2AbsolutismForm of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the peopleTwo types of A.: 1. Ruler2. Ruler + Chief MinisterA. took place in: Spain, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria
4Setting the StageEurope was in a period after Reformation. Still divided religiously.Catholic territory: Spain, France, Italy, Southern Germany.Protestant territory: England, Netherlands, Northern GermanySpain, France, and England had colonies in Asia, the Americas, and Africa.
6Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII became king when Henry VII died Louis was sicklyCardinal Richelieu was chosen as his adviser
7Cardinal Richelieu A political genius Goal: to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in EuropeTo do this:Take power from nobleTake political rights away from Huguenots
8Setting the StageThe edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots certain religious freedomsThey lived in fortified citiesMaking a strong central government would be difficultRichelieu attacked the citiesAfter a year the Huguenots asked for peaceRichelieu then took away certain rights in the fortified cities
9Setting the Stage He strengthened the authority of the intendants They took the administrative and financial power for governors and military leaders and gave it to the king
10The Thirty Years’ WarStarting as a Protestant rebellion in Prague, it was a great opportunity to strengthen FranceRichelieu worked to keep the war going and keep France outOther countries became weak while France stayed strong
11The Thirty Years’ War France eventually joined the war The war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648France and their allies had accomplished most of their goals
13Louis XIV France's Sun King Longest reign in European history ( ).During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its heightEstablished a glittering court at VersaillesFought most of the other European countries in four wars.
16Louis XIV Had the palace built and moved the government there Financial strain on FranceHe believed in the divine right of kingsUsed the palace for controlHad the most important nobles live there to keep an eye on themThey could only advance by gaining his favorHe adopted the sun name because the rays reached far and wide like his power
17Louis XIV Absolute power to him meant he made all of the decisions He was directly involved with the French governmentAdvisers worked under his direct supervisionOne of the best wasJean-Baptiste Colbert
18Jean-Baptiste Colbert Expert in financePromoted economic development in FranceStrengthened industriesHigh tariffs in importsImproved transportationEncouraged coloniesTradeCanadaWest IndiesEast Asia
19Jean-Baptiste Colbert Trade and commerce grewFrance became a leading economic powerEconomic improvementsLarge armyOverseas explorationBecame a leading naval powerBecame a strong force in overseas trade and colonization
20Unity of France Louis XIV believed Huguenots hurt French unity. Did away with Edict of Nantes.More than 200,000 protestants fled France rather than become Catholic.Their loss weakened France’s power.
21WarLouis XIV increased power of military. Most powerful army in Europe by 1700s. 400,000 strong.Believed France’s power rested upon its natural borders. Pyrenees Mtns., English Channel, Med. Sea, Alps.Next he wanted the land up to the Rhine River.
22Opposition Countries united against him. NetherlandsEnglandSwedenAustriaSpain.Wanted balance of power in Europe, so no one country could dominate.Wars took huge financial toll on France.Lost a lot of lives.
23War of Spanish Succession Spanish Hapsburg dynasty died out in 1700.Throne went to Phillip V, Louis’ grandson.Other European countries did not want Spain and France controlled by Bourbon rulers.Attacked France.France met defeat again and again.Treaty of UtrechtPhillip V became King of SpainFrance and Spain’s monarchies could not be united.England received French lands in North America.
24France in Americas Settled in areas of present-day Canada. Fur trade. Settled colonies in Haiti and other West Indian islands, Asia, and parts of India.Settled at mouth of Mississippi River. Louisiana is named for Louis XIV
25Louis XIV France became main power in Europe. After Louis died, the nobles gained back power.Followed by weak rulersRoyal authority died.
27Peter the Great In 1682, Peter became czar at age of 10. Ruled until 1725.He wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe.Russia was landlockedHe needed to increase power to take coastal land from the Turks.Toured Western Europe to create an alliance against the Turks.He failed, but learned a lot.
28Westernizing RussiaInfluenced by France, he improved army and weaponry.Fought SwedenGained territory on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland giving access to Baltic Sea.
29St. Petersburg Built a new city in this area named St. Petersburg. Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.St. Petersburg expected to be a model of the westernizing of Russia.This progressive city was Peter the Great’s “ Window on the West.”
33Peter controlled the nobles Reformed the governmentBecame ruler of very strong central government.Controlled the Orthodox Church.
34Service Nobility Peter’s new system An individual noble’s rank depended on the performance of government service.Czar granted large estates and thousands of serfs to nobles.Increased the overall number of serfs.Poor condition for serfs.Nobles served king to stay in his good graces for reward
35LegacyAngered the nobles. Made most powerful live in St. Petersburg and spend time at court where he could watch them.Angered the Church. Tried to control clergy.Increased Russian military power. Modeled after France.Increased power of Czar. Made Czar the Absolute Ruler.Failed to completely westernize RussiaExpanded Russian territory to the Baltic Sea
36England (The Tudors & Parliament) Power was maintained far differently in England than in France and Spain.Tudor dynasty reigned fromHenry VII believed in divine right, but valued Parliament and maintained good relationships.Elizabeth I was popular and successful thanks to good Parliamentary relations.
37English Parliament House of Lords: Upper house Hereditary rule or appointed by sovereignLord Spiritual and Lord Temporal lead this house.House of CommonsLower houseDemocratically elected body.Prime Minister leads this house.
38England (The Stuarts & Parliament) When Elizabeth died without a direct heir, the throne passed to the Stuarts, the ruling family of Scotland.James I, the first Stuart monarch contested Parliament and sought absolute rule.Leaders in the House of Commons (body of Parliament) resisted his claim to divine right.In 1625, Charles I inherited the throne. Also behaved like an absolute monarch. Imprisoned foes without trial and created bitter enemies.For 11 years, he ruled the nation without Parliament. When he finally summoned Parliament to get help suppressing a Scottish rebellion, it launched its own revolt.
39Parliamentary Rebellion and Civil War When Parliament finally reconvened they staged the greatest political revolution in English history.Charles lashed back against the reforms they proposed.When he attempted to arrest the most radical leaders, they escaped and formed an army.A civil war ensued, lasting from In the end, revolutionary forces triumphed.Oliver Cromwell led the triumphant New Model Army for Parliament, and by 1647, the king was in the hands of parliamentary forces.
40Execution of King Charles After the war, Parliament set up court to put King Charles on trial.He was condemned as tyrant, traitor, and public enemy, and beheaded.1st time in history that a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people.Sent clear message that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.
41The CommonwealthAfter execution of Charles I, House of Commons abolished monarchy, House of Lords, and Church of England.Declared England a republic called the Commonwealth, which was led by Oliver Cromwell. Enforced strict military rule.Under the Commonwealth, Puritans replaced the Church of England. Strict piety.After Cromwell died, Puritans lost their grip on England.
42Charles IIMany English were tired of military rule and strict Puritan waysAfter a decade of kingless rule, Parliament invited Charles II to return to England from exile.Unlike his father, Charles II was a popular ruler who avoided his father’s mistakes in dealing with Parliament.Restored Church of England and promoted religious tolerance.
43James II, William & MaryCharles II’s brother James II inherited the throne.Unlike Charles II, he angered Parliament and attempted to restore Catholic Church.Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become rulers of England.When they arrived, James fled to France. Non-violent overthrow known as the Glorious Revolution.
44English Bill of RightsBefore they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept several acts passed by Parliament that became known as the English Bill of Rights.It ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.Required monarch to summon Parliament regularly and forbade monarch from interfering with debate or suspending laws.Also restored trial by jury and affirmed principle of habeas corpus in which no one could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.Created a limited monarchy form of government. Set England apart from the rest of Europe.