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Chapters 19 and 20.  I can… Explain the Causes of World War II.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 19 and 20.  I can… Explain the Causes of World War II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 19 and 20

2  I can… Explain the Causes of World War II

3  The Rise of Dictators Aggressive nationalism; nation > the individual Strongly anticommunist (Stalin: USSR leader) Benito Mussolini  Dictatorship in Italy by 1922 Adolf Hitler  Nazi Party  Belief in blonde, blue-eyed Germans as the “master race”, Aryans; needed to expand their territory Japan: militaristic dictatorship

4  America Turns to Neutrality Nye Committee  Arms manufacturers tricked the U.S. into WWI for $  Turned many Americans toward isolationism Neutrality Act of 1935  Illegal to sell arms to any country at war  Anti-Comintern Pact: Japan, Germany Italy (Axis Powers) Roosevelt and Internationalism  Wanted to preserve peace through internationalism

5  “Peace in Our Time” European leaders wanted to buy peace by giving into Hitler’s demands Austrian Anschluss  “Unification” of Austria & Germany after German threats Munich Crisis and Appeasement  German claims to Czechoslovakia  Appeasement: Britain and France agreed to achieve peace by giving concessions to Germany

6  “Peace in Our Time” Invasion of Poland; Appeasement had failed Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact  Germany and USSR agreement  Motives on each side  The War Begins: September 3 rd, 1939 Maginot Line: caused invasion of other countries “Miracle at Dunkirk”  Britain Remains Defiant Held off Germans through air battle, “Battle of Britain”

7  Nazi Persecution of the Jews  Belief that all Jews were evil, regardless Catastrophe that killed 6 million European Jews Nuremberg Laws  Restricted Jewish citizenship, marriage and working rights Jewish Refugees Try to Flee  1933-1939: 350,000 Jews fled Germany  Factors limited Jewish immigration to the U.S.

8  The Final Solution Wannsee Conference: 1942, Nazi leaders meet to discuss the “final solution of the Jewish question” Concentration Camps  Healthy individuals would work as slave laborers until they died Extermination Camps  Elderly, infirm, and young children executed in mass gas chambers  Jewish culture had been obliterated in a few years

9  FDR Supports England Neutrality Act of 1939  Cash to buy weapons & carry on their own ships  Isolationist Debate Range of opinion in the U.S. Reelection of FDR in 1940  Edging Toward War Lend-Lease Act Hemispheric Defense Zone The Atlantic Charter

10  Japan Attacks the United States American Embargoes Japan  Export Control Act: restricted “strategic materials” to other nations Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor  December 7 th, 1941  Killed 2,403 Americans  U.S. declared war on Japan on December 8 th Germany Declares War  Hitler greatly underestimated the strength of the U.S.  Allies: Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S.

11  I can… Explain numerous home front activities that supported the war effort Trace the United States strategy in World War II Evaluate the contributions made by women, minorities, and immigrants in World War II

12  Converting the Economy U.S. began mobilizing before we entered the war 2X more productive than Germany, 5X Japan Cost-plus contracts  Expensive, but provided a lot of war materials quickly  American Industry Gets the Job Done Automobile factories  trucks, jeeps, and tanks War Production Board  Set priorities and distribution of materials and supplies

13  Building an Army Selective Service Training Act (1940) Went through basic training quickly Segregated Army  “Double V” Campaign  Tuskegee Airmen Women Join the Armed Forces  Clerical, administrative, & nursing positions Not well trained, but they performed well in battle

14  Holding the Line Against Japan The Fall of the Philippines  Bataan Death March The Doolittle Raid  Use of B-25 bombers to hit Japan from a long distance The Battle of Midway  A turning point in the war; devastated Japanese advance in the Pacific

15  Turning Back the German Army North Africa The Battle of the Atlantic  Use of new technology helped the Allies overcome German submarines in the Atlantic Stalingrad  Hitler wanted to destroy the Soviets economy  ordered troops into the city of Stalingrad  Soviets stood their ground and the Germans surrendered  Turning point: put Germans on the defensive

16  Women and Minorities Gain Ground Women in Defense Plants: Rosie the Riveter  Record number of working women African Americans become employed in war work Bracero Program: Mexican farmworkers helped with labor shortage in the Southwest U.S.  A Nation on the Move Japanese American Relocation  People of Japanese ancestry on the west coast had to go to internment camps

17  Daily Life in Wartime America Wage and Price Controls  Office of Price Administration: regulated prices Rationing  Limiting the availability of products  Coupon books Victory Gardens & Scrap Drives  Produced more food; raw materials vital to war effort E Bonds  Loans to the government; helped pay for the war



20  Striking Back at the Third Reich Strategic Bombing of Germany Striking at the “Soft Underbelly”  Allies invaded Italy; September 1943: Italy surrenders  Landing in France Operation Overlord D-Day: invasion of Normandy, June 6 th, 1944  Some U.S. casualties & injuries, but it was a success  Driving the Japanese Back Large invasion to take back the Philippines Battle of the Leyte Gulf Kamikaze attacks by the Japanese

21  I can… Evaluate the decision to drop the atomic bomb Recognize the difference between a war hero and a war criminal

22  The Third Reich Collapses Battle of the Bulge  American troops defeated Germans in Belgium  Began making their way towards Germany V-E Day: war ends in Europe  Soviet troops and U.S. troops enter Germany  After unconditional surrender by Germany, May 8 th 1945 was V-E Day “Victory in Europe”

23  Japan Is Defeated Invasion of Iwo Jima & Okinawa Firebombing Devastates Japan Terms of Surrender  Japan would surrender if their emperor could stay in power Manhattan Project  Building of the atomic bomb Dropping the Bomb  Hiroshima & Nagasaki  August 15 th, 1945: V-J Day

24  Building a New World Creating the United Nations  International peacekeeping organization to prevent another world war U.S. gave aid to rebuild Europe to promote democracy and capitalism Putting the Enemy on Trial  International Military Tribunal  Nuremberg Trials: tried German leaders suspected of war crimes  Punished those responsible for the Holocaust  Wanted to create a better world

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