Presentation on theme: "From 1945 both the CCP and the GMD tried to take control of as much territory as possible. The GMD occupied most of southern China. However the CCP took."— Presentation transcript:
From 1945 both the CCP and the GMD tried to take control of as much territory as possible. The GMD occupied most of southern China. However the CCP took the north. Manchuria was occupied by Soviet troops at the end of the war and they allowed the CCP to move in. In early 1946 the CCP and the GMD signed a truce, but attacks began in the spring and full scale hostilities broke out in November 1946. GMDCCP 1 point 2 points
The GMD soon controlled the railways and the major cities and captured the CCP headquarters at Yanan. But the CCP held the countryside and continued with land reform. The GMD forces became overstretched and often re- imposed landlords and dealt brutally with opposition. In the south Chiang’s government was corrupt and inflation rose quickly. The CCP appeared to be honest and disciplined. GMDCCP 1 point 2 points 2 points
The Red Army had grown to 1,000,000 men by 1945 because of peasant support. By 1949 the CCP claimed that it was 4,000,000. At the same time the GMD forces had fallen to 1,500,000. The Communists had developed guerilla warfare in the war against the Japanese. GMDCCP 1 point 2 points
From autumn 1947 the tide began to turn against the GMD. Its forces in the cities of the north were increasingly isolated and, with no way of escape, began to desert to the CCP. This put vast stores of equipment in the hands of the CCP. The final collapse of the GMD came in October and November 1948. GMDCCP 2 points 1 point
As many of his soldiers deserted to Mao, Chiang resigned as president in January 1949 and fled to Formosa and set up the country of Taiwan. The People’s Liberation Army, as it had been known since 1946, entered Beijing in January 1949 and the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in October 1949, by which time almost all resistance from the GMD was ended. GMDCCP 1 point
Yanan seen as focus of struggle against Japan. CCP’s popularity in the countryside. Economic problems blamed on the GMD. Poor morale of GMD troops. CCP land reforms very popular. GMD forces peasants to pay taxes and to fight. GMD troops spread themselves too thinly. Jiang’s military errors. GMD’s reputation for corruption and incompetence which developed during struggle with Japan. PLA’s successful guerilla tactics. USA withdraws military aid to Jiang in 1947. Why was the CCP victorious? The Chinese Civil War 1945 - 1949
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