Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change

2 Reading Quiz: Coates Ch. 3
Chapter Focus on Mutual Discovery 25 points per question: 1. How did Europeans describe the indigenous peoples that they met around the world? 2. What were indigenous impressions of the newcomers? 3. What does European focus on “heathenism” and “savagery” tell us about their own world? 4. What legacies of “First Contacts” are still visible?

3 Prepare for next class Debate on African Slave Trade: See details on ASULEARN Operative question: How did the slave trade change indigenous peoples, both in Africa and in the Americas? 1. Why did the Europeans enslave Africans? A. Economic reasons (argued by A-M) B. Racism and previous existence of slavery in Africa (argued by N-Z) 2. Did the Atlantic Slave trade change cultures in the Americas? A. Slavery changed cultures in the Americas to a great degree (argued by A-M) B. Slavery had little influence on cultures in the Americas (argued by N-Z)

4 A. Indigenous People in Latin America under Colonial Rule
What have we already learned and what do you know?

5 1. Sixteenth Century Death and Resistance
Flight and Resistance: Chief Hatuey Guahaba (Haiti), fled to eastern Cuba Encomienda tribute and Repartimiento Labor Systems 1536 Manco Inca besieged Cuzco 1541 Mixtec fortified Mixtón and Nochistlán in New Spain, besieged Guadalajara to protest the encomienda Spanish and Tlaxcaltec and Aztec soldiers recaptured towns 1564 Taki Onqoy movement in Huamanga, Peru Reche (Araucanian) resistance, ongoing until 1882 Demographic Collapse and numbers, implications

6 2. La Republica de Indios Separate nation, a hereditary tribute-paying caste Indian nobles Corruption by kurakas, caciques Why so divided? Conditions pitted ayllus against kurakas, ejidos against caciques Demands and agressions By late 16th century, native aristrocracy in full decline

7 3. Seventeenth Century: Ongoing Integration into Colonial Systems
Indigenous people drawn into social caste system and colonial legal framework Guaman Poma de Ayala: translator on visitas, 1,189-page letter to King Philip III 1600 Labor: haciendas, plantations, crafts, brickmaking, artisanship, textiles


9 Jesuit Missions

10 Military Resistance Reche (Araucanian) resistance
Indigenous Integration, urbanization, ongoing nonviolent resistance Counter one-sided exploitation by showing indigenous agency Long war against settlement in Brazil as Paulistas enslaved inland native people on missions Maranhão tribes united and federated in their war against Europeans Guaicurú tribes as far as Paraguay attacked settlements and missions

11 Hispanicized Cacique and Kuraka Familias
Some indigenous chiefs become wealthy Many functioned as go-betweens tribe and Spanish authorities Don Antonio de Hinojosa, who from was the Nahua governor of the municipality of Cuernavaca Vast majority of resistance was nonviolent

12 4. General Conditions and Resistance
Eighteenth Century Resistance Indigenous demographic recovery Creation of pan-indigenous identity Ongoing Araucanian war against Spanish hegemony in Chile Moysuti in Brazil Dominican mission burned, control entire western Brazilian savanna over 100 Andean uprisings due to labor in Silver mines

13 Andean Uprisings Colonial Crisis
1742 Juan Santos Atahualpa messianic insurrection in the central highlands 1780 to 1782: Insurrection of Tupac Amaru II Uprisings contribute to fear of creole elite Bolívar dealt first with the local bands of indigenous and fugitive slaves in 1821 Quito Bolívar reinforced decrees abolishing indigenous tribute and forced labor Wars for independence and indigenous roles, participation 

14 Sources: Global History Ch. 3
Impressions of different peoples and their cultures How did first contacts shape cultural changes? What results of these first contacts are still evident? (Coates: p. 91)

15 E. Indian Local Government
Most Indians lived in own towns, some pre-hispanic, others new as reductions  Alcalde, and regidor, elected every year, traditional chiefs by consensus  Drastic changes of traditional native political and social structures In Andes, Indian towns composed by neighborhoods or kinship gps (calpulli and ayllu) each w hereditary elders Vara (staff) of leadership in northern Andean tradition  Much Hispanicization (Cultural Mixture and Change) took place: dress, religion, tools, food Spanish barriers prevented complete Hispanicization Native communities fought to keep land, culture, speech, soc. org., dances, songs Cofradias, (religious brotherhood) collective identity & security 

16 E. Conclusions: Cultural Changes in Colonial Latin America
How did European expansion change native cultures? Conquest and Colonial imposition: heavy material damage, psychological injury Demographic Collapse from disease and Recovery One symptom of Indian social disorganization was widespread alcoholism Gradual Indigenous Integration into Colonial Structures and Society How did indigenous cultures change?

Download ppt "His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google