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Myth to Fall of an Empire.  Trojan hero Aeneas  During Trojan War, fled to Italy  His son founded city Alba Longa and became first king  Romulus and.

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Presentation on theme: "Myth to Fall of an Empire.  Trojan hero Aeneas  During Trojan War, fled to Italy  His son founded city Alba Longa and became first king  Romulus and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myth to Fall of an Empire

2  Trojan hero Aeneas  During Trojan War, fled to Italy  His son founded city Alba Longa and became first king  Romulus and Remus  Abandoned and raised by a she-wolf

3  Romulus and Remus fought and Remus was killed on April 21, 753 BC  The new city on Palatine Hill was named Rome after Romulus  Romulus first king established the Senate  Made up of wealthy powerful men

4  Rome ruled by series of kings, each more powerful  Created system that lasted more than 200 years  Many kings were Etruscan  Civilization from northern Italy  Created friction between the Etruscan nobility and Roman subjects  Last king – Tarquinius Superbus -( BC)  Nasty  Used violence to keep power  His son raped noble Roman woman Lucretia

5  After the rape, the Roman revolted against kings  The last straw in a series of mistreatment  500 BC the Romans successful in the revolt  Senate voted to abolish monarchy  Rome never again had a king

6  Relied on Senate  Established an unwritten constitution  Two groups of citizens  Plebeians  Patricians  Slaves not Roman citizens

7  Plebeians  Regular people  No rights or power  Patricians  Ruling class  All rights and power  Class was fixed by birth  Class you were born into is where you stayed  Wealth has no bearing

8  “The Struggle of the Orders”  Patricians  maintain their position  Plebeians  struggle to rise and get power  Patricians needed the plebs  Military, labor, production of food  494 BC establishment of tribunes  Plebeian selected to help protect rights of plebs.  Eventually 10 tribunes  366 BC – Plebs could be elected to consul  300 BC – Plebs held office in the Senate & in all levels of the priesthood

9  Continually expanded through war, conquest  312 BC –  Via Appia – first Roman road (still exists)  Rome to Capua  Aqua Appia – first aqueduct  290 BC – Rome has 150,000 in city; 1 million Roman Republic citizens  Most of Italy  272 BC – All of Italy  Expanded by fighting with Gaul (France), Carthage (Tunisia in Africa), Spain

10  206 BC – held control in Mediterranean  201 BC – controlled Italy, Africa, Spain, Greece  146 BC – into Asia Minor (Turkey, Holy Land)  Eventually into Germany and Britain  As Rome expanded out, turmoil expanded within  Civil wars

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13  100BC - 44BC  Last dictator of the Republic  God-like status which worried the patricians and Senate  Called Dictator for Life  Some gave him the title of Rex (King) which he denied  Fear continued to grow  February 15, 44 BC, Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony) tried twice to give him the crown as king  Both times refused, but appeared reluctant to NOT take it

14  March 18, Caesar was set to leave Rome and was expected to be named King of Roman provinces outside of Italy  Cassius Longinus – leader of conspiracy  Brutus – friend of Caesar  Plan was to assassinate Caesar in the Curia of Pompey’s Theatre where the Senate was to meet with him  Each member (60 in all) was to stab Caesar to show unity

15  Spurinna – seer (prophet)  “Beware the Ides of March”  On the morning of the 15 th, Caesar’s wife Calpurnia begs him not to meet the Senate because of nightmares  Agrees and tells Antony to dismiss the Senate  But he goes in the afternoon  On an agreed upon signal 60 senators surrounded Caesar and stabbed him to death  23 stab wounds

16  Civil war erupts  Over a period of time, Brutus and Cassius vs. Marc Antony and Caesar’s heir  Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianius (Octavian)  Eventually, all conspirators killed and realizing they are fighting a losing battle, Brutus and Cassius commit suicide  Civil war between Marc Antony and Octavian  Marc Antony involved with Cleopatra (last pharoah of Egypt)

17  When Antony realizes he can’t win, he falls on his sword (suicide)  Taken to Cleo and dies in her arms  Kills herself by allowing herself to be bitten by poisonous snakes (supposedly)  Octavian controls Egypt  27 BC, Octavian given title “Imperator” (Emperor)  Changes name to Caesar Augustus (“exalted one”)  Becomes Rome first Emperor


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