Presentation on theme: "Postwar tensions at home and abroad 1945-1960: the early years of the cold war and civil rights."— Presentation transcript:
postwar tensions at home and abroad 1945-1960: the early years of the cold war and civil rights
Harry Truman 1945-1953 Became president in 1945 after FDR died Made decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan Reelected in 1948
Causes of economic growth Pent up consumer demand after the war GI Bill- assistance with college tuition, home loans, and unemployment for veterans. Baby Boom- population boom after WWII. Growth of suburbs (Levittown) Rise of Sunbelt Continued spending on military
Fair deal and civil rights Fair Deal- Truman’s economic program that was an extension of FDR’s New Deal. It proposed national healthcare but was defeated. Dixiecrats- Southern Democrats who didn’t like Truman’s civil rights emphasis. Strom Thurmond- Dixiecrats presidential candidate. He was Governor of South Carolina and later Senator.
22 nd Amendment- limits presidency to two terms Desegregation- end segregation in American life. Jackie Robinson- first African American to play major league baseball
Latino civil rights Hector P. Garcia- WWII veteran, doctor, civil rights advocate GI Forum- Hispanic civil rights and veteran’s organization founded by Dr. Garcia. Longoria Incident- Felix Longoria was a Mexican- American WWII hero killed in the Philippines. The undertaker in his hometown refused to provide funeral services because it may upset the whites. He was finally buried in Arlington National Cemetery with the help of then-Senator Lyndon Johnson.
Mendez v. Westminster 1947- federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools. The ruling held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional. Delgado v. Bastrop ISD 1948- ended the segregation of Mexican- American children in Texas.
Hernandez v. Texas (1954) Important Supreme Court decision that stated Mexican-Americans have equal protection under the 14 th Amendment. First case argued before the Supreme Court by Latinos. Argued case two weeks before Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
The cold war Cold War- a conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. It would dominate global affairs and US foreign policy from 1945-1991.
Truman Doctrine- sending economic and military support to countries resisting communist takeover. Marshall Plan- postwar economic aid to Europe. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed in 1949 and pledged military support to one another in case any member was attacked.
Containment- a policy proposed by American diplomat George Keenan in 1946 means preventing an extension of communist rule to other countries. Satellite nations- Eastern European countries dominated by the Soviet Union. Iron Curtain- a quote from a Churchill speech that came to stand for the division in Europe. United Nations- organization created in 1945. Representatives from member nations meet to promote peace.
Berlin airlift British, French, and Americans wanted to reunify Germany. Soviet Union did not want to. They blocked roads and railways to West Berlin. No food could reach the 2.1 million residents.
American and British officials started to fly food and supplies into West Berlin. For 327 days over 277,000 flights brought 2.3 million tons of supplies. The Soviet Union ended the blockade in May 1949
china Nationalists: Chaing Kai-shekCommunists: Mao Zedong
Civil war erupted in China as Nationalists and Communists fight for control. US supported the Nationalists, giving military equipment and supplies but not committing troops. Corruption and abusive practices pushed the peasants to the Communist side. Chaing and his government fled to the island of Taiwan while the communists took control of mainland China.
The korean war When WWII ended Japanese north of the 38 th parallel surrendered to the Soviets while those south of the 38 th parallel surrendered to the US. Syngman Rhee led South Korea and Kim Il Sung led North Korea. On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea, with support from the Soviets, starting the Korean War. With the support of the UN, troops were sent to aid S. Korea, 90% of which were American.
Douglas MacArthur led an attack that pushed the N. Koreans almost to China. Macarthur wanted to invade China. He publicly criticized the president and was fired by Truman as a result. China aided N. Korea with 300,000 troops and pushed UN forces out of the north. In 1951 there was a cease- fire and the war ended in 1953.
The cold war at home 2 nd Red Scare- Anti- communist hysteria gripped the US in the late 1940s and early 1950s The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)- investigated Communist influence. They gained fame when they investigated the film industry in 1947. Alger Hiss- a former State Department official accused of spying for the Soviets. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg- accused of being spies who passed on secrets that enabled Soviet scientists to create an atomic bomb.
Joe McCarthy was a republican Senator who charged that Communists were taking over the government. These attacks on suspected communists became known as McCarthyism. Army-McCarthy Hearings- this was McCarthy’s downfall as he made accusations against the US Army. His bullying of witnesses on national TV cost him public support.
Warsaw Pact- Military agreement between the Soviet Union and seven other nations in response to NATO. Dwight D. Eisenhower- WWII General who became president (1953-1961).
Domino Theory- If one SE Asian countries becomes communist, they all will. Arms Race- competition for more weapons. Space Race- competition to explore space. Sputnik- first satellite was launched by Soviets in 1957. Nation building- financial support in exchange for alliances Shah of Iran- abusive leader of Iran supported by the US. OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Fidel Castro- a communist, took control of Cuba in 1959 and received aid from the Soviets.
Nikita Khrushchev- became leader of the Soviet Union in 1953 when Stalin died. U-2 Incident- US spy plane shot down over Soviet air space. Tension increased between the two nations.
Vietnam was trying to become independent under communist Ho Chi Minh. France did not want to give up the colony. Geneva Accord- 1954 agreement to divide Vietnam until 1956 elections that never took place.