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The National Assembly & The Tennis Court Oath

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0 Meeting of the Estates GeneralMay 1789
By McKenna Bonkowski Image: This image shows the three estates and what kinds of people were in each estate. Meeting of the Estates GeneralMay 1789 Summary: During the time of the Old Regime, France was divided into 3 estates. The first estate was made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church, and they owned 10% of the land in France. They also provided education to poor and contributed 2% of their income to the government. The second estate was made up of rich nobles, and they owned 20% of the land in France, even though they made up only 2% of the population. The third estate was made up of about 98% of the French population. In May, 1789 France went bankrupt because of King Louis XVL and his family. He then had to call a meeting with a representative from each estate called the Estates General. Each estate got one vote at the meeting to approve the tax reform. Explanation: The clergy and nobility outvoted the third estate, which is what King Louis XVL expected. Then a third estate man named Bourgeoisie called a meeting to show that they were unhappy with the system, which led to a revolution to change it. He was inspired by ideas of the Enlightenment.

1 The National Assembly & The Tennis Court Oath
Summary: In 1789, the 1st & 2nd estates clashed against the 3rd estate due to the unequal levels of power. This caused them to create their own group called the National Assembly. Upon being locked out of the meeting, the new National Assembly flooded the kings tennis court and unless the other estates adopted a constitution for the people, they would not leave. Explanation: As often happens at some point to a country with a monarchy, the citizens of France noticed the inequality of powers within the French government. With this act of the Third Estate crowding in the Jeu de Paume, or the tennis court, and declaring themselves the National Assembly, they created a problem for the other branches that could only be solved on their terms. This event was symbolic because it was the people of France standing up to the monarchy in the kings own palace. Picture: The picture shows the Third Estate flooding the kings tennis court and demanding a written constitution for the people. By Caitlyn & Peter

2 #3: Storming of the Bastille
Zach Gottesman & Ryland Scarth Summary: •The Bastille was a fort and prison in paris •King Louis XVI had swiss guards stationed at Bastille •Citizens believed King Louis XVI was preparing to massacre french citizens •Citizens took control of the Bastille for it’s gunpowder in a battle on the night of July 14th 1790 Explanation: People for the first time were violently standing up to the King’s absolute monarchy. This lead the way for the remainder of the french revolution. July 14th is still celebrated as a national holiday since this day started the change to a free country. Image: This is a picture of a prison called the Bastille. In front of the Bastille is a rioting crowd. The crowd is trying to get into a prison for gunpowder. Meanwhile the swiss guards are trying to stop the crowd.

3 Declaration of Rights of Man Issued August 27th, 1789
Summary: Natural Assembly adopted this statement of Revolutionary Ideas. Stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in Rights” The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights were liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. Did NOT apply to women Explanation: Took Enlightenment ideas and put them into action in France. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” was a main slogan of the French Revolution. The people of France wanted to have equality but France was stricken by fear and controversy making this difficult. The Middle Class was the main advocate of the Revolution and wanted Change. They were often part of the 3rd estate. The Declaration was a document that may have set a precedent for the US Declaration of independence. Image: In the image, women are chained to this declaration to show how it only applied to men. Also this image shows the main ideas of the Declaration and how it changed France and set precedents for the future. By: Zane Feldman-Isaksen, Xander Torreso, And Hector Torres

4 “Great Fear”(July-August 1789) & Women's March on Versailles (Oct
Summary: With the beginning of the French Revolution, rumors said, among other things, that outlaws were being hired by the nobles to terrorize the peasants, and that the nobles were conspiring together to overthrow the 3rd Estate. The peasants, panicked and unrested because of the grain shortage, started rebelling - as did the towns’ people. A wave of general panic, called the Great Fear, or la Grande Peur, swept through France. In October 1789, a little bit after the Great Fear, thousands of women from Paris marched to Versailles with knives and other weapons, rioting against the high price of bread. They forced the king, queen, and their entourage, to leave Versailles and walk back with them the 12 miles to Paris. This became known as the Women’s March on Versailles. By Valentine and Magali Explanation: The Great Fear showed a rise of tension between the French nobles and the 3rd Estate. It displayed the willingness of the 3rd Estate to use violence and fight for more rights and to protect what little they had.The Women’s March marked a change of power and the reforms about to happen in France. The riot was a turning point in the relationship between the king and the people; the king and his family for once walked amongst and with the common people; likewise, the after this event monarchy was never the same. Image: On October 5th, 1789 around 6000 women marched under a grey, rainy sky, with all the weapons they could find. They spent a night at the Palace of Versailles in a rage over the raise of bread prices because of the grain shortage (caused by the king’s negligence); and then forced the king to march back to Paris. This illustration (by unknown drawer) shows their march to Versailles.

5 King Louis XVI & Family Captured Fleeing France
Summary: After Versailles had been attacked by an angry mob the king became emotionally paralyzed and began to promise things to his people that he couldn’t keep. He then tried to escape from the capital which failed miserably. He was then captured and brought back to Paris where he was no longer wanted nor trusted as a ruler. Explanation: King Louis XVI, fled his country (June 21, 1791)and his promises to the people to ask for help from other Absolute Monarchs because people were trying to overthrow him. He wanted everything to revolve around himself, which was something that angered the citizens of France. It was all a matter of time until his power was completely taken away and he was executed. This picture shows KIng Louis XVI fleeing France with his family on June 21st, 1791. Estefany and Margot

6 France at war with Austria and Prussia 1792
Summary: In 1792 the French Revolution was wrapping up and the social structure was feeling the full effects of the newly-overthrown monarchy. France was in a state of unrest and the neighboring countries of Austria and Prussia (both monarchies) feared that the uprisings would spread and their monarchies would be overthrown as well. In order to quell their concerns, Austria suggested that King Louis XVI be put back in power. When French revolutionaries heard this suggestion, they declared war on Austria. Later, Prussia joined Austria in the fight against France. The French Citizen Army fought, and eventually defeated, both Austria and Prussia. Explanation: The French Citizen Army was created spontaneously after the ousting of Louis XVI. Their ultimate goal was to spread the citizens’ revolution of France all throughout Europe. This threatened many monarchies, such as those of Austria and Prussia. The French Citizen Army fought for what they believed in and, against all odds, came out victorious over two much stronger national armies. Image: This image is when the french army pulled through to defeat Austria and Prussia in Valmy, a city 100 miles away from Paris. By. Adam Powers and Teddy Hayden

7 Legislative Assembly Splits into Factions
Summary: During France’s war in September of 1791, the National Assembly made a new constitution which gave its power to create laws and to approve or prevent any war that the king declared, to the Legislative Assembly. The previous issues of the country still existed even with the new assembly, causing the assembly to break into three general factions: Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives. The Radicals sat on the left side of the hall and didn’t agree with the idea of monarchy, wanting big changes throughout the government. Conservatives were the opposite of the Radicals in all of their ideas and beliefs. Moderates wanted a few changes in government, but not as much as the Radicals. The image shows the three factions that the Legislative Assembly was split into: the Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives. Explanation: The Legislative Assembly, the lawmaking body, split into factions with people having opinions on different topics. They were capable of speaking their different opinions, representing people that had similar beliefs as them. The idea of left and right side of a government was derived from this split of the Legislative Assembly. By Leah Jun and Miles Twomey

8 King Louis XVI Guillotined
Summary: When Louis XVI took over the throne there were many financial problems he had to deal with, but his ways of solving them didn’t improve anything. The 2nd estate and 3rd estate began to protest against the king’s power and wanted a republic. These people were part of the Jacobin group. Jean Paul Marat and Georges Danton were both leaders of groups like these and wanted to get rid of “France’s enemies” who hated the poor people, which included the king. The guillotine was created. Then since people had the right to vote, male citizens voted on whether or not to sentence King XVI to death for treason, it went through and he was guillotined. He was tried for treason of working with monarchs from Persia and Austria to stop the revolution. People wanted to keep the king, but have him have less power, but that didn’t seem to work, so they got rid of him altogether. He was guillotined, which got rid of the ruling of a monarch. Explanation When king Louis became king it was a very bad time. There were a ton of money problems going around. When Louis was sentence to the guillotined it was the first step to a major change in the government system and ways of ruling. The town cut the head of of king Louis which got rid of their original form of government. This image shows the execution of King Louis XVI. by Jack, Christian, and Aisling

9 Robespierre Leads Committee of Public Safety July 1793 to July 1794
Summary: Robespierre wanted to take away France’s past of monarchy. He became leader of the Committee of Public Safety and he decided who was the enemies of the Republic, but he turned out to be a dictator and his rule was known as the Reign of Terror. During his time of ruling 40,000 people were killed, 85% were peasants or middle class. Most people who challenged his rule were people who previously part of the revolution and didn’t believe in hisrevolutionary ideas. The Reign of Terror ended in July 1794 when Robespierre was killed by the orders of the National Convention. Explanation: Maximilien Robespierre was very influential when it comes to how he ran the government. This is where it comes to the idea of people learning from others mistakes. In 1975 after Robespierre was executed, moderate leaders in the National Convention decided that they wanted to involve the upper middle class more and let them have the most power, rather than one person. This set precedents for nations to come by showing how poor decisions can lead to rebellion. Image: This cartoon shows Maximilien Robespierre’s head being shown off to the people after being executed in This was a great achievement for the people, because they had won their freedom back. By: Maya and Katie

10 The Reign of Terror Ends
Sept July 1794 Summary: The committee of public safety kills people for being enemies of the revolution 40,000 people killed in 15 months first victim was Marie Antoinette separated from children, put in prison she lead a parade of prominent/not prominent citizens to their deaths Guillotine was an apparatus used for carrying out execution/beheading leader of committee of public safety and last victim of the guillotine was Robespierre Power went to the Directory Explanation: The main purpose was to get rid of all the people who didn’t want/like the revolution France went from a dictatorship to a republic It showed people the effect of dictatorship If influenced a future where people have equal rights and say By Claire and Raimundo

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