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THE AGE OF ABSOLUTISM ( )

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1 THE AGE OF ABSOLUTISM (1550-1800)

2 Absolutism Form of monarchical power when a ruler has a complete authority over the government and lives of the people Two types of A.: 1. Ruler 2. Ruler + Chief Minister A. took place in: Spain, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria

3 Map of states under Absolutism

4 Setting the Stage Europe was in a period after Reformation. Still divided religiously. Catholic territory: Spain, France, Italy, Southern Germany. Protestant territory: England, Netherlands, Northern Germany Spain, France, and England had colonies in Asia, the Americas, and Africa.

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6 Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII became king when Henry VII died
Louis was sickly Cardinal Richelieu was chosen as his adviser

7 Cardinal Richelieu A political genius
Goal: to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe To do this: Take power from noble Take political rights away from Huguenots

8 Setting the Stage The edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots certain religious freedoms They lived in fortified cities Making a strong central government would be difficult Richelieu attacked the cities After a year the Huguenots asked for peace Richelieu then took away certain rights in the fortified cities

9 Setting the Stage He strengthened the authority of the intendants
They took the administrative and financial power for governors and military leaders and gave it to the king

10 The Thirty Years’ War Starting as a Protestant rebellion in Prague, it was a great opportunity to strengthen France Richelieu worked to keep the war going and keep France out Other countries became weak while France stayed strong

11 The Thirty Years’ War France eventually joined the war
The war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 France and their allies had accomplished most of their goals

12 Absolutism Louis XIV The Sun King Press

13 Louis XIV France's Sun King
Longest reign in European history ( ). During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height Established a glittering court at Versailles Fought most of the other European countries in four wars.

14 Versailles

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16 Louis XIV Had the palace built and moved the government there
Financial strain on France He believed in the divine right of kings Used the palace for control Had the most important nobles live there to keep an eye on them They could only advance by gaining his favor He adopted the sun name because the rays reached far and wide like his power

17 Louis XIV Absolute power to him meant he made all of the decisions
He was directly involved with the French government Advisers worked under his direct supervision One of the best was Jean-Baptiste Colbert

18 Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Expert in finance Promoted economic development in France Strengthened industries High tariffs in imports Improved transportation Encouraged colonies Trade Canada West Indies East Asia

19 Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Trade and commerce grew France became a leading economic power Economic improvements Large army Overseas exploration Became a leading naval power Became a strong force in overseas trade and colonization

20 Unity of France Louis XIV believed Huguenots hurt French unity.
Did away with Edict of Nantes. More than 200,000 protestants fled France rather than become Catholic. Their loss weakened France’s power.

21 War Louis XIV increased power of military. Most powerful army in Europe by 1700s. 400,000 strong. Believed France’s power rested upon its natural borders. Pyrenees Mtns., English Channel, Med. Sea, Alps. Next he wanted the land up to the Rhine River.

22 Opposition Countries united against him.
Netherlands England Sweden Austria Spain. Wanted balance of power in Europe, so no one country could dominate. Wars took huge financial toll on France. Lost a lot of lives.

23 War of Spanish Succession
Spanish Hapsburg dynasty died out in 1700. Throne went to Phillip V, Louis’ grandson. Other European countries did not want Spain and France controlled by Bourbon rulers. Attacked France. France met defeat again and again. Treaty of Utrecht Phillip V became King of Spain France and Spain’s monarchies could not be united. England received French lands in North America.

24 France in Americas Settled in areas of present-day Canada. Fur trade.
Settled colonies in Haiti and other West Indian islands, Asia, and parts of India. Settled at mouth of Mississippi River. Louisiana is named for Louis XIV

25 Louis XIV France became main power in Europe.
After Louis died, the nobles gained back power. Followed by weak rulers Royal authority died.

26 Absolutism Tsar Peter

27 Peter the Great In 1682, Peter became czar at age of 10.
Ruled until 1725. He wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe. Russia was landlocked He needed to increase power to take coastal land from the Turks. Toured Western Europe to create an alliance against the Turks. He failed, but learned a lot.

28 Westernizing Russia Influenced by France, he improved army and weaponry. Fought Sweden Gained territory on the east coast of the Gulf of Finland giving access to Baltic Sea.

29 St. Petersburg Built a new city in this area named St. Petersburg.
Moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg expected to be a model of the westernizing of Russia. This progressive city was Peter the Great’s “ Window on the West.”

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33 Peter controlled the nobles
Reformed the government Became ruler of very strong central government. Controlled the Orthodox Church.

34 Service Nobility Peter’s new system
An individual noble’s rank depended on the performance of government service. Czar granted large estates and thousands of serfs to nobles. Increased the overall number of serfs. Poor condition for serfs. Nobles served king to stay in his good graces for reward

35 Legacy Angered the nobles. Made most powerful live in St. Petersburg and spend time at court where he could watch them. Angered the Church. Tried to control clergy. Increased Russian military power. Modeled after France. Increased power of Czar. Made Czar the Absolute Ruler. Failed to completely westernize Russia Expanded Russian territory to the Baltic Sea

36 England (The Tudors & Parliament)
Power was maintained far differently in England than in France and Spain. Tudor dynasty reigned from Henry VII believed in divine right, but valued Parliament and maintained good relationships. Elizabeth I was popular and successful thanks to good Parliamentary relations.

37 English Parliament House of Lords: Upper house
Hereditary rule or appointed by sovereign Lord Spiritual and Lord Temporal lead this house. House of Commons Lower house Democratically elected body. Prime Minister leads this house.

38 England (The Stuarts & Parliament)
When Elizabeth died without a direct heir, the throne passed to the Stuarts, the ruling family of Scotland. James I, the first Stuart monarch contested Parliament and sought absolute rule. Leaders in the House of Commons (body of Parliament) resisted his claim to divine right. In 1625, Charles I inherited the throne. Also behaved like an absolute monarch. Imprisoned foes without trial and created bitter enemies. For 11 years, he ruled the nation without Parliament. When he finally summoned Parliament to get help suppressing a Scottish rebellion, it launched its own revolt.

39 Parliamentary Rebellion and Civil War
When Parliament finally reconvened they staged the greatest political revolution in English history. Charles lashed back against the reforms they proposed. When he attempted to arrest the most radical leaders, they escaped and formed an army. A civil war ensued, lasting from In the end, revolutionary forces triumphed. Oliver Cromwell led the triumphant New Model Army for Parliament, and by 1647, the king was in the hands of parliamentary forces.

40 Execution of King Charles
After the war, Parliament set up court to put King Charles on trial. He was condemned as tyrant, traitor, and public enemy, and beheaded. 1st time in history that a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people. Sent clear message that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.

41 The Commonwealth After execution of Charles I, House of Commons abolished monarchy, House of Lords, and Church of England. Declared England a republic called the Commonwealth, which was led by Oliver Cromwell. Enforced strict military rule. Under the Commonwealth, Puritans replaced the Church of England. Strict piety. After Cromwell died, Puritans lost their grip on England.

42 Charles II Many English were tired of military rule and strict Puritan ways After a decade of kingless rule, Parliament invited Charles II to return to England from exile. Unlike his father, Charles II was a popular ruler who avoided his father’s mistakes in dealing with Parliament. Restored Church of England and promoted religious tolerance.

43 James II, William & Mary Charles II’s brother James II inherited the throne. Unlike Charles II, he angered Parliament and attempted to restore Catholic Church. Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become rulers of England. When they arrived, James fled to France. Non-violent overthrow known as the Glorious Revolution.

44 English Bill of Rights Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept several acts passed by Parliament that became known as the English Bill of Rights. It ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. Required monarch to summon Parliament regularly and forbade monarch from interfering with debate or suspending laws. Also restored trial by jury and affirmed principle of habeas corpus in which no one could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. Created a limited monarchy form of government. Set England apart from the rest of Europe.


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