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 Form of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the people  Two types of A.: 1. Ruler 2. Ruler + Chief.

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Presentation on theme: " Form of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the people  Two types of A.: 1. Ruler 2. Ruler + Chief."— Presentation transcript:


2  Form of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the people  Two types of A.: 1. Ruler 2. Ruler + Chief Minister 2. Ruler + Chief Minister  A. took place in: Spain, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria


4  Europe was in a period after Reformation. Still divided religiously. Catholic territory: Spain, France, Italy, Southern Germany. Protestant territory: England, Netherlands, Northern Germany  Spain, France, and England had colonies in Asia, the Americas, and Africa.


6  Louis XIII became king when Henry VII died  Louis was sickly  Cardinal Richelieu was chosen as his adviser

7  A political genius  Goal: to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe  To do this: Take power from noble Take political rights away from Huguenots

8  The edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots certain religious freedoms  They lived in fortified cities  Making a strong central government would be difficult  Richelieu attacked the cities  After a year the Huguenots asked for peace  Richelieu then took away certain rights in the fortified cities

9  He strengthened the authority of the intendants  They took the administrative and financial power for governors and military leaders and gave it to the king

10  Starting as a Protestant rebellion in Prague, it was a great opportunity to strengthen France  Richelieu worked to keep the war going and keep France out  Other countries became weak while France stayed strong

11  France eventually joined the war  The war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648  France and their allies had accomplished most of their goals

12 Louis XIV The Sun King

13  France's Sun King  Longest reign in European history ( ).  During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height  Established a glittering court at Versailles  Fought most of the other European countries in four wars.



16  Had the palace built and moved the government there  Financial strain on France  He believed in the divine right of kings  Used the palace for control  Had the most important nobles live there to keep an eye on them  They could only advance by gaining his favor  He adopted the sun name because the rays reached far and wide like his power

17  Absolute power to him meant he made all of the decisions  He was directly involved with the French government  Advisers worked under his direct supervision  One of the best was  Jean-Baptiste Colbert

18  Expert in finance  Promoted economic development in France  Strengthened industries  High tariffs in imports  Improved transportation  Encouraged colonies  Trade Canada West Indies East Asia

19  Trade and commerce grew  France became a leading economic power  Economic improvements Large army Overseas exploration  Became a leading naval power  Became a strong force in overseas trade and colonization

20  Louis XIV believed Huguenots hurt French unity.  Did away with Edict of Nantes.  More than 200,000 protestants fled France rather than become Catholic.  Their loss weakened France’s power.

21  Louis XIV increased power of military. Most powerful army in Europe by 1700s. 400,000 strong.  Believed France’s power rested upon its natural borders. Pyrenees Mtns., English Channel, Med. Sea, Alps.  Next he wanted the land up to the Rhine River.

22  Countries united against him. Netherlands England Sweden Austria Spain.  Wanted balance of power in Europe, so no one country could dominate.  Wars took huge financial toll on France.  Lost a lot of lives.

23  Spanish Hapsburg dynasty died out in  Throne went to Phillip V, Louis’ grandson.  Other European countries did not want Spain and France controlled by Bourbon rulers.  Attacked France.  France met defeat again and again.  Treaty of Utrecht Phillip V became King of Spain France and Spain’s monarchies could not be united. England received French lands in North America.

24  Settled in areas of present-day Canada.  Fur trade.  Settled colonies in Haiti and other West Indian islands, Asia, and parts of India.  Settled at mouth of Mississippi River. Louisiana is named for Louis XIV

25  France became main power in Europe.  After Louis died, the nobles gained back power.  Followed by weak rulers  Royal authority died.

26 Tsar Peter

27  In 1682, Peter became czar at age of 10.  Ruled until  He wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe.  Russia was landlocked  He needed to increase power to take coastal land from the Turks.  Toured Western Europe to create an alliance against the Turks.  He failed, but learned a lot.

28  Influenced by France, he improved army and weaponry.  Fought Sweden  Gained territory on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland giving access to Baltic Sea.

29  Built a new city in this area named St. Petersburg.  Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg.  St. Petersburg expected to be a model of the westernizing of Russia.  This progressive city was Peter the Great’s “ Window on the West.”


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33  Peter controlled the nobles  Reformed the government  Became ruler of very strong central government.  Controlled the Orthodox Church.

34  Peter’s new system  An individual noble’s rank depended on the performance of government service.  Czar granted large estates and thousands of serfs to nobles.  Increased the overall number of serfs.  Poor condition for serfs.  Nobles served king to stay in his good graces for reward

35  Angered the nobles. Made most powerful live in St. Petersburg and spend time at court where he could watch them.  Angered the Church. Tried to control clergy.  Increased Russian military power. Modeled after France.  Increased power of Czar. Made Czar the Absolute Ruler.  Failed to completely westernize Russia  Expanded Russian territory to the Baltic Sea

36  Power was maintained far differently in England than in France and Spain.  Tudor dynasty reigned from  Henry VII believed in divine right, but valued Parliament and maintained good relationships.  Elizabeth I was popular and successful thanks to good Parliamentary relations.

37  House of Lords: Upper house Hereditary rule or appointed by sovereign Lord Spiritual and Lord Temporal lead this house.  House of Commons Lower house Democratically elected body. Prime Minister leads this house.

38  When Elizabeth died without a direct heir, the throne passed to the Stuarts, the ruling family of Scotland.  James I, the first Stuart monarch contested Parliament and sought absolute rule.  Leaders in the House of Commons (body of Parliament) resisted his claim to divine right.  In 1625, Charles I inherited the throne. Also behaved like an absolute monarch. Imprisoned foes without trial and created bitter enemies.  For 11 years, he ruled the nation without Parliament. When he finally summoned Parliament to get help suppressing a Scottish rebellion, it launched its own revolt.

39  When Parliament finally reconvened they staged the greatest political revolution in English history.  Charles lashed back against the reforms they proposed.  When he attempted to arrest the most radical leaders, they escaped and formed an army.  A civil war ensued, lasting from In the end, revolutionary forces triumphed.  Oliver Cromwell led the triumphant New Model Army for Parliament, and by 1647, the king was in the hands of parliamentary forces.

40  After the war, Parliament set up court to put King Charles on trial.  He was condemned as tyrant, traitor, and public enemy, and beheaded.  1 st time in history that a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people.  Sent clear message that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.

41  After execution of Charles I, House of Commons abolished monarchy, House of Lords, and Church of England.  Declared England a republic called the Commonwealth, which was led by Oliver Cromwell. Enforced strict military rule.  Under the Commonwealth, Puritans replaced the Church of England. Strict piety.  After Cromwell died, Puritans lost their grip on England.

42  Many English were tired of military rule and strict Puritan ways  After a decade of kingless rule, Parliament invited Charles II to return to England from exile.  Unlike his father, Charles II was a popular ruler who avoided his father’s mistakes in dealing with Parliament.  Restored Church of England and promoted religious tolerance.

43  Charles II’s brother James II inherited the throne.  Unlike Charles II, he angered Parliament and attempted to restore Catholic Church.  Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become rulers of England.  When they arrived, James fled to France. Non-violent overthrow known as the Glorious Revolution.

44  Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept several acts passed by Parliament that became known as the English Bill of Rights.  It ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.  Required monarch to summon Parliament regularly and forbade monarch from interfering with debate or suspending laws.  Also restored trial by jury and affirmed principle of habeas corpus in which no one could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.  Created a limited monarchy form of government. Set England apart from the rest of Europe.

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