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Refugee 101 ivymama.wordpress.com UN multimedia New York Times Muslimvoices.org UN multimedia GTZ.DE UNHCR Colorado Refugee School Impact Grant.

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Presentation on theme: "Refugee 101 ivymama.wordpress.com UN multimedia New York Times Muslimvoices.org UN multimedia GTZ.DE UNHCR Colorado Refugee School Impact Grant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Refugee 101 ivymama.wordpress.com UN multimedia New York Times Muslimvoices.org UN multimedia GTZ.DE UNHCR Colorado Refugee School Impact Grant

2 Who is a refugee? contributed by LFS

3 Definition Refugees People who must flee their homeland fearing death or persecution because of their race, religion, or political views. These people must leave everything behind, including family members, material possessions, and cultural identity for the chance to rebuild a life with personal safety, individual freedom, and peace. People who must flee their homeland fearing death or persecution because of their race, religion, or political views. These people must leave everything behind, including family members, material possessions, and cultural identity for the chance to rebuild a life with personal safety, individual freedom, and peace. UN multimedia

4 The progress of a refugee: from persecution to a camp PersecutionFlight Refugee Camp UN multimedia

5 General Refugee Facts Global refugee population of 15.1 million people 10.5 million get protection/assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at least 8.5 million have been without a home for more than 5 years –Many live in camps waiting among crime, violence, drugs, limited access to work or education Global refugee population of 15.1 million people 10.5 million get protection/assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at least 8.5 million have been without a home for more than 5 years –Many live in camps waiting among crime, violence, drugs, limited access to work or education Durable solutions for refugees 1.Safe, voluntary return to own country 2.Self-sufficiency and temporary/indefinite/permanent local integration into country of asylum 3.Resettlement in a third country - used particularly for those refugees for whom the other two solutions are not feasible Durable solutions for refugees 1.Safe, voluntary return to own country 2.Self-sufficiency and temporary/indefinite/permanent local integration into country of asylum 3.Resettlement in a third country - used particularly for those refugees for whom the other two solutions are not feasible Source: FY 2012 Report to Congress

6 U.S. Resettlement HISTORY After World War II, the U.S. admitted over 250,000 displaced Europeans In 1948, the Displaced Persons Act passed, allowing 400,000 additional European refugees to resettle in the U.S. Other laws allowed refugees from Communist countries to enter during the 1950s and 1960s In 1975, the Refugee Task Force admitted over 100,000 refugees from Southeast Asia Congress passed the Refugee Act of 1980 which is the foundation of the current resettlement program HISTORY After World War II, the U.S. admitted over 250,000 displaced Europeans In 1948, the Displaced Persons Act passed, allowing 400,000 additional European refugees to resettle in the U.S. Other laws allowed refugees from Communist countries to enter during the 1950s and 1960s In 1975, the Refugee Task Force admitted over 100,000 refugees from Southeast Asia Congress passed the Refugee Act of 1980 which is the foundation of the current resettlement program The U.S. resettles 74% of people who opt for third-country resettlement = 54,077 refugees in 2010 Secretary of State Clinton: “The United States has a history of upholding human rights and humanitarian principles. For decades we have led the world in overseas support for humanitarian protection and assistance, and we have provided asylum and refugee resettlement for millions. In doing so, we show through example our dedication to basic human decency, to our responsibilities under international law, and - along with the rest of the international community - to ensuring refuge when innocent lives hang in the balance. We do this because our country’s values must be a critical component of our foreign policy.” The U.S. resettles 74% of people who opt for third-country resettlement = 54,077 refugees in 2010 Secretary of State Clinton: “The United States has a history of upholding human rights and humanitarian principles. For decades we have led the world in overseas support for humanitarian protection and assistance, and we have provided asylum and refugee resettlement for millions. In doing so, we show through example our dedication to basic human decency, to our responsibilities under international law, and - along with the rest of the international community - to ensuring refuge when innocent lives hang in the balance. We do this because our country’s values must be a critical component of our foreign policy.” Source: FY 2012 Report to Congress Source:

7 The progress of a refugee: from a camp to applying for a new home Application for resettlement Wait contributed by LFS

8 In Colorado Refugees Resettled Country of OriginNumber Resettled Bhutan1455 Burma1435 Iraq844 Somalia769 Democratic Republic of Congo323 Eritrea178 Ethiopia157 Cuba129 Burundi114

9 Bhutanese Lhotsampa People of the South Ethnic Nepalis whose ancestors moved generations ago to Bhutan to farm Population grew; Bhutan’s king and the Druk majority started to marginalize by promoting Bhutanization of systems –Imposed Druk dress and customs –Outlawed Nepali language in schools –Changed citizenship eligibility, stripping many Lhotsampa of their citizenship/ civil rights Community protests led to violence and, in December 1990, expulsion Ethnic Nepalis whose ancestors moved generations ago to Bhutan to farm Population grew; Bhutan’s king and the Druk majority started to marginalize by promoting Bhutanization of systems –Imposed Druk dress and customs –Outlawed Nepali language in schools –Changed citizenship eligibility, stripping many Lhotsampa of their citizenship/ civil rights Community protests led to violence and, in December 1990, expulsion Forgotten-Refugees

10 Bhutanese Lhotsampa Cultural Interactions and Customs Respect is shown to elders and authority. Eye contact during conversation is standard and is not a sign of disrespect. Family is one of the highest priorities, and the community is very supportive. The caste system separates people into different social levels and influences the choice of marriage and other social relationships. Gender roles are distinct and clearly defined. Respect is shown to elders and authority. Eye contact during conversation is standard and is not a sign of disrespect. Family is one of the highest priorities, and the community is very supportive. The caste system separates people into different social levels and influences the choice of marriage and other social relationships. Gender roles are distinct and clearly defined. Denver Health Refugee Clinic Denver Health

11 Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal contributed by LFS

12 Burmese Minority groups: Karen, Karenni, Kachin Chin, Rohingya, Myanmar Muslims, Mon, etc. Minority groups: Karen, Karenni, Kachin Chin, Rohingya, Myanmar Muslims, Mon, etc. Fighting between government, ethnic opposition groups and pro-democracy supporters has been ongoing for fifty years, but escalated in 1990s Many refugees fled between after military offensives by government against opposition movements –Ethnic groups/individuals in these states were forced to relocate or potentially face arrest, detention, forced labor, conscription –Cultural and religious identities repressed Fighting between government, ethnic opposition groups and pro-democracy supporters has been ongoing for fifty years, but escalated in 1990s Many refugees fled between after military offensives by government against opposition movements –Ethnic groups/individuals in these states were forced to relocate or potentially face arrest, detention, forced labor, conscription –Cultural and religious identities repressed UNHCR Quick Fact Sheet : Burmese Resettlement from Tham Hin Camp in Thailand

13 Burmese Cultural Interactions and Customs Respect for elders is important and males have the highest authority in families, though, women still have rights. It is considered improper to lose one’s temper or show much emotion in public. Do not touch people on the head, which is considered the spiritually highest part of the body. It is disrespectful to point your feet toward a senior person, since the feet are regarded as the least noble part of the body. Use both hands to give something to, and receive something from an older person. Traditions and religious beliefs play important roles in family life. –Religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Animism Respect for elders is important and males have the highest authority in families, though, women still have rights. It is considered improper to lose one’s temper or show much emotion in public. Do not touch people on the head, which is considered the spiritually highest part of the body. It is disrespectful to point your feet toward a senior person, since the feet are regarded as the least noble part of the body. Use both hands to give something to, and receive something from an older person. Traditions and religious beliefs play important roles in family life. –Religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Animism Denver Health Refugee Clinic

14 Karen Cultural Interactions and Customs Some Karen do not want to be referred to as Burmese Traditionally, Karen do not shake hands or bow. Avoid walking in front of others; go behind those who are seated. Direct eye contact is sometimes not considered polite. Pointing with the feet or showing the bottoms of one’s feet and touching the head is disrespectful. Karen do not pick up something that belongings to another person. When handing something to someone, it is respectful to use two hands. Being direct is culturally considered rude and confrontation is avoided. Many Karen have a cultural value of not imposing on others or being quiet or less talkative. Saying “no” is often a way to be modest, even when an affirmative answer might seem more appropriate. Some Karen do not want to be referred to as Burmese Traditionally, Karen do not shake hands or bow. Avoid walking in front of others; go behind those who are seated. Direct eye contact is sometimes not considered polite. Pointing with the feet or showing the bottoms of one’s feet and touching the head is disrespectful. Karen do not pick up something that belongings to another person. When handing something to someone, it is respectful to use two hands. Being direct is culturally considered rude and confrontation is avoided. Many Karen have a cultural value of not imposing on others or being quiet or less talkative. Saying “no” is often a way to be modest, even when an affirmative answer might seem more appropriate. Denver Health Refugee Clinic

15 Karenni Cultural Interactions and Customs Karenni is a religious and ethnically diverse territory. Communities highly value their traditions and independence. Karenni hold a strong sense of ethnic identity and social cohesion. Traditional identity is found in clothing. Once young people have their own nuclear families, they will still take care of the elderly. Karenni are not accustomed to saying “thank you” Karenni is a religious and ethnically diverse territory. Communities highly value their traditions and independence. Karenni hold a strong sense of ethnic identity and social cohesion. Traditional identity is found in clothing. Once young people have their own nuclear families, they will still take care of the elderly. Karenni are not accustomed to saying “thank you” Denver Health Refugee Clinic

16 Mae La Refugee Camp: Thailand contributed by LFS

17

18 Congolese Tutsi and Hutu Conflict In 1994, the Rwanda genocide spread to DRC when Hutu extremists fled across the border and incited local Congolese to attack Tutsi. After the 2003 peace agreement Tutsi hoped that discrimination and violence against them would stop, but the government conspired with extremists to increase hostility towards them. In 2004, a refugee camp holding many Tutsi refugees was attacked and out of the 760 camp occupants 152 were murdered. In 1994, the Rwanda genocide spread to DRC when Hutu extremists fled across the border and incited local Congolese to attack Tutsi. After the 2003 peace agreement Tutsi hoped that discrimination and violence against them would stop, but the government conspired with extremists to increase hostility towards them. In 2004, a refugee camp holding many Tutsi refugees was attacked and out of the 760 camp occupants 152 were murdered. welt.de

19 Congolese Cultural Interactions and Customs Handshakes are an important part of greetings. A typical greeting might start with “Peace be unto you” or “Thanks be to God”, and continue with inquiries about the family, health, work and so on. Care of sick, disabled or elderly family members is shared by the extended family. The culture is matrilineal and children are considered a symbol of wealth. Historically, men have been given positions of authority and leadership. Handshakes are an important part of greetings. A typical greeting might start with “Peace be unto you” or “Thanks be to God”, and continue with inquiries about the family, health, work and so on. Care of sick, disabled or elderly family members is shared by the extended family. The culture is matrilineal and children are considered a symbol of wealth. Historically, men have been given positions of authority and leadership. Denver Health Refugee Clinic

20 Gihembe Refugee Camp: Rwanda e-project-in-rwanda.html

21 Eritrean Kunama and Tigrinya Refugees Kunama are located near the border of Ethiopia and are farmers and pastoralists Tigrinya make up the largest ethnic group Both have fled Eritrea because the outbreak of war in 1998 between Ethiopia and Eritrea –Kunama left to escape persecution by the government which accused them of siding with Ethiopia in the war –Tigrinya fled to escape harsh required enrollment in Eritrean national service Kunama are located near the border of Ethiopia and are farmers and pastoralists Tigrinya make up the largest ethnic group Both have fled Eritrea because the outbreak of war in 1998 between Ethiopia and Eritrea –Kunama left to escape persecution by the government which accused them of siding with Ethiopia in the war –Tigrinya fled to escape harsh required enrollment in Eritrean national service and Denver Health Refugee Clinic

22 Eritrean Cultural Interactions and Customs Greetings are elaborate and include shaking hands with each person, and asking about their health and family. Close friends of the same gender greet each other by kissing several times on both cheeks. Boys and men frequently hold hands as a sign of friendship. Respect for elders and authority is deeply rooted. Children are highly valued. Care for elders by family members at home is viewed as an important duty. Eritreans do not expect to be thanked for small favors; they consider it their duty to help friends. Greetings are elaborate and include shaking hands with each person, and asking about their health and family. Close friends of the same gender greet each other by kissing several times on both cheeks. Boys and men frequently hold hands as a sign of friendship. Respect for elders and authority is deeply rooted. Children are highly valued. Care for elders by family members at home is viewed as an important duty. Eritreans do not expect to be thanked for small favors; they consider it their duty to help friends. Denver Health Refugee Clinic farajat.net

23 A refugee camp south of the Eritrean border Wikimedia Commons/Reinhard Dietrich

24 Iraqis Those associated with the U.S. After Iraqi conflict was underway, people working with the U.S. troops and their families were increasingly under threat Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act –employees of the U.S. government –a U.S. government-funded contractor or grantee, –U.S. media and NGOs working in Iraq certain family members of such employees –Beneficiaries of approved immigrant visa petitions Conflicts between Sunni and Shia are also causes of fighting and forcing people to flee After Iraqi conflict was underway, people working with the U.S. troops and their families were increasingly under threat Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act –employees of the U.S. government –a U.S. government-funded contractor or grantee, –U.S. media and NGOs working in Iraq certain family members of such employees –Beneficiaries of approved immigrant visa petitions Conflicts between Sunni and Shia are also causes of fighting and forcing people to flee FY12 Report to Congress recinded-again/

25 Iraqis Cultural Interactions and Customs When greeting, men commonly hold hands or kiss each other, and say Salaam Alaykom (Peace be with you). Shaking the head from side to side means lack of understanding, not disagreement. Iraqis consider family unity and honor extremely important. Women in general are subservient to male authority, however, women wield power over their children and household affairs. A man usually does not shake the hand of a woman, but does give up his seat especially if the woman has children. When greeting, men commonly hold hands or kiss each other, and say Salaam Alaykom (Peace be with you). Shaking the head from side to side means lack of understanding, not disagreement. Iraqis consider family unity and honor extremely important. Women in general are subservient to male authority, however, women wield power over their children and household affairs. A man usually does not shake the hand of a woman, but does give up his seat especially if the woman has children. Denver Health Refugee Clinic

26 jonvidarphotography.com Grdasin IDP Camp: Akre District, Iraq

27 Somalis In January 1991 the military regime under Major General Mohammed Siyaad Barre collapsed. Civil war resulted when different factions starting fighting for power Drought, famine and continued fighting result in Somali refugees to continue to flee their country In January 1991 the military regime under Major General Mohammed Siyaad Barre collapsed. Civil war resulted when different factions starting fighting for power Drought, famine and continued fighting result in Somali refugees to continue to flee their country and refugee-camp-ambulance-driver-pregnant- refugees/story?id=

28 Somalis Cultural Interactions and Customs The common way to greet someone is to share a long handshake. Women greet one another informally and may hug and kiss one another on the cheek. The right hand is considered the clean and polite hand to use for daily tasks. Men and women do not touch each other. Somali culture is male centered in public. Children and elders share mutual respect. Somalis generally do not express their appreciation verbally. Elders are treated with respect. When addressing Somali culture, it is considered disrespectful to refer to ‘clan’ or tribes’. Somali women generally do not socialize with men in public places. The common way to greet someone is to share a long handshake. Women greet one another informally and may hug and kiss one another on the cheek. The right hand is considered the clean and polite hand to use for daily tasks. Men and women do not touch each other. Somali culture is male centered in public. Children and elders share mutual respect. Somalis generally do not express their appreciation verbally. Elders are treated with respect. When addressing Somali culture, it is considered disrespectful to refer to ‘clan’ or tribes’. Somali women generally do not socialize with men in public places. Denver Health Refugee Clinic 10/sep/27/somali-refugees/

29 Kakuma Refugee Camp: Kenya contributed by LFS

30 Other countries Ethiopia, Cuba, Burundi, etc. The U.S. resettled people from over 50 nationalities in 2010 based on the greatest need Most in need refugees include stateless people, victims of violence/war, and those suffering from political repression and religious freedom abuses. The U.S. resettled people from over 50 nationalities in 2010 based on the greatest need Most in need refugees include stateless people, victims of violence/war, and those suffering from political repression and religious freedom abuses. FY12 Report to Congress sadiahaidarig.wordpress.com UNHCR

31 The progress of a refugee: to a new home Assigned to a Voluntary Agency TravelA New Home clpmag.org

32 Refugee Resettlement Agencies in Denver (VOLAGs) Responsible for the initial reception and core services to refugees, including: - Case management - Employment assistance - English language acquisition - Housing: placement & furnishing - Cash assistance - Some immigration legal services - Tutoring, financial literacy, and other classes - Volunteer support Responsible for the initial reception and core services to refugees, including: - Case management - Employment assistance - English language acquisition - Housing: placement & furnishing - Cash assistance - Some immigration legal services - Tutoring, financial literacy, and other classes - Volunteer support

33 The Refugee’s Responsibilities Work toward self-sufficiency: Refugees are eligible to work lawfully on arrival and those who are fit and able to work are expected to find a job as soon as possible All adult refugees qualify for five years of free English classes at or through Emily Griffith Technical College so they are supported to learn the language After a year in the U.S., refugees should change their status to lawful permanent resident Refugees must pay back the travel loan that the IOM gives them for their international travel within 46 months Refugees are eligible to work lawfully on arrival and those who are fit and able to work are expected to find a job as soon as possible All adult refugees qualify for five years of free English classes at or through Emily Griffith Technical College so they are supported to learn the language After a year in the U.S., refugees should change their status to lawful permanent resident Refugees must pay back the travel loan that the IOM gives them for their international travel within 46 months

34 Challenges Many and varied: physical, emotional, mental problems: PTSD limited access to education; possible illiteracy in their first language few transferrable skills to an urban job market limited English skills very limited money and access to transportation cultural differences physical, emotional, mental problems: PTSD limited access to education; possible illiteracy in their first language few transferrable skills to an urban job market limited English skills very limited money and access to transportation cultural differences

35 Services for Schools Refugee School Impact Grant Participating agencies –Colorado African Organization Lisa Bright –Jewish Family Service Mirjana B. Olujic ext. 343 –Lutheran Family Services Erin Kimmel How we support schools –Support for Refugee Parents –Additional trainings for teachers –Direct support for refugee students Participating agencies –Colorado African Organization Lisa Bright –Jewish Family Service Mirjana B. Olujic ext. 343 –Lutheran Family Services Erin Kimmel How we support schools –Support for Refugee Parents –Additional trainings for teachers –Direct support for refugee students

36 Sources/Resources Helpful websites –Bridging Refugee Youth and Children’s Services (BRYCS) –Colorado Refugee Services Program –Center for Applied Linguistics –United Nations High Commission on Refugees –International Rescue Committee –Independent School District of Boise City (http://www.sd01.k12.id.us/ell/) Clips of interest: –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKKB7NnqTHghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKKB7NnqTHg –http://www.unhcrwashington.org/site/c.ckLQI5NPIgJ2G/b /k.9D B8/Refugee_Congress.htmhttp://www.unhcrwashington.org/site/c.ckLQI5NPIgJ2G/b /k.9D B8/Refugee_Congress.htm

37 Questions? refugeeeducation.com


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