Presentation on theme: "Definitions Background Important Characters"— Presentation transcript:
1 Definitions Background Important Characters Homer’s OdysseyDefinitionsBackgroundImportant Characters
2 Epic – a long story told in elevated language (usually poetry) relates the great deeds of a larger- than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society
3 Epic PoetryMost epics include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history.They also include elements of supernatural forces at work.The tone of the epic is serious and it uses grand language.Often the hero’s quest takes place in a vast setting, often including heaven, hell, or the land of the dead.
4 Epic PoetryHomer’s Iliad and Odyssey are the best- known epics in Western civilization.Another well-known epic is Virgil’s Aeneid which is based on events that happen during and after the Trojan War (just like the Iliad and the Odyssey).
5 Epic HeroDefinition of epic hero - a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.An epic hero is superhuman; physically impressive.He is braver, stronger, smarter, and more clever than an ordinary person is.
6 Epic HeroThe epic hero is on a quest for something of great value to him or his people.The villains who try to keep the hero from his quest are usually uglier, more evil, and more cunning than anyone we know in ordinary life.The epic hero is often of mixed divine and human birth and so possesses human weaknesses.
7 Epic Hero The gods of the divine world interfere with the human world. At the end of the quest, the hero is glorified.
8 Homeric simileCompares heroic or epic events to simple, everyday eventsUses like or as"Fear fell upon Hector as he beheld him, and he dared not stay longer where he was but fled in dismay from before the gates, while Achilles darted after him at his utmost speed. As a mountain falcon, swiftest of all birds, swoops down upon some cowering dove- the dove flies before him but the falcon with a shrill scream follows close after, resolved to have her- even so did Achilles make straight for Hector with all his might, while Hector fled under the Trojan wall as fast as his limbs could take him." - The Iliad
9 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Aphrodite – Goddess of LoveAres – God of War
10 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Calypso – nymph goddess who keeps Odysseus for years while he is trying to return home to his faithful wife, Penelope
11 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Cheiron – The CentaurDemeter/Ceres – Goddess of the HarvestEris – twin sister of Ares, goddess of discordEris helped to cause the Trojan War by tossing her apple of discord into the guests at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. Three of these guests then competed to win the golden apple.
12 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Gorgon – Snake-headed MedusaHades – God of the UnderworldHeracles – the ultimate hero (Hercules)
13 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Hestia – goddess of the hearthThe Muses – the nine sisters who inspire all artists, especially poets, philosophers, and musicians. The Muses were the daughters of Zeus
14 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Apollo – god of youthful masculinity and poetry, music, prophecy, medicine, and archery
15 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Athena – favorite daughter of Zeus ; the great goddess of wisdom and the arts of war and peace. She favored the Greeks during the Trojan War. She is often called Pallas Athena
16 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Cronus – Titan (giant god) who ruled the universe until Zeus overthrew him
17 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Helios – sun god. Helios keeps his golden cattle on the island of Thrinakia
18 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Hephaestus – god of metal-workingHermes – messenger god
19 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Poseidon – god of the sea; brother of Zeus. Called earth-shaker because he is believed to cause earthquakes. Poseidon is an enemy of Odysseus.
20 Gods and Goddesses (The Immortals) Zeus – the most powerful god, whose home is on Olympus
21 The Bad GirlsScylla – female monster with six serpent heads, each head having a triple row of fangs (thought to be a dangerous rock in the Strait of Messina)
22 The Bad GirlsCharybdis – female monster who sucks in water three times a day to form a deadly whirlpool (thought to be a real whirlpool in the Strait of Messina)
23 The Bad GirlsCirce – witch goddess who turns Odysseus’ men into swine (pigs)
24 The Bad GirlsSirens – sea nymphs whose beautiful and mysterious music lures sailors to steer their ships toward the rocks
25 The Bad GuysCyclops – aka Polyphemus – blinded by Odysseus; the son of the sea god Poseidon. Cyclopes are a race of brutish one-eyed giants who live solitary lives as shepherds, supposedly on the island of Sicily
26 Places in the OdysseyAeaea – home of witch-goddess Circe
27 Places in the OdysseyErebus – dark area of the underworld where the dead reside
28 Places in the OdysseyPhaeacia – island kingdom ruled by King Alcinous. The Phaeacians are shipbuilders and traders
29 Places in the OdysseyThrinakia – island where the sun god Helios keeps his cattle
30 Mortals in the OdysseyAlcinous – king of Phaeacia. Odysseus tells the story of his adventures to Alcinous’ courtCicones – people living on the southwestern coast of Thrace, who battled Odysseus and his men on their journey homeEurylochus – one of Odysseus’ loyal crew
31 Mortals in the OdysseyLotus Eaters – people who feed Odysseus’ men lotus plants to make them forget returning to IthacaTeiresias – famous blind prophet from the city of Thebes. Odysseus meets him in the Land of the Dead
32 Mortals in the Odyssey (In Ithaca) Antinous – one of Penelope’s leading suitors; an arrogant and mean young noble from IthacaEurymachus – suitor of Penelope
33 Mortals in the Odyssey (In Ithaca) Eumaeus – a swineherd (pig farmer), one of Odysseus’ loyal servantsEurycleia – Odysseus’ old nurse and Penelope’s servantEurynome – Penelope’s housekeeperPhiloeteus – cowherd; one of Odysseus’ loyal servants
34 Mortals in the Odyssey (In Ithaca) Penelope – Odysseus’ faithful wifeTelemachus – Odysseus’ son