to a small spot in the South September 1950 – MacArthur’s surprise attack behind enemy lines while U.N. attack from South Trapped, half N. Korean troops sureendered & fled across 38 th The U.N. chased troops into N. Korea By November 1950 – U.N. almost to Chinese border
The Chinese Fight Back November 1950 – China joined N. Korea to keep it as communist buffer state between them and deomcracy (U.S.) angered by warships off coast extreme number of Chinese troops drove the U.N. troops south January 1951 – U.N. forces pushed out of N. Korea and head towards Seoul For two years the Chinese and “Americans” will fight over Korean hills and gain no ground
During the two years: MacArthur wants to attack China (early 1951) Calls for the use of nuclear weapons against China Truman rejected the request Soviet Union had an Alliance (mutual assist) with China Attacking would cause WWIII U.N. and S. Korea would advance with Matthew Ridgway as the spearhead Took back Seoul
MacArthur versus Truman (Democrat) MacArthur urges attack on China Spoke to newspapers, magazines, and Republican leaders superiors told him he had no authority to make decisions After being fired: came home to parade Gave an address to Congress (only given to heads of government) Truman who is MacArthur’s boss Wanted a settlement of war Refused to stand for insubordination of a commander April 1951 – publically fired MacArthur In the Congressional Investigation it was deemed Truman was right in his decision
Settling for Stalemate June 1951 – Soviets suggest cease-fire July 1951 – truce talks began Locations of cease-fire to be at 38 th parallel That line would be a demilitarized zone for both sides July 1953 – the two sides agreed to armistice ending the war (stalemate)
The Home Front Cost 54,000 American lives Cost $67 billion in expenditures Americans rejected the Democratic Party in 1952 in the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower Increased fear of communism led to a witchhunt of commies in America
Going back to our original questions: 1.How did Korea become divided into two countries? 2.How did the Korean War start? 3.Which side did the U.S. support, and why? 4.What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war? 5.What was the outcome of the war? 6.How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?