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English and Shakespeare

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1 English and Shakespeare
A Brief History English and Shakespeare

2 In the beginning . . . The people of Britain were made of many groups, including Angles Saxons Jutes Picts Scots Celts Rulers were clan chief

3 First conquers Rome Held power over the lower portions of England from around 30 BC to 350 AD When the empire collapsed, local control returned to the native nobility Clergy stayed, adding a Latin influence to the island Hadrian’s Wall

4 The Normans Battle of Hastings: October 14, 1066
Duke of Normandy (William I the Conqueror) King Harold of the Saxon’s defeated King Harold was killed during the battle William I became the first English King

5 More on the normans Normans are “Northmen Branch of Scandinavians
Normans controlled the northern regions of Europe Empire stretched from America and Iceland (Vikings) to Russia (Danes) to Italy and Sicily (Normans) This particular group of Normans came from Normandy, France. Normans were a more aggressive group of Scandinavians In 911 AD, William’s ancestors acquired Normandy from France. They intermarried with English Royalty William had some legitimate claim to the English throne

6 Medieval Era Feudalism – the government of the day
Three classes of society Nobility Clergy Serfs Lord – Owner of the land Vassal – a lower noble who was granted a portion of land in exchange for taxes, agriculture, military service, and loyalty Fief – the plot of land granted to a vassal Eilean Donan Castle

7 After Hastings Only about 10% of the people in England would have noticed the change Serfs were not affected Clergy were not affected Nobility was affected – Old English nobility under King Harold of the Saxons replaced with new French nobility under William I the Conqueror

8 Language after Hastings
Serfs spoke English (mix of Anglo-Saxon (Germanic), Celtic (Gaelic), and Latin) Clergy spoke Latin Nobility spoke French Earlier invaders of England attacked, pillaged, and left Normans invaded but did not destroy. They accepted a great deal of Anglo Saxon culture

9 Doomsday book First census taken of England in 1086
Purpose was to tax more effectively Result was that people were taxed more fairly Country of England prospered Doomsday Book

10 End of the Feudal Era Plague killed 1/3 of the population of Europe
Gunpowder Italian Renaissance

11 The Black Plague

12 Renaissance Period Italian Renaissance began in early 1400’s
Emphasized: literature, the arts, science, religion, politics, classics Began with an emphasis on reviving learning and studying Greek and Roman literature Split of Roman empire and fall of western Roman empire: Byzantium (Eastern Roman Capital became center of Roman learning Italian Renaissance happened when Muslims took over Constantinople (Byzantium) and renamed it Istanbul Orthodox Church fell from power, tool all manuscripts (including Greek philosophers) and fled. Until this reintroduction, only partial manuscripts existed

13 English Renaissance (1500 – 1660)
Began during reign of Henry VII Ended 1660 with end of Commonwealth Great Plague 1665 (Influenza) Great London Fire 1666 Henry VII

14 Monarchs of English Renaissance
Henry VII Henry VIII – Luther Reformation 1517, English Reformation 1534 Edward VI Mary Elizabeth I – Shakespeare starts writing James I – New Bible Charles I Oliver Cromwell – Monarchy dissolved and replaced with Commonwealth

15 Literary Aspects of Renaissance
Sonnets – Started with Italian Petrarch and Shakespeare Blank Verse – no rhyme scheme Pastoral Verse – about Sheppard and folk songs/stories Example – Spenser Drama Iconoclastic – about religion Popular – about people

16 William Shakespeare Born April 23, 1564
(Baptism Records say ) Holy Trinity Church – Stratford Upon Avon, Warwickshire Died April 23, 1616 William Shakespeare

17 Shakespeare’s works Two Narrative Poems (1593 & 1594)
154 Sonnets – all printed in 1609 37 Plays Rumored 38th Arthurian Legend play– Life of Merlin 36 plays published in the first folio Types of Plays: Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies

18 The First Folio

19 Globe Theater: open air theater where people either stood or paid more to sit in the stands. Scenery was minimal, People went to the play to listen to the words, not watch the movement. Female characters of the time had to be sown into their costumes. Female characters were played by young men whose voice had not begun to change

20 Plays at the Globe

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