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Debt from Wars Debt from King’s extravagance Interest payments ½ tax revenue Tax structure problems Change necessary soon.

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Presentation on theme: "Debt from Wars Debt from King’s extravagance Interest payments ½ tax revenue Tax structure problems Change necessary soon."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Debt from Wars Debt from King’s extravagance Interest payments ½ tax revenue Tax structure problems Change necessary soon

3 Last called in 1614 Legislative body in an Absolute Monarchy Meeting at Versailles’ palace Each Estate gets one vote May 5 th, 1789

4 Third Estate won’t cooperate; knows result Meets in Tennis Court King offers two votes to Third Estate Third rejects King’s offer King closes the Estates General to the 3 rd Estate June 17 th, 1789

5 June 20 th, 1789 Three Estates meet Form National Assembly All Three Estates represented Question format of Assembly

6 National Assembly vows to make change Vow taken in Tennis Court Will not disband until Constitution is created

7 King’s Prison in downtown Paris Symbol of King’s power and control Crowds of 3 rd Estate members attack Free prisoners and gain weapons

8 Rumors of violence against peasants Untrue Rumors Violence caused against Manor houses

9 Old Order is Gone 1789 Based off of the American Declaration of Independence Incorporated ideas from Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau for freedom No equality for women

10 King refused to accept reform and the Declaration of Rights National Assembly moved to Paris October 1789, thousands of women march to the King’s palace in Versailles King announces that he will come to Paris to show support for the National Assembly

11 The French Catholic church was under government control turning the clergy in to elected salaried officials Passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790 Created a deep disagreement between the Church and the Revolution Many clergy refused to accept it. It took all church land and sold it to the highest bidder Pope Pius VI condemns this bill and it creates two churches: one loyal to the state and one to the Pope

12 Unicameral Legislature Divided between Royalists and Radicals National Assembly created a constitution of the people in 1791 Guaranteed the basic rights of the People and limited the monarchy Middle Class gained power First and Third Estates were unhappy because they were losing power

13 Nobles who fled to Austria The royalty of Austria and other European countries were worried that their rule would be challenged by the Revolution Hoped to restore Louis XVI to power in stead of the Revolution

14 1792 Paris crowds attacked king’s palace King fled to legislators for help Legislators threw Royals in jail instead of helping them Mobs of Paris killed Nobles and Priests New Constitution written which allowed all men the right to vote

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16 French (in flux) went to war against Austria, Prussia and Silesia (Monarchies) In Sept 1792, French Army won the conflict Soldiers were subjected to poor conditions Victory boosted their spirits

17 Met from and most members were bourgeoisie Wrote the first Democratic Constitution Adopted a new calendar: = day one of year one. Rename the months of the year. Redefine the borders of France for natural boundries

18 Louis was executed in January of 1793 Accused of crimes against the liberty of the nation Use a box of letters found to accuse him; the letters were from foreign monarchs. In the letters he pleads for help and badmouths the Revolutionary leaders. The Crowds rejoice

19 National Convention forms the Committee of Public Safety to direct the war effort Adopt conscription: Draft all men between for military service (2 million men) Skilled with resources were prized. Jacobins control the committee led by Maximilien Robespierre and extreme radical They support the Sans Coulottes

20 July July ,000 French people are guillotined (111 per day) Enemies of the Revolution were tried and executed It’s like a witch hunt

21 Universal male suffrage goes away; only property owners can now vote. Convention writes a new constitution which creates the Directory (5 directors/bicameral legislature)

22 Inept leadership Corrupt Leadership Created many enemies such as the Sans Culottes Little effort to fix the close the gap between rich and poor

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24 Napoleon overthrows the directory in 1799 Forms a dictatorship Makes a new constitution

25 Executive branch is made of three consuls Napoleon names himself as First Consul, a Roman idea Bicameral Legislature Created Secondary Schools called Lycee, Universal Education Created the Bank of France Forced everyone to pay taxes

26 Takes the Crown from the Pope and places it on his own head, symbolizing his ability to crown himself not needing the church to do it. 1802

27 Had a new code written Made the State more important than the individuals Based on Enlightenment Idea: such as equality of all citizens, religious toleration Limited freedom of speech and press Women’s rights were also limited French law was made clear and consistant Males were given more power in their household over their wives and families

28 Acknowledged Catholicism was the religion of the majority of French People Affirmed the religious toleration of others Retained the right to name all bishops who had sworn alliance with the state. Eliminated the Civil Constitution of the Clergy Pope and Napoleon hug

29 The battle happened in October 1805 British Admiral Nelson defeated the French Navy Off the southern coast of Spain Removed the possibility of the French invasion of Britain

30 France banned trade with Great Britain Made the countries which they had beaten, not trade with Britain either Britain said that any ship on it’s way to Europe had to stop in Britain and pay a tax. British Navy maintained control of the seas Napoleon was trying to destroy the British system

31 Russia begins to trade with Britain and this made Napoleon angry. He invaded Russia They retreated and used a “scorched earth” policy to stop the French The 600,000 soldiers for France were hungry and cold, 400,000 died and 200,000 marched back to France

32 Upon his return from Russia, he was exiled and replaced by Louis XVIII. He was sent to a small island off the coast of Italy named Elba After being rescued by the French Army he led them into battle

33 Great Britain, Netherlands and Prussia meet the French Army in Waterloo, Belgium June 1815 After the battle, Napoleon was placed under house arrest

34 He was placed here under house arrest Located in the middle of the South Atlantic, Napoleon dies here in 1821

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36 The Kings, Princes and Diplomats gather for a Peace Conference in Vienna, Austria Sept to June 1815

37 Restoration: The action of restoring the Monarchies to the condition they had been in before the French Revolution Reparation: compensation for the expenses incurred during the French Revolution Balance of Power: No country should ever again dominate Continental Europe.

38 Neutral territories surrounded the country of France This was to protect the Monarchies from Democratic reforms of the French people. They didn’t want those ideas in their countries. Examples of these countries were: Austrian Netherlands, Dutch Netherlands, German Confederation, Switzerland, Sardinia

39 Reactionaries: People who opposed change and want to return the Government to the format it was in earlier times. These were the Nobles. Liberalism: Believe in the ideas of the Enlightenment and the placed the rights of the individual above those of the State. Approved of the democratic reforms of the French Revolution. These are the Middle class. They support the ideals of free speech and press.

40 Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia join the Quadruple Alliance The Holy Alliance was Russia and Netherlands, Austria, Prussia. France joins the Quadruple Alliance Why: The alliance agreement agreed to discuss the security of Europe.

41 The Meetings of the Alliances were called the Concert of Europe and helped European countries avoid conflicts like the Napoleonic Wars Metternich achieved his political goals in opposing Liberalism and Nationalism as well as defending the Absolute Monarchies of Europe

42 The idea of the people controlling their countries and not the Kings was not eliminated by the Metternich System In Germany, students rose up against the government In Spain, the Absolute Monarch was forced to accept a constitution In Greece the people won their independence from Turkey in 1829 The ideas of the French Revolution lived on!


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