2Nuevo CancioneroSimilar to Chilean “Nueva Cancion”, Nuevo Cancionero emerged in the early sixties.The movement was inspired by the “folklore boom” of the 1960’s, a product of massive migrations from the provinces to Buenos Aires.It was also influenced by some of the ethnographic works of Atahualpa Yupanqui (Hector Roberto Chavero Aramburu) who, like Violeta Parra travelled the various regions of Argentina collecting music.
3“Manifiesto” and Philosophy In 1963 in Mendoza, a group of musicians composed of Mercedes Sosa, Armando Tejeda Gomez, Tito Francia and others got together and publically declared the “manifesto” of the Nuevo Cancionero movement.The manifesto praises popular music as evidence of the people’s creative spirit and seeks a unified “Argentine identity”, transcending the divisions between indigenous forms and European imports (folklore vs. tango)Cancionero often faced opposition from other folklorists, traditionalists and the bourgeoisie, and yet their philosophy would establish a continuous dialogue with other musical movements including “Rock Nacional”
4Proposalsla integración de la música popular en la diversidad de las expresiones regionales del país... La participación de la música típica popular y popular nativa en las demás artes populares... Rechaza a todo regionalismo cerrado... Se propone depurar de convencionalismos y tabúes tradicionalistas a ultranza, el patrimonio musical... Desechará... toda producción burda y subalterna que, con finalidad mercantil, intente encarecer tanto la inteligencia como la moral de nuestro pueblo... Buscará la comunicación, el diálogo y el intercambio con todos los artistas y movimientos similares del resto de América --Manifiesto del Nuevo Cancionero
5Atahualpa YupanquiOne of the most important folklorists in Argentine HistoryBorn in Pergamino, Buenos Aires in Family later moved to Tucuman in the Argentine pampa.Developed an interest in indigenous cultures. At 13 changed his name as an homage to two Quechua rulers.Began receiving musical instruction from a nearby priest who taught him his first “vidalias”.Later travelling with his family, encountered other regional musical forms. Began learning them and collecting them in earnest.
6Joined the Communist party in 1931, and was frequently imprisoned under Peron. In 1950 Yupanqui travelled to France invited to peform by Edith Piaf and Paul Eluard. Garnered international recognition.His music is generally considered a precursor to Nuevo Cancionero and is named in their manifesto as a primary influence, nevertheless Yupanqui continued to write and record music until his death in 1989.
7Mercedes SosaFounder and the most internationally recognized member of the Nuevo Cancionero movement.Born in Tucuman in Was first discovered upon winning a radio contest at 15 and was asked to return. Continuously suffered from stage fright.In 1957 moved to Mendoza and married fellow folk-singer Oscar Matus. The two had one son and established a literary/musical society with Armando Tejeda Gomez.In 1965 after her marriage failed, she moved to Buenos Aires and made her debut in the Cosquin folk festival, which launched her to stardom. Recorded her first album in 1962 and her second in 1965.
8In 1969, Sosa visited Chile and discovered the music of Violeta Parra and Victor Jara, she would later cover their songs on subsequent albums and would vocally support the canditature of Salvador Allende.Long affiliated with left wing Peronism and Communism, in 1979 fled to exile in Paris and Madrid following the detainment of herself and her audience at a concert in La Plata in The military held them in the same auditorium the whole night, forcing them to admit they had sung “prohibited songs”.
9Sosa returned to Argentina multiple times, in the face of the dictatorship. In 1982 she performed 13 sold out concerts at the Teatro Opera in Buenos Aires and integrated musicians and songs from multiple genres including Rock Nacional. (Performing several songs by Charly Garcia The concerts became a site of protest.According to Mariano Blejman: “Mercedes Sosa entendió que el rock argentino era parte del Nuevo Cancionero; y en años siguientes cantó también junto a Fito Páez Pero, curiosamente, el rock no fue mucho más allá de Mercedes Sosa. La amplia camada del Nuevo Cancionero no percudió la retórica del rock. “
10Quinteto TiempoFormed in 1969 in La Plata by childhood friends Alejandro Jáuregui y Eduardo Molina. Other members included Miguel Ángel Coloma and brother/sister Sara y Guillermo Masi. Group originally called “Quinteto Vocal Tiempo” in reference to the predominance of voice in their sound.Group became associated with the Nuevo Cancionero Movement in the late sixties. Performed at the Festival de Cosquin in 1969.Group was influential in spreading “cancionero” folklore to Central America.Went into exile in 1976 but continued touring and recording abroad. Still performing today (They visited Vancouver in and recorded ther Live in Canada album there.).
11Rock NacionalRock had existed in Argentina since its origins in the 50’s, however generally musicians played English Language hits.By 1967, rock music in Spanish began to take off, due to groups in Buenos Aires with moderate success such as Los Gatos Salvajes and Los Shakers (orig. from Uruguay)In the early seventies, multiple groups would form as spinoffs from earlier groups, (Almendra’s members would become Aquelarre, Pescado Rabioso and Color Humano, Charly Garcia would start multiple bands such as Sui Generis and Seru Giran) a practice that would define Argentine rock.
12During the dictatorship, rock “listening groups”, concerts (stadium/bars/cafes) and rock magazines (Expreso Imaginario) became alternative spaces for collective identification and opposition to the regime among youth.Admiral Massera, one of the members of the junta gave a famous speech in 1976 condemning rock music as “subversive” blaming it for leading youth to “convert themselves into a secret society” and “spurn vertical relationships for horizontal ones” eventually exchanging their “pacifism” for “the thrill of a terrorist faith”
13The regime mostly targeted concert gatherings (throwing tear gas bombs and rounding up concert-goers) pushing Rock into the underground for a time.While Rock Nacional hit a slump in 78 it eventually resurged, helped by the Falklands war.The Falklands War meant a radio silence on broadcasts from the English speaking world, including music. This meant radio space was freed up for bands from Argentina. At the same time it invigorated the band’s dedication to Spanish language music.
14Charly Garcia One of the main figures of the Rock Nacional movement. Founded three of the most popular bands of the seventies and early eighties: Sui Generis, La Maquina para Hacer Pajaritos and Seru GiranEach band’s music incorporated distinct sounds and styles. Sui Generis was mostly influenced by the Beatles but varied from “unplugged” sound to traditional rock. La Maquina tended towards symphonic rock, while Seru Giran was more political.After the return to democracy in 1983, Garcia became a solo artist whose music became more politically defiant.Garcia was also one of the few artists in the Rock movement who performed with musicians of other genres, including cancionero.
15Soda StereoConsidered the most significant and influential rock group in the Spanish speaking world.Group attained recognition across the hemisphere including Central America, Mexico, Spain and the United States.Formed in Buenos Aires in 1982, lineup consisted of three members: Gustavo Cerati (lead vocals, guitars), Héctor Bosio (bass), and Charly Alberti (drums).
16Soda’s early sound reflected influences from New Wave (The Police, Elvis Costello) although it eventually became heavier in the nineties.The group continued playing for fifteen years and released seven albums ’s Nada Personal and 1988’s Doble Vida are among the most critically acclaimed,Represented a paradigm shift in Argentine Rock, a movement towards globalization that occurred as a result of the democratic transition. The group also is primarily seen as a Pan-Latin phenomenon, relatable to Spanish speakers everywhere.