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The New England Colonies

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1 The New England Colonies
Chapter 3, Section 2 The New England Colonies

2 Pilgrims and Puritans Religious tension in England after the Protestant Reformation Puritans Protestant groups that wanted to purify (or reform) the Anglican Church Believed that bishops and priests had too much power over church members

3 Pilgrims and Puritans Pilgrims on the Move
The most extreme English Protestants were Separatists Wanted to cut all ties with the Church of England Formed their own churches Were punished by Anglicans Pilgrims Separatist groups that fled England in the 1600’s Immigrants First fled to Holland but soon left because they did not want their children learning Dutch language and traditions Preserve English traditions Decided to leave Europe Formed a joint-stock company with some merchants and received permission from England to settle in Virginia Left Europe on September 16, 1620 on a ship called the Mayflower Not all were Puritans Pilgrim Leader: William Bradford

4 The Mayflower Compact Pilgrims traveled rough oceans for 2 months
Sighted land far north of Virginia Because the land was not in Virginia, it was outside of the authority of Virginia’s colonial government Decided to establish their own basic laws and social rules

5 The Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact
Signed November 21, 1620 by 41 male passengers Agreement to have fair laws and protect the general good Late 1620, Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in modern day Massachusetts Struggled thought the winter Nearly half died from sickness and freezing

6 Pilgrims and Native Americans
Samoset Met the colonists in March of 1621 Spoke some English that he had learned from crews of English fishing boats Provided the colonists with useful information about peoples and places in the area Introduced the colonists to Squanto Squanto Patuxet who had lived in Europe and spoke English well Taught Pilgrims to fertilize soil with fish remains Helped Pilgrims establish good relations with the local Wampanoag Because of Squanto, conditions in the colony began to improve

7 Pilgrims and Native Americans
Harvest feast The Pilgrims invited Wampanoag chief Massasoit and 90 others to join them for a harvest celebration The First Thanksgiving Pilgrims killed wild turkeys for the event Marked the survival of the Pilgrims in the new colony

8 Pilgrim Community Pilgrims still continued to struggle
Rocky soil made for poor farmland Hopes of trading furs and fishing industry faded due to poor hunting and fishing in the area Some colonists traded corn with Native Americans for beaver furs Made little money but formed a strong community New arrivals from Europe helped to strengthen the colony and allow for more farming rights

9 Pilgrim Community Pilgrim colony very different from Virginia
Many families Children/Indentured servants educated Families served as centers of religious life, health care, and community well being All family members worked together to better the colony Women cooked, cleaned, spun & wove wool, and sewed Men farmed, repaired tools, chopped wood, and built shelters

10 Women in the Colony Women had more legal rights in Plymouth than they did England Could sign contract Could sue Widows could own property

11 Puritans Leave England
England suffered an economic crises in the 1620’s King Charles I worsened the situation by raising taxes, leading to a political crisis as well Church of England began to punish Puritans as dissenters

12 Great Migration Between , many thousands of English men, women, and children left England King Charles I granted a group of Puritans and merchants a charter to settle New England Formed the Massachusetts Bay Company 1630, a fleet of ships carrying Puritan colonists left England for Massachusetts seeking religious freedom Led by John Winthrop

13 A New Colony Puritans arrived in New England well prepared to start their colony Brought many tools and livestock Faced little resistance from Native Americans Traded with the Plymouth Colony Region around Boston promoted a healthful climate Few died from sickness 1691, Massachusetts Bay Colony expanded to include the Pilgrim’s Plymouth Colony

14 Religion and Government in New England
The Massachusetts Bay Colony had to obey English laws per their royal granted charter However, their charter provided more independence than the royal charter of Virginia Created a General Court to help run the Massachusetts Colony Turned the court into a self-government to represent the needs of the people Each town sent 2 or 3 delegates to court After John Winthrop’s term of service, the General Court elected a governor and his assistants 1644, the General Court became a bicameral (2 House) legislature

15 Religion and Government in New England
Politics and Religion were closely linked in Puritan New England Government leaders were church members Ministers were powerful Voting privileges were reserved only for male church members Thomas Hooker Minister who left Massachusetts in 1636 to help found Connecticut Wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Made Connecticut’s government more democratic Allowed men who were not church members the right to vote Outlined the powers of the General Courts

16 Religion and Government in New England
Not all Puritans shared the same religious views Minister Roger Williams Did not agree with Massachusetts leadership Called for his church to sever ties with all other New England churches Criticized unfair land practices towards Native Americans Worried that Williams may damage colonial unity, he was forced to leave Massachusetts Williams formed a new settlement called Providence, which later developed into the colony of Rhode Island In Providence, Williams supported a separation of church and state as well as promoted religious toleration

17 Religion and Government in New England
Anne Hutchinson Publicly discussed religious ideas that colonial leaders viewed as “radical” Believed that human relations with God did not need guidance from ministers Colonial leaders did not believe that women should be religious leaders and Anne Hutchinson was put on trial Court decided to force her out of the colony Left Massachusetts with her followers for Rhode Island

18 Religion and Government in New England
Salem Witch Trials 1690’s, a group of girls in Salem, Massachusetts accused people of casting spells on them Largest number of witchcraft trials People were often pressured or forced to confess to practicing witchcraft 19 people were executed for practicing witchcraft before the hysteria ended Term “witch-hunt”

19 New England Economy Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode island were very different from the Southern Colonies Rocky soil Not suitable for cash crops Subsistence Farming: growing only enough to support your family Little demand for farm laborers Slavery not important to New England

20 Merchants Trade was vital to New England
Local trade: furs, pickled beef, and pork Trade with other Colonies Trade overseas Merchants grew wealthy Became colonial leaders

21 Fishing Rich fishing waters Cod, Mackerel, and Halibut
Exportation of dried fish Whaling Killed with harpoons and dragged to shore Provided oil for lighting

22 Shipbuilding Shipbuilding emerged as an important industry
New England forests provided ship building materials As trade expanded, seaports grew and more merchant ships were needed

23 Skilled Craftspeople New England needed skilled craftspeople
Younger sons were often sent to learn skills such as blacksmithing or printing Apprentices Lived with master craftsman and learned from him In exchange for room and board, apprentices performed simple tasks such as cleaning or sweeping After a certain amount of time, apprentices became journeymen Traveled and learned new skills in their trade Eventually became trade masters themselves

24 Education in the Colonies
Education was important in New England Families wanted their children to be able to read the Bible Massachusetts Bay Colony passed some of the first laws requiring parents to provide their children with education

25 Education in the Colonies
Public Education Communities established town schools to ensure that future generations would have educated ministers 1647, the Massachusetts General Court passed an order that every township have a school More schools in New England than in other colonies Most colonial children stopped their education after elementary school

26 Education in the Colonies
Higher Education 1636, Harvard College founded by John Harvard and the General Court Educated ministers and met the needs of the colony’s higher education demands 1700 About 70% of New England men could read About 45% of New England women could read

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