Presentation on theme: "November 10, 2010 How did the U.S. interventions in Asia affect Americans? What caused a renewed Civil War in China? What was the outcome of this war?"— Presentation transcript:
1November 10, 2010How did the U.S. interventions in Asia affect Americans?What caused a renewed Civil War in China?What was the outcome of this war?How did the Korean War start and what was its outcome?Homework: Section 3 Notes due Friday and Quiz on Sections 1 and 2 on Friday.
2The Cold War Heats Up:The four questions one must always ask when the U.S. gets involved in any conflict/war during the Cold WarWhich side did the U.S. support, and why?What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war?What was the outcome of the war?How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
3Meet the Chinese Leaders: Mao ZedongCommunist LeaderRuled the rest of ChinaRelied heavily on financial aid from the Soviet UnionAttracted peasants with:Learning to readImproving food productionLand reformChiang Kai-shekNationalist LeaderRuled Southern & Eastern ChinaHe and his followers showed great courage and determination in resisting Japan during the warRelied heavily on U.S. aidU.S. found his government inefficient and hopelessly corruptPolicies of his government undermined Nationalist support: What is the story of the rice prices?
4Renewed Civil War:What caused China to go back into a civil war after WWII?Why did Americans favor the weak and corrupt Nationalists?U.S. played peacemaker from while supporting the NationalistsFailed to negotiate peaceTruman refused to commit soldiers but sent military equipment and supplies
5Civil War Continues:U.S. aid not enough to save the Nationalists (why?)Chiang and his demoralized government fled to TaiwanCommunists ruled all of mainland China and establish: The People’s Republic of ChinaU.S. refuses to accept this as China’s true government
6Americans React to Communist Takeover: American public stunned that China became communistContainment failed!Some attacked Truman for supplying limited aid to ChiangState Department said that what happened in China was result of internal sourcesU.S. failed to help Chiang’s inability to maintain support of his peopleU.S. not prepared to go to war over ChinaFear of communism grew out of control
7So I ask, When it comes to China: Who did the U.S. support, and why?What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of their civil war?What was the outcome of their civil war?How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
8The Korean War: Discussion Questions How did Korea become divided into two countries?How did the Korean War start?Which side did the U.S. support, and why?What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war?What was the outcome of the war?How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?
9Korean War How was Korea divided into two parts? Japanese troops surrendered the territory north of the 38th parallel to the SovietsJapanese troops south of the 38th parallel surrended to the U.S.
10The Koreas South Korea Republic of Korea (South Korea) Syngman Rhee leaderCapital maintained in SeoulDemocratic nationBacked by only 500 American soldiersNorth KoreaDemocratic People’s Republic of KoreaKim II Sung leaderCapital in PyongyangCommunistBacked by Soviet tanks, airplanes, and money in an attempt to take the peninsula
11North Korea attacks South Korea June 25-27, 1945 North Korea goes across the 38th parallel in surprise attackWithin days, North Korean troops were deep into South KoreaWhen the matter came to vote in the UN Security Council, the Soviet Union was not thereSoviets boycotting because of Nationalist China (Taiwan)
12The U.N. and U.S. Step UpJune 27, 1945 – Truman ordered troops in Japan to support South KoreaHe also supported Taiwan with a fleet in the waterIn all, the UN and U.S. sent 520,000 troops to aid South KoreaGeneral Douglas MacArthur of the U.S. was the commander
13The Fight in KoreaJune-July, N. Korea pushed S. Korea to a small spot in the SouthSeptember 1950 – MacArthur’s surprise attack behind enemy lines while U.N. attack from SouthTrapped, half N. Korean troops sureendered & fled across 38thThe U.N. chased troops into N. KoreaBy November 1950 – U.N. almost to Chinese border
14The Chinese Fight BackNovember 1950 – China joined N. Korea to keep it as communist buffer state between them and deomcracy (U.S.)angered by warships off coastextreme number of Chinese troops drove the U.N. troops southJanuary 1951 – U.N. forces pushed out of N. Korea and head towards SeoulFor two years the Chinese and “Americans” will fight over Korean hills and gain no ground
15During the two years: MacArthur wants to attack China (early 1951) Calls for the use of nuclear weapons against ChinaTruman rejected the requestSoviet Union had an Alliance (mutual assist) with ChinaAttacking would cause WWIIIU.N. and S. Korea would advance with Matthew Ridgway as the spearheadTook back Seoul
16MacArthur versus Truman (Democrat) MacArthur urges attack on ChinaSpoke to newspapers, magazines, and Republican leaderssuperiors told him he had no authority to make decisionsAfter being fired:came home to paradeGave an address to Congress (only given to heads of government)Truman who is MacArthur’s bossWanted a settlement of warRefused to stand for insubordination of a commanderApril 1951 – publically fired MacArthurIn the Congressional Investigation it was deemed Truman was right in his decision
17Settling for Stalemate June 1951 – Soviets suggest cease-fireJuly 1951 – truce talks beganLocations of cease-fire to be at 38th parallelThat line would be a demilitarized zone for both sidesJuly 1953 – the two sides agreed to armistice ending the war (stalemate)
18The Home Front Cost 54,000 American lives Cost $67 billion in expendituresAmericans rejected the Democratic Party in 1952 in the election of Dwight D. EisenhowerIncreased fear of communism led to a witchhunt of commies in America
19Going back to our original questions: How did Korea become divided into two countries?How did the Korean War start?Which side did the U.S. support, and why?What did the U.S. do to affect the outcome of the war?What was the outcome of the war?How did the American public react to that outcome, and why?