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A Brief History.  The people of Britain were made of many groups, including  Angles  Saxons  Jutes  Picts  Scots  Celts  Rulers were clan chief.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History.  The people of Britain were made of many groups, including  Angles  Saxons  Jutes  Picts  Scots  Celts  Rulers were clan chief."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History

2  The people of Britain were made of many groups, including  Angles  Saxons  Jutes  Picts  Scots  Celts  Rulers were clan chief

3  Rome  Held power over the lower portions of England from around 30 BC to 350 AD  When the empire collapsed, local control returned to the native nobility  Clergy stayed, adding a Latin influence to the island Hadrian’s Wall

4  Battle of Hastings: October 14, 1066  Duke of Normandy (William I the Conqueror)  King Harold of the Saxon’s defeated  King Harold was killed during the battle  William I became the first English King

5  Normans are “Northmen  Branch of Scandinavians  Normans controlled the northern regions of Europe  Empire stretched from America and Iceland (Vikings) to Russia (Danes) to Italy and Sicily (Normans)  This particular group of Normans came from Normandy, France.  Normans were a more aggressive group of Scandinavians  In 911 AD, William’s ancestors acquired Normandy from France.  They intermarried with English Royalty  William had some legitimate claim to the English throne

6  Feudalism – the government of the day  Three classes of society  Nobility  Clergy  Serfs  Lord – Owner of the land  Vassal – a lower noble who was granted a portion of land in exchange for taxes, agriculture, military service, and loyalty  Fief – the plot of land granted to a vassal Eilean Donan Castle

7  Only about 10% of the people in England would have noticed the change  Serfs were not affected  Clergy were not affected  Nobility was affected – Old English nobility under King Harold of the Saxons replaced with new French nobility under William I the Conqueror

8  Serfs spoke English (mix of Anglo-Saxon (Germanic), Celtic (Gaelic), and Latin)  Clergy spoke Latin  Nobility spoke French  Earlier invaders of England attacked, pillaged, and left  Normans invaded but did not destroy. They accepted a great deal of Anglo Saxon culture

9  First census taken of England in 1086  Purpose was to tax more effectively  Result was that people were taxed more fairly  Country of England prospered Doomsday Book

10  Plague killed 1/3 of the population of Europe  Gunpowder  Italian Renaissance

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12  Italian Renaissance began in early 1400’s  Emphasized: literature, the arts, science, religion, politics, classics  Began with an emphasis on reviving learning and studying Greek and Roman literature  Split of Roman empire and fall of western Roman empire:  Byzantium (Eastern Roman Capital became center of Roman learning  Italian Renaissance happened when Muslims took over Constantinople (Byzantium) and renamed it Istanbul  Orthodox Church fell from power, tool all manuscripts (including Greek philosophers) and fled.  Until this reintroduction, only partial manuscripts existed

13  Began during reign of Henry VII  Ended 1660 with end of Commonwealth  Great Plague 1665 (Influenza)  Great London Fire 1666 Henry VII

14  Henry VII  Henry VIII – Luther Reformation 1517, English Reformation 1534  Edward VI  Mary  Elizabeth I – Shakespeare starts writing  James I – New Bible  Charles I  Oliver Cromwell – Monarchy dissolved and replaced with Commonwealth

15  Sonnets – Started with Italian Petrarch and Shakespeare  Blank Verse – no rhyme scheme  Pastoral Verse – about Sheppard and folk songs/stories  Example – Spenser  Drama  Iconoclastic – about religion  Popular – about people

16  Born April 23, 1564  (Baptism Records say )  Holy Trinity Church – Stratford Upon Avon, Warwickshire  Died April 23, 1616 William Shakespeare

17  Two Narrative Poems (1593 & 1594)  154 Sonnets – all printed in 1609  37 Plays  Rumored 38 th Arthurian Legend play– Life of Merlin  36 plays published in the first folio  Types of Plays: Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies

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19  open air theater where people either stood or paid more to sit in the stands.  Scenery was minimal,  People went to the play to listen to the words, not watch the movement.  Female characters of the time had to be sown into their costumes.  Female characters were played by young men whose voice had not begun to change

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