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D ECOLONIZATION AND THE C OLD W AR. D ECOLONIZATION.

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1 D ECOLONIZATION AND THE C OLD W AR

2 D ECOLONIZATION

3 I NDEPENDENCE OF A SIA AND A FRICA World War II led to end of European imperialism in India, Indochina, Africa, and Indonesia Called decolonization Nazi Germany and imperial Japan had discredited imperialistic beliefs Can’t fight for democracy in Europe and deny it to Africa and Asia… Most Europeans exhausted of warfare Not always bloodless though…

4 D ECOLONIZATION IN I NDIA First country to achieve independence in post-war period Independence movement started in late 19 th century Formed in 1885 Indian National Congress main organization dedicated to independence Mohandas Gandhi, leader of the Congress, used non- violence

5 D ECOLONIZATION IN I NDIA Non-violence Gandhi was a pacifist Used passive resistance where Indians passively suffered British beating and violence without fighting back Civil disobedience Disobey unjust British laws Salt March – protest British salt tax Also conducted fasts and refused to work for the British Indians jailed in ever-increasing numbers Cottage industries Boycott British-made cotton goods and buy goods made in India Rebuild India’s industries and raise living standards

6 D ECOLONIZATION IN I NDIA Indian hoped for independence after WWI but were denied Winston Churchill one of the opponents Gandhi refused to support British in WWII Many Indians still fought in WWII in Germany and Japan British leaders recognized they could no longer resist India given independence in 1947

7 D ECOLONIZATION IN I NDIA British delay independence because of fear of violence between Hindus and Muslims Muslin leaders led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah told British wanted separate Muslim state Independence given in 1947 and put into two nations – India and Pakistan India – Hindu; Pakistan – Muslim

8 D ECOLONIZATION IN I NDIA Because of large Muslim populations in east and west, Pakistan became divided Hindu India in the middle and over 1,000 miles Millions moved after independence granted Thousands killed in riots during mass migrations because of religious prejudices

9 D ECOLONIZATION IN S OUTHEAST A SIA Dutch ruled East Indies, Britain ruled Burma and Malay Peninsula, and France most of Indochina Nationalist feelings spread from India Japan kicked out Europeans and nationalist leaders expected full independence

10 D ECOLONIZATION IN S OUTHEAST A SIA Philippines US owned islands in Pacific Given independence in 1946 Burma and Malaysia Given independence from Great Britain in 1948

11 D ECOLONIZATION IN S OUTHEAST A SIA Indonesia Declared independence in 1945 but had to fight Dutch troops until 1949 when Netherlands finally recognized Indonesia independence Vietnam Guerillas, led by Ho Chi Minh, began war with French and won independence in 1954 Vietnam divided in two – Communist state in north and pro-western state in the south We will be returning to Vietnam…

12 T HE M IDDLE E AST AND N ORTH A FRICA Egypt Britain gave Egypt independence in 1922 British troops in Egypt to protect Suez Canal and King of Egypt a British puppet Gamel Nasser overthrew Egyptian King in 1953

13 T HE M IDDLE E AST AND N ORTH A FRICA Saudi Arabia became independent during inter-war period (between WWI and WWII) After WWII, France gave independence to Tunisia, Libya, Lebanon, and Syria

14 T HE M IDDLE E AST AND N ORTH A FRICA Algeria Over 1 million Frenchmen in Algeria Assumed Algeria would became a part of France 1954 – Algerian nationalists launched violent struggle for independence French army fought for almost 8 years Algeria gained independence in 1962, and French settlers fled the country

15 T HE M IDDLE E AST AND N ORTH A FRICA Palestine and Transjordan 1917 – British promised Jewish homeland in Palestine (Balfour Declaration) Many Arabs viewed Zionism (migration of Jews to Palestine) as a form of European imperialism Limited Jewish emigration to Palestine to prevent Arab uprising After Holocaust many Jews wanted to migrate to Palestine British feared end of colonial rule would lead to civil war Brought problem to UN

16 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Arab-Israeli Conflict Jewish immigration to Palestine had swelled during 1930s- 40s due to Nazi persecution Arabs opposed admitting more Jews 1948 – Britain gave up control of Palestine

17 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT UN decided to create two states – Israel (for Jews) and West Bank and Gaza Strip (for Arabs) Existence became (and still is) a central political issue in the Middle East

18 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Israel’s War for Independence 1948 – five neighboring Arab countries rejected Israel Launched an attack and were defeated Jordan seized the West Bank, Egypt took the Gaza Strip, and Israel took slices from each Many Palestinians fled and became refugees in neighboring Arab lands

19 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Suez Canal Crisis of 1956 Gamel Abdul Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and closed it to Israel Britain, France, and Israel invaded Egypt US and Soviet Union demanded they stop

20 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Six Day War 1967 – Israel defeated enemies in 6 days and acquired the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and Golan Heights Yom Kippur War (1973) Egypt and Syria launched surprised attack on Jewish holiday Israel repelled Arab forces and kept Sinai Peninsula from Egypt

21 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT OPEC and Oil 1970 – oil producing countries formed Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) During 1973 war with Israel, Persian Gulf countries refused to sell oil to Israel- friendly countries Higher oil prices led to greater wealth and influence for them

22 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Camp David Accords (1978) Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israel Prime Minister Menachim Begin visited President Carter in Camp David Agreed Israel would return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in exchange for peace Other Arab countries denounced agreement and broke off diplomatic relations with Egypt 1981 – Arab extremists assassinated President Sadat

23 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Israel and the Palestinians PLO 1964 – Palestinian Arabs formed Palestinian Liberation Organization Refused to recognize Israel and vowed to win back homeland Terrorism 1960s and 1970s PLO used terrorism as a weapon Some Palestinians felt it was the only way Hijacked planes, attacked an Israeli school, and murdered 11 Israeli athletes in 1972 Olympics in Munich

24 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Israel and the Palestinians War in Lebanon PLO first in Jordan and later moved to Lebanon 1975 – civil war between Lebanese Christians, Sunni Muslims, and Shi’ite Muslims 1976 – Syria invaded Lebanon 1978-1982 – Israeli army entered Lebanon to destroy PLO camps

25 A RAB -I SRAELI C ONFLICT Israel and the Palestinians Intifada (“Uprising”) West Bank and Gaza Strip taken in Six Day War had Palestinian populations 1987 – Palestinians who grew up under Israeli occupation started violent demonstrations Israel tired to contain protests without success Some Jews built own settlements in West Bank and Gaza Strip which was resented

26 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS Establishment of Palestinian Authority and talks on future statehood Middle East Peace Conference (1991) After first Gulf War, US pressured Arab and Israeli leaders to sit and talk Israel’s new Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin entered secret negotiations with PLO leader Yassir Arafat Reached Oslo Accords 1993 – Israel promised to give Palestinians control of West Bank and Gaza Strip PLO agreed to recognize Israel’s existence Israel also signed treaty with Jordan

27 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS Second Intifada Lack of progress led to another Palestinian uprising in 2001 Israel’s new Prime Minister Ariel Sharon attacked Arafat’s compound in response 2002 – started building the West Bank Barrier (wall separating West Bank from Israel) Following year Sharon announced dismantle all Israeli settlements in West Bank and Gaza Strip Israel left settlements in Gaza in 2005

28 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS Divisions among Palestinians PLO leader Yassir Arafat died in 2004 Led to split for who supported Fatah (Arafat’s political party) or more radical party Hamas Hamas still refused to recognize Israel’s right to exist Hamas considered a terrorist organization Hamas won popular election in Gaza in 2006 while Fatah remained in power in West Bank

29 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS New Attempts at Negotiations 2007 Israel Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas agreed to negotiate future control of Jerusalem, existence of Jewish settlements in West Bank, and rights of Palestinian refugees who left Israel

30 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS Israel Strikes Against Hezbollah and Hamas While negotiating with Fatah leaders, Israel faced rocket attacks from Hezbollah activists in Lebanon and Hamas in the Gaza Strip 2006 – Hezbollah fired rockets in Israel and kidnapped 2 Israeli soldiers Israel invaded Southern Lebanon to destroy Hezbollah military bases UN based resolution to end fighting and promised to disarm Hezbollah Israel withdrew but Hezbollah has refused to disarm

31 P ROGRESS IN A RAB -I SRAELI R ELATIONS 2008 – Israel launched air strikes and sent troops in Gaza Strip to halt rocket attacks Most world leaders recognized right to defend self but criticized severity Progress towards peace has been slow Security of Israel against terrorism, right of Palestinians to own state, and future status of Jerusalem all still unresolved

32 D ECOLONIZATION IN S UB -S AHARAN A FRICA Before WWII British and French had already educated some native Africans for self- government (Brits) and to absorb them into their country (France) Small educated elite became leaders of new nationalist movements

33 D ECOLONIZATION IN S UB -S AHARAN A FRICA Kwame Nkrumah In Gold Coast, followed Gandhi’s example. Won independence for Gold Coast in 1957 Named it Ghana after historic West African kingdom First black African colony to win independence Sub Sahara Africa followed Ghana’s example Some conflicts arose Some tribal groups attempted to secede from new nations Most part former African colonies became new nations without major wars.

34 C ONFLICTS IN P OST -C OLONIAL W ORLD

35 I NSTABILITY IN A FRICA Many newly independent nations became one-party states. Party that fought for independence became the only legal party Nationalist leaders sometimes assumed dictatorial powers Military leaders many times took charge Also had a major issue of tribalism Nations based on colonial instead of tribal boundaries Led to civil wars between tribes or tribes trying to split Africa states also struggling to improve agriculture, industry, build schools and hospitals, and raise standards of living

36 A PARTHEID IN S OUTH A FRICA 1948 – white minority of mostly Dutch-speaking Afrikaners (Boers) introduced apartheid – racial separation South Africans separated by race No intermarriage and lived in separate communities Many black Africans resisted it 1960 – several anti-apartheid demonstrators were killed by police in Sharpesville Massacre Soweto Uprising 1976 – riots spread through black townships

37 A PARTHEID IN S OUTH A FRICA Nelson Mandela was lead of anti-apartheid African National Congress Imprisoned in 1962 US and other western countries refused to do business with South Africa White South Africans elected F.W. de Klerk as President in 1989 Released Mandela and other anti-apartheid leaders A new constitution was written 1994 – held first election all races permitted to vote Nelson Mandela first black President

38 C ONFLICTS IN S. A SIA Tensions continued between Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan Disagreed over control of Kashmir, province north of India Shortly after independence, Mohandas Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist Death led to rioting and violence in India

39 C ONFLICTS IN S. A SIA 1947 – Jawaharla Nehru became India’s first Prime Minister Daughter Indira Gandhi followed him as India’s Prime Minster for 15 years First women to serve as head of state or country Both her and son Rajiv Gandhi later assassinated by political extremists

40 C ONFLICTS IN S. A SIA Pakistan consisted of East and West Pakistan 1971 – East Pakistan broke away to create Bangladesh Bitter fighting until India intervened on Bangladesh’s behalf Bangladesh still one of the world’s poorest countries

41 T HE C OLD W AR

42 O RIGINS OF THE C OLD W AR CategorySoviet UnionAmerican Democracy Political SystemOne political party, the Communists A multi-party democracy OrganizationsAll labor groups and other associations are run by the Communist Party Unions and other organizations openly negotiate with employers Economic SystemIndustries and farms are owned by the state; central planners determine the nation’s economic needs; limited private property; education and health care provided by the state Free enterprise system; private ownership of property; supply and demand determine prices; people meet their own needs with some limited government involvement ReligionReligion is discouragedFree exercise of religion Individual RightsSecret police arrest opponents; censorship; no free exercise of beliefs Freedom of the press and expression

43 C OLD W AR B EGINS IN E UROPE US and USSR world’s two superpowers US had economic power and atom bomb USSR had Red Army Each wanted to extend influence, causing the “Cold War” Two superpowers never confronted each other directly in warfare Dominated world events for next 45 years

44 C OLD W AR IN E UROPE Before end of WWII, Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill met at Yalta Conference in 1945 Plans for post war world Divide Germany into four zones of occupation Stalin promised free elections in E. Europe

45 C OLD W AR IN E UROPE Iron Curtain Stalin didn’t keep promise of free elections Soviet Army occupied E. Europe Wanted to control E. Europe as buffer zone Churchill said, “an Iron Curtain has descended on Eastern Europe” Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and later E. Germany all Soviet satellites Trade between E and W Europe cut off E. Europe forced to create Communist economies

46 G ROWING A MERICAN I NVOLVEMENT Western powers fearful Stalin was another Hitler US only country powerful enough to stop spread of Communism

47 G ROWING A MERICAN I NVOLVEMENT Containment 1947 – Britain withdrew troops from Greece, Communist rebels threaten Truman and US gave aid to them to prevent Communists from taking over Truman Doctrine and containment – US would not overturn Communism where it was but would take steps to prevent it from spreading any further

48 G ROWING A MERICAN I NVOLVEMENT Containment US also announced Marshall Plan Gave billions of dollars in aid to W. Europe to help rebuild war-torn economies Build future trading partners and help Europeans resist Communism

49 G ROWING A MERICAN I NVOLVEMENT Berlin Airlift and Division of Germany 1948 – Allies merged zones of occupation in Germany Stalin closed western highway and railroad links to Berlin (in E. Germany) Western allies started massive airlift to feed and supply the city Within a year, Stalin admitted defeat and lifted blockade

50 G ROWING A MERICAN I NVOLVEMENT Division of Germany 1949 – three Western zones of occupation merged into one, new, independent state – Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Stalin turned Soviet zone into German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

51 NATO AND W ARSAW P ACT 1949 – US, Canada, and 10 W. European countries formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Protect W. Europe from Communism aggression US pledged to defend W. Europe w/ nuclear weapons Soviets in 1955 with Warsaw Pact w/ E. European allies Hungary tried to drop out; Soviet forced moved in to stop uprising

52 H OW E ND OF WWII HELPED L EAD TO C OLD W AR Emergence of 2 superpowers Europe’s collapse led to two superpowers – US and USSR USSR had largest military but US had world’s most productive economy and weaponry Ideological Differences US wanted democracy, Soviets wanted Communism New Weapons Atomic bomb and other new weapons made warfare dangerous MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction “Cold War” safer than directly attacking Soviet Security Fears Fear of future attack after invasion in 1944 E. Europe buffer zone to USSR US leaders avoid Isolationism or Appeasement American leaders fearful of mistakes of past Reject appeasement and all Soviet demands Rise of Communism in Asia Japanese invasion of China weakened Chinese Nationalist Govt Communist Chinese leaders seized power

53 C OLD W AR IN A SIA - C HINA Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) defeated local warlords and united China in 1928 Became engaged in long strong with Chinese Communists (leader Mao Zedong) and Japanese invaders Mao and Communists retreated to northwestern China in Long March (1934-37)

54 C OLD W AR IN A SIA - C HINA 1937 – Japan invaded China Nationalists and Communists work together to fight Japanese 1945 – fighting between themselves again Soviets helped Communists achieve control of countryside 1949 – Mao and Communists drove Nationalists to Taiwan

55 C OMMUNIST C HINA All aspects of life under direct control of Communist Party Mao emphasized role of peasantry More suitable to Asia

56 C OMMUNIST CHINA Elimination of “Capitalist Class” Landowners, factory-owners, village leaders, and better-off peasants considered capitalist class Communists claimed they exploited others At least one million killed Re-education Communist beliefs became required learning in all universities and schools Newspapers and books had to promote Communism Even music and art done in direct supervision of govt Family Family authority replaced by authority of Communists Children taught to obey the State, not their parents Ancestor worship was forbidden Weakened father’s role traditional family leader

57 C OMMUNIST C HINA “Great Leap Forward” 1956 – Mao began forcing peasants into cooperative farms where families shared work and divided crops Merged into larger communes 1958 – Mao introduced the Five Year Plan Turn China into an industrial power Population used to build roads, dams, etc Poor planning + high cost = economic disaster China faced starvation and 30-50 million died

58 K OREAN W AR Western leaders feared Communism on the march after China Korea split like Germany with Communist North and non- Communist South 1950 – N. invaded S. Under UN resolution, US and others intervened Led by Douglas MacArthur, they invaded N. Korea and pushed them back to Chinese border China intervened MacArthur wanted to use nukes, Truman said no and removed MacArthur 1953 – compromise ended war leaving Korea dived the way it was before the war

59 C OMMUNISM IN C HINA Cultural Revolution 1962 – border disputes and Mao’s condemnation of reforms in USSR led to open disagreement between China and USSR Mao used this as a new bid for world leadership of Communist movement Mao concerned for loss of enthusiasm for Communist by party officials in China May have also wanted to cover up mistakes with Great Leap Forward Push China towards Communist ideal with the Cultural Revolution Little Red Book of Mao’s sayings served as blueprint

60 C OMMUNISM IN C HINA Cultural Revolution 1966 – Mao closed China’s universities and schools and invited 11 million students to gather in Beijing as Red Guards Hoped they would revitalize Chinese society Red Guard traveled through China attacking writers, doctors, professors, factory managers, and party officials for looking down on common people or abandoning Communist ideals

61 C OMMUNISM IN C HINA Cultural Revolution Scholars and professionals sent to work in the fields Artwork from dynastic China destroyed Mao’s opponents w/in the party removed or punished Many people imprisoned, tortured, and killed Chinese society became so disrupted by Red Guard, Mao had to use army to control them Cultural Revolution led to shortage of food and goods 1969 – Red Guard sent to help with farming; violence came to an end As many as 1 million people may have died

62 C OLD W AR AT I TS H EIGHT Nuclear Arms Race 1949 – USSR explored fist atomic bomb US and USSR also developed most destructive hydrogen bombs and missile to deliver them Soviets launched first man-made satellite Sputnik in 1957

63 C OLD W AR AT I TS H EIGHT Nuclear Arms Race US and USSR realized nuclear weapons too destructive to be used Instead, deterrents, preventing superpowers from attacking each other “Balance of Terror” forced them to look for other ways to compete Became involved in regional conflicts Some led to warfare on smaller scale

64 K HRUSHCHEV AND E. E UROPE 1953 – Stalin died Nikita Khrushchev emerged as next leader of USSR Condemned Stalin’s atrocities Freed many political prisoners Attempted to introduce changes into USSR Triggered unrest in E. Europe who were unhappy with communism

65 P ROBLEMS AND P ROTESTS IN E. E UROPE Poland 1956 – workers went on strike demanding greater freedom Khrushchev agreed to let Polish reformers handle own affairs if they remained Communist and continued to be loyal member of Warsaw Pact East Berlin Many East Germans fled to West through Berlin Khrushchev built wall to seal E and W Berlin in 1961 Berlin Wall became symbol of Cold War Hungary Students launched demonstrations for reform Unlike Poland, Hungary threatened to leave Warsaw Pact Soviet troops sent in 1956 and brutally crushed reform govt Czechoslovakia 1968 – after Czech leaders proclaimed a more liberal policy called “Communism with a Human Face”, Soviets sent tanks Czech leaders replaced with hard-line Communists

66 C OMMUNISM IN L ATIN A MERICA Widespread poverty and repression in Latin America led to spread of Communist beliefs 1959 – Fidel Castro overthrew ruling dictatorship in Cuba Castro promised democracy but nationalized businesses and killed opponents US broke off trade Cuba turned to USSR for help and became Communist state

67 C OMMUNISM IN L ATIN A MERICA 1961 – Cuban exiles trained by CIA invaded Cuba at Bay of Pigs and failed 1962 – US discovered Cuba secretly installing Soviet missiles with nuclear warheads Quick striking distance of US Cuban Missile Crisis President Kennedy ordered naval blockade of Cuba and threated to invade Khrushchev finally agreed to withdraw with pledge US would not invade Cuba Khrushchev’s failure contributed to removal from power in 1964

68 V IETNAM W AR Vietnam gain independence in 1954 and divided Ho Chi Minh created Communist N. Vietnam S. Vietnam refused to hold elected to reunify country because elections up north not free S. Vietnamese Communists called Viet Cong launched guerilla warfare in south US stepped in to stop Communism Domino Theory First just advisors but changed when US sent troops in 1964

69 V IETNAM W AR US used extensive bombing, large number of helicopters, and half a million troops Not enough to win 1968 Tet Offensive demonstrated strength of Viet Cong 1973 US troops withdrew from Vietnam 1975 S. Vietnam fell to N. Vietnam and reunited as communist

70 C AMBODIA (K AMPUCHEA ) Withdraw of US troops from Vietnam also led to collapse of govt in Cambodia 1975 – Cambodia Communists, known as Khmer Rouge, seized control Pol Pot, Khmer Rouge leader, carried out policy of genocide against city dwellers and opponents Khmer Rouge killed as many as 4 million Cambodians between 1975 and 1978 until finally overthrown by Vietnamese intervention

71 C OLD W AR ENDS

72 S OVIET S TAGNATION (1964-1982) After fall of Khrushchev, USSR fell in long period of stagnation (failure to advance) Govt central planners unable to predict people’s needs People had little incentive to work hard Farms failed to produce enough food Living standards fell; alcoholism and corruption grew “Command” economy unable to compete with market economy Communist Party members given special privileges

73 S OVIET S TAGNATION (1964-1982) Soviet leaders tried to ease cold war tensions with détente (cooling down) Collapsed when USSR sent troops to Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan in crush rebellions Dissidents like Natan Sharansky (founder of Refusenik Movement) imprisoned for demanding human rights or right to emigrate Released after 9 years in Soviet concentration camp

74 S OVIET S TAGNATION (1964-1982) In Afghanistan, Soviet troops engaged in long, drawn-out war Tied up lots of Soviet soldiers and led to many of their deaths

75 G ORBACHEV Y EARS (1985-1991) Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union in 1985 Brought reforms with: Glasnost “openness” to Russian society Restrictions on speech and press lifted Dissidents released from prison Restrictions on emigration lifted Congress of People’s Deputies created allowing Soviets to elect own representatives Elected Gorbachev as “President” in 1990

76 G ORBACHEV Y EARS (1985-1991) Gorbachev Reforms: Perestroika Economic reform Moved away from central planning to encourage more individual initiative People could form small businesses, factory managers given control of production Foreign companies invited to invest in USSR New Directions in Foreign Policy Withdrew troops from Afghanistan in 1988 President Ronald Reagan called USSR “evil empire”, challenged Gorbachev to “tear down this wall [Berlin Wall]”, threated to create new anti-ballistic defense system To prevent, entered talks to reduce nuclear arms Also allowed changes in E. Europe, eventually permitting non-Communist govts there

77 I RON C URTAIN F ALLS IN E. E UROPE Poland led way for change Polish Cardinal of Cracow elected Pope John Paul II in 1978 First non-Italian pope in 400 years Lech Walesa organized independent trade union named Solidarity 1981-1983, govt tried to use martial law Gorbachev came into power in 1985 and opposed using force 1988 – Walesa led strike of workers that spread throughout Poland First E. European nation to elect non-Communist govt

78 I RON C URTAIN F ALLS IN E. E UROPE http://youtu.be/7z6dxQ VhE8o http://youtu.be/7z6dxQ VhE8o http://youtu.be/fK1Mw hEDjHg http://youtu.be/fK1Mw hEDjHg http://youtu.be/zmRPP 2WXX0U http://youtu.be/zmRPP 2WXX0U Poland’s changes led to the Iron Curtain lifting elsewhere Massive demonstrations in E. Europe Berlin Wall came down November 1989 Free elections in E. Europe brought non- Communist govts to power

79 G ORBACHEV ’ S P ROBLEMS G ROW Gorbachev’s policies failed to solve economic issues New openness unleashed ethnic nationalism and social discontent Non-Russian nationalities suddenly demanding independence 1991 – Boris Yeltsin elected President of Russian Republic and began asserting authority over Gorbachev’s Soviet govt Gorbachev unable to stop w/out returning to old policy of repression

80 D ISSOLUTION OF S OVIET U NION - 1991 August 1991 – Communist hard-liners temporarily overthrew Gorbachev in military coup Lacking popular support, failed Communist Party greatly discredited Gorbachev recognized independence of Lithuania and other Baltic States Attempted to negotiate new agreement for Soviet Union Dec 1991 – Russia, Belarus, an Ukraine all declared independence from Soviet Union

81 D ISSOLUTION OF S OVIET U NION - 1991 Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine formed Commonwealth of Independent States Served limited functions Other former republics of USSR joined Commonwealth Soviet Union dissolved, Gorbachev resigned at end of presidency at end of 1991

82 R EUNIFICATION OF G ERMANY West Germany’s leader Helmut Kohl helped negotiate the reunification Official at end of 1991 Soviet troops withdrew from E. Germany, currencies were merged, and the German legislature voted to move capital of Germany to Berlin

83 C HANGES IN C HINA While E. Europe and former USSR struggled with changes, China introduced free enterprise gradually w/out ending monopoly of political power After Mao died 1976, Deng Xiaoping became China’s leader Opposed Cultural Revolution Goal was to “modernize” China

84 E CONOMIC C HANGES U NDER D ENG Land Reforms Communes were disbanded and peasants allowed to rent former lands Increase in agricultural productivity Consumer Goods China began producing more consumer goods such as radios and TVs New Factory Management Central planners lost some degree of control Managers and workers allowed to sell some of their production to private buyers for a profit Limited Capitalism Individuals could now own small businesses Owners allowed to hire a few workers Private sector responsible for much of China’s industrial output Foreign Investment New laws allowed foreign investment, bringing high- technology and capital to special enterprise zones Foreign companies allowed to join Chinese enterprises

85 T IANANMEN S QUARE Chinese leaders refused to abandon communism 1989 – students peacefully demonstrating in Tiananmen Square for greater personal freedom and democracy Students refuse to disperse, so army tanks fired killing hundreds In response, Western leaders reduced trade with China briefly Since then, trade has resumed Greater economic freedom has turned China into fastest growing economy in the world

86 C HALLENGES IN THE WORLD T ODAY

87 R ADICAL I SLAMIC F UNDAMENTALISM Iranian Revolution 1960s-70s, Shah Reza Pahlavi, ruler of Iran, adopted Western culture and technology Govt guilty of widespread corruption and brutal repression Religious leaders held massive widespread demonstrations Led to overthrow of Shah in 1979

88 R ADICAL I SLAMIC F UNDAMENTALISM Iranian Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini became Iran’s new leader Radical Islamic Fundamentalism reaction against values of the West Strict enforcement of Sharia law No separation between church and state New constitution based on Quran Gave support to acts of terrorism in Lebanon and elsewhere Permitted seizure of hostages from US Embassy in Tehran American hostages held for more than a year before released

89 F IRST G ULF W AR Same year as Iranian Revolution, Saddam Hussein seized power and imposed brutal dictatorship in Iraq 1980, Hussein attacked Iran, leading to bloody 8 year war Hussein occupied oil-rich Kuwait in 1990 Fearing invasion of Saudi Arabia, US and allies sent troops to expel Iraq from Kuwait Iraqi forces destroyed but Hussein allowed to stay in power Hussein’s army soon attacked Kurdish minority in N. Iraq at attempt at genocide

90 A L -Q AEDA AND 9/11 Al-Qaeda was terrorist organization formed by Osama bin Laden Al-Qaeda considered themselves radicals fighting a holy war or Jihad Vast majority of Muslims reject their views Al-Qaeda set up camps in Afghanistan to train members in guerilla war and terrorism

91 A L -Q AEDA AND 9/11 September 11, 2001 Al-Qaeda terrorists living in US hijacked several US airplanes Flew airplanes into Pentagon and World Trade Center Towers of World Trade Center collapsed President George W. Bush and other world leaders declared a “War on Terrorism”

92 W AR IN A FGHANISTAN Taliban, group of radical Islamic Fundamentalists, gained control of Afghanistan when Soviets left Imposed strict religious beliefs Religious police roamed the streets, beating anyone who disobeyed the strict Islamic laws Taliban allowed terrorist groups like al-Qaeda to operate training camps US and allies invaded Afghanistan when refused to turn over bin Laden Overthrew Taliban, established democratic govt Violence continued despite occupation Failed to capture bin Laden

93 S ECOND G ULF W AR Saddam Hussein failed to honor agreement for UN inspectors to monitor Iraq for weapons US and world leaders insist Iraq show it was not hiding weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) Some of UN Security Council urged but US, Britain, and allies insisting on invading in 2003

94 S ECOND G ULF W AR Hussein’s govt collapsed Hussein fled, but later captured, tried in Iraqi court, and executed Iraqis voted on new constitution and elected democratic govt in 2005 No WMDs were found Despite initial success, allied occupation forces suffered causalities from insurgents Tensions from Iraq’s ethnic groups continued American and other foreign troops are slowly being withdrawn from Iraq

95 G ENOCIDE IN THE B ALKANS Yugoslavia created in 1918 by combining Serbia to former parts of Austria- Hungary Communism collapsed in 1991 and country fell apart Fighting between Orthodox Christian Serbs, Catholic Croats, and Bosnia Muslims Croatia and Slovenia declared independence, Serb-dominated Yugoslavia attacked Croatia

96 G ENOCIDE IN THE B ALKANS Fighting erupted in Bosnia between Muslims and Serbs. Yugoslavia intervened on Serb’s behalf Some Bosnia Serbs began murdered Muslim civilians in Serb-controlled areas for “ethnic cleansing” Later Serbs attacked Muslims in Kosovo US and other NATO countries sent in forces to stop the fighting Bosnia divided into two republics – one Muslim and one Serb Former Serb leaders charged with committing crimes against humanity

97 G ENOCIDE IN A FRICA Rwanda and Burundi Small densely populated countries in Central Africa Both have Hutu majority and Tutsi minority 1972 – bitter fighting between two groups 1994 – Rwanda’s president, a Hutu, killed by mysterious explosion on plane Event sparked new bloodshed Govt-sponsored Hutu troops began exterminating Tutsi who were blamed for assassination UN estimates more than 850,000, about half Tutsi population, slain in Civil War

98 G ENOCIDE IN A FRICA Darfur 1990s – conflict over grazing grounds and farmland territory in western Sudan Janjaweed, govt backed by militia group of Arab tribesmen, has committed atrocities against black African population Range from massacres of civilians to rape and forcing people from their homes More than 200,000 have died and 2 million displaced from homes UN Security Council calling fo Janjaweed to be disarmed In 2007 US declared Janjaweed killings as act of genocide

99 H UMAN R IGHTS V IOLATIONS Govts guilty of politically motivated crimes Many countries in Latin America violated human rights by imprisoning, torturing, or executing political opponents

100 H UMAN R IGHTS V IOLATIONS Cuba Fidel Castro imprisoned and killed opponents to his rule Chile Military govt tortured and killed suspected opponents El Salvador Death squads gunned down advocates of reform Archbishop Oscar Romeo was assassinated after he opposed govt human rights violations and repression

101 H UMAN R IGHTS V IOLATIONS Argentina 20,000 people have disappeared during military rule that ended in 1984 Deseparacidos are people who were kidnapped and never heard from again Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo are mothers and relatives who demand info about where their families are Recently demanded social reform

102 W OMEN ’ S R IGHTS Most societies patriarchal – men in positions of power and women treated inferior Women still experienced inferior status in many parts of the world and still do today in some places Africa and Asia – suffer from forced mutilations when they reach adolescence Some Islamic countries women must wear veils, refrain from being seen in public, and not permitted to drive Even in western countries women are often under-represented in politics or top corporate jobs Many international organizations trying to stop worst abuses of women

103 I NFLUENTIAL W OMEN Mother Teresa (1910-1997) Born in Macedonia and became Catholic nun Devoted life to helping impoverished and homeless people in India Started new Catholic order, Missionaries of Charity 1970 – awarded Nobel Peace Prize Golda Meir (1898-1978) Born in Russia, grew up in Wisconsin Migrated in Israel and became first woman Prime Minister Israeli athletes murdered at Olympic Games at Munich and attack on Yom Kippur during years as PM (1969-1974) Had to respond to both events

104 I NFLUENTIAL W OMEN Margaret Thatcher (born 1925) First woman to serve as Prime Minister of Britain 1970-1990 “Iron Lady” Sold off state-owned industries Promoted free enterprise Strongly opposed Soviet communism Sent troops to Falkland Island from falling to dictatorship in Argentina

105 C HALLENGE OF G LOBALIZATION Globalization – greater contact b/w different parts f the world Communicate and travel more easily Global economy Companies move production to other places in world with lower costs

106 C HALLENGE OF G LOBALIZATION Internet greatly increases globalization Shipping easier with containerized cargo – goods packed intro truck- like containers and loaded on cargo ships Goods flow more easily then ever before with low tariffs or free trade and low shipping costs Greater connectivity – ease of communication Advances in info technology, medicine, and engineering spread quickly Higher standards of living and sped up economic development Local traditions sometimes lost to new global culture


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