2In this Unit… Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart Chapter 16: The Civil War BeginsChapter 17: The Tide of War TurnsChapter 18: Reconstruction
3Why It Matters NowThe Civil War represented the greatest threat to the survival of the American republic in our history. Why we fought, how the Union won, and how we rebuilt the nation remain enduring matters of discussion and debate.
4Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation
5In this Chapter… Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Lesson 2: War Affects SocietyLesson 3: The North WinsLesson 4: The Legacy of the War
6In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Essential QuestionIn what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?
7How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war? Key QuestionHow did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war?
8VocabularyEmancipation Proclamation: Document issued by Lincoln that declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were free54th Massachusetts Volunteers: Regiment of African-American soldiers that gained fame for its courageous assault on Fort Wagner, South CarolinaEmancipate: To free
9A War of LiberationAs the Union troops went through the South, thousands of slaves escapedAbolitionists were pressuring the government to actLincoln feared he did not have the power to abolish slavery in every stateLincoln also wanted to preserve the UnionLincoln did not want to anger the border statesMany Northerners also objected to emancipationWhy?Believed it was each state’s right to decide
10The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln needed to weaken the SouthJanuary 1, 1863Lincoln issued the Emancipation ProclamationDeclared all slaves in Confederate territory were free“On the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward and forever free.” – Abraham Lincoln
11The Emancipation Proclamation Made a huge impact on the publicBut it actually free few slavesOnly the Union army would enforce the ProclamationMost states lived far away from where the Union army was locatedWhy only in the South?Lincoln believed he did not have the constitutional power to free slavesBut the Proclamation could be seen as a military actionHe had the military authority to do thisNow the goal of the Civil War wasn’t just to preserve the Union, but also to free millions from slavery
12Response to the Proclamation Abolitionists were thrilled“We shout for joy that we live to record this righteous decree.” – Frederick DouglassMany believed the law should have gone fartherThey were upset Lincoln had not freed all enslaved people, specifically in the border statesMany Northern Democrats were against the ProclamationThey believed the Proclamation would lengthen the war by angering the SouthThe proclamation was “monstrous, impudent, and heinous… insulting to God as to man.” – Ohio newspaperUnion soldiers support the Proclamation because it angered the rebelsWhite Southerners were angryMany slaves began to escape to the Union armyNo longer supplied the South with laborBegan to provide the Union with soldiers
13Fighting for FreedomThe Emancipation declared that African Americans could fight in the Union armyAfrican Americans rushed to enlist and brought intensity to the UnionAbout 180,000 total enlisted166 all-black regiments usually led by white officersShowed great courage on the battlefield and wore their uniforms with prideSome regiments insisted on fighting without pay instead of accepting lower payDetermined to destroy slavery, gain self-respect, and prove they deserved equal treatmentWhite officers often started off with racist views, but changed their minds after seeing their determination and courage
15The 54th Massachusetts Volunteers One of the 1st African American regiments organized in the North2 of Frederick Douglass’ sons joinedOne of the most famous in the Civil WarEarned its greatest glory in July 1863Led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South CarolinaAfrican American regiments faced great danger if they were capturedConfederate government threatened to execute them or return them to slavery rather than make them prisoners as war
17How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war? Key QuestionHow did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war?
18Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Lesson 2: War Affects Society
19In this Chapter… Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Lesson 2: War Affects SocietyLesson 3: The North WinsLesson 4: The Legacy of the War
20In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Essential QuestionIn what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?
21What difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on? Key QuestionWhat difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on?
22VocabularyWrit of habeas corpus: Law that prevents the government from holding citizens without formal chargesClara Barton: Civil War nurse who later founded the American Red Cross
23A Divisive TimeThere were many disagreements within the Union and the ConfederacySome Southern areas opposed secessionLike West VirginiaThe Copperheads in the North were Democrats who favored peace with the SouthA copperhead is a poisonous snake that strikes without warningLincoln had protesters arrestedHe suspended the writ of habeas corpusThis prevents the government from holding citizens without formal charges
25Slaves Undermine the Confederacy Enslaved people did their best to weaken the SouthThey slowed their work or stopped working altogetherWhen planters fled from Union armies, slaves refused to join their mastersThey waited to join the Union armyAfter the Emancipation Proclamation, more and more slaves fled plantations“It was very touching to see the vast numbers of colored [African American] women following after us with babies in their arms, and little ones like our Anna clinging to their tattered skirts. One poor creature, while nobody was looking, hid two boys , five years old, in a wagon, intending, I suppose that they should see the land of freedom if she couldn’t.”- Union officer
26The Draft Laws Enthusiasm for the war began to decline Both the North and South passed laws of conscription (laws requiring men to serve in the military)Southern Planters with more than 20 slaves were not required to serve in the armyIn the North and South, the rich could pay substitutes to serve in their placeThis caused resentment and angerThe Draft was very unpopularLed to a 4 day riot in July 1863 in New York CityMany destroyed property and attacked African AmericansOver 100 people were killed or woundedUnion soldiers had to be called in to put down the uprising
27Economic and Social Change NorthFree African Americans were serving in the militaryWomen were taking over jobs in factories and hospitalsPoverty and hunger were spreadingSouthSuffering was worse in the South
28Economic Effects of the War SouthFood shortages were commonMany farmers were in the army and could not harvest cropsTransportation was disrupted and prevented food from reaching marketsArmies seized foodInflation (increase in the cost of goods and decrease in the value of money)Prices rose steadilyLife was harder
29Economic and Social Change Two federal government changesIncome TaxTax on earningsPaper currencyKnown as greenbacksHelped the Northern economy by making sure people had money to spendHelped the federal government pay for the war
30Women Aid the War Effort With so many men away at war, women had to assume more responsibilitiesWomen plowed the fields and ran the farms or plantationsThey took over office and factory jobsThousands of women served as volunteer workers and nurses on the battlefieldClara Barton and Susie King Taylor“Many lives were lost, - not men alone but noble women as well”Relief agencies allowed women to work gathering supplies, washing clothes, and cooking foodNursing became a professionAbout 20,000 nurses worked in hospitalsWomen also disguised themselves as men and enlistedJennie Hodgers became Albert CashierWomen also served as spiesBelle Boyd was arrested 6 times
33War Transforms Society Opportunities opened up for many groupsAfrican Americans could serve in the militaryWomen gained an active role in many areasIn the South, ordinary people began to resent the draft lawsSociety was more divided because of draft laws, inflation and food shortages (especially in the South)
34What difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on? Key QuestionWhat difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on?
35Chapter 17: The Civil War Begins Lesson 3: The North Wins
36In this Chapter… Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Lesson 2: War Affects SocietyLesson 3: The North WinsLesson 4: The Legacy of the War
37In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Essential QuestionIn what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?
38What led to the surrender of the Confederacy? Key QuestionWhat led to the surrender of the Confederacy?
39VocabularyBattle of Gettysburg: Battle in 1863 in Pennsylvania when Union forces stopped a Confederate invasion of the NorthPickett’s Charge: Failed assault on Union positions on final day of Battle of GettysburgSherman’s March to the Sea: Union general Sherman’s destructive march across Georgia
40Update Timeline The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 Battle of GettysburgJulyUnion Victory
41Update Timeline Sherman’s March to the Sea November 15- December 21, 1864Fall of RichmondApril 3, 1865Union Victory
42Update TimelineSurrender at AppomattoxApril 9, 1865
43Union Victories Confederacy had won some key battles in the East Lee decided to further invade the NorthIn a recent Northern battle, Confederate troops accidentally shot and killed Confederate General Stonewall JacksonLee thought another victory in the North would force the Union into talks of peace and bring European nations in as alliesLee crossed into Pennsylvania and stumbled upon Union troops in Gettysburg
44The Battle of Gettysburg Fighting lasted for 3 days90,000 Union troops against 75,000 Confederate troopsUnion forces tried to hold their ground at Cemetery Ridge while Confederates tried to remove themThe Turning Point- Pickett’s ChargeGeneral George Pickett mounted a direct attack on the middle of the Union lineIt was a deadly mistake15,000 rebel troops charged up the ridge into heavy Union fireConfederates were forced to retreat and waited for a counterattackLincoln’s army once again failed to finish off the Lee’s armyThe furious Lincoln wondered if he would ever find a general that would defeat Lee once and for all
45The Battle of Gettysburg The Union rejoiced over the victoryLee’s hopes were crushedCasualtiesNorth: 23,000 (about ¼ of the army)South: 28,000 (about 1/3 of the army)Lee led his army back to VirginiaAlthough the war lasted 2 more years, the South never recovered from the defeat at Gettysburg
46The Siege of Vicksburg July 4, 1863 Confederate troops at Vicksburg surrendered to GrantVicksburg was the last hold that Confederates had on the MississippiGrant began his attack in May of 1863Direct attacks failed, so he settled in for a long siegeGrant’s troops surrounded the city and prevented delivery of food and suppliesConfederates ran out of foodCivilians moved into caves to protect themselves from the constant bombardmentAfter a month and a half, the city surrenderedThis victory fulfilled a major part of the Anaconda Plan- the South was split in twoThe tide of the war had turned in favor of the UnionPresident Lincoln had found the man who might be able to defeat Lee
47New Plans for the UnionMarch Lincoln gives command of all Union armies to GrantGrant would pursue Lee’s army in VirginiaGeneral William Tecumseh Sherman would push through the deep South
48Sherman Takes AtlantaSherman traveled from Tennessee to Atlanta, GeorgiaIn November 1864, Sherman burned Atlanta and set out on a terrifying march to the seaSherman’s March to the SeaThe army cut a path of destruction across Georgia that was 60 miles wide and 300 miles longSherman waged total war (a war not only against enemy troops, but against everything that supported the enemy)Tore up railroad linesDestroyed cropsBurned and looted townsHe reached the coast at Savannah in December and continued north into the Carolinas to meet Grant in VirginiaHis march tore into the heart of the ConfederacyIt also increase the size of the Union armyIn Georgia alone, 19,000 former slaves joined the Union army
49Grant’s Virginia Campaign Grant pursued Lee’s armyHe had a brutal plan- keep attacking Lee’s army no matter how many casualties the Union would sufferThe Union could replace soldiers and suppliesThe South was running outLee would fight and then escape to fight another day after his troops recoveredIt took Grant a year to corner and defeat LeeGrant said, “No matter what happens, we will not retreat!”Grant’s army suffered great losses but he pushed onUnion troops were so sure they would die in battle that they pinned their names and addresses on their jackets so their bodies could be identified laterUnable to break through Confederate lines just South of Richmond, Union forces dug trenches and settled in for a 9 month long siege
50Richmond Falls April 1865- Lee realized he could hold out no longer He sent Jefferson Davis a note advising the government to leave RichmondLee hoped to move the army to food supplies to prolong the warApril 2- Confederate government fled the capitalLeaders burnt anything that could be of use to the Union armyThe city was in flames when the Union forces arrived April 3Lincoln came to visit the cityWhites stayed indoorsAfrican Americans cheered for the president who led the fight for freedom
51Surrender at Appomattox Lee fled west while Grant followedLee wanted to continue fighting but knew the situation was hopelessLee sent a message to Grant saying he was ready to surrenderApril 9, 1865Lee and Grant met in the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange the surrenderGrant wrote later that his joy at that moment was mixed with sadnessGrant offered generous terms of surrenderConfederates could return home in peace after laying down their armsConfederates could keep their private possessions and horses with themGrant also fed the hungry Confederate troops
52What led to the surrender of the Confederacy? Key QuestionWhat led to the surrender of the Confederacy?
53Chapter 17: The Civil War Begins Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War
54In this Chapter… Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Lesson 2: War Affects SocietyLesson 3: The North WinsLesson 4: The Legacy of the War
55In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Essential QuestionIn what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?
56How did the nation change after the war ended? Key QuestionHow did the nation change after the war ended?
57VocabularyJohn Wilkes Booth: Confederate supporter who assassinated Abraham LincolnThirteenth Amendment: Constitutional amendment that ended slavery
58The Gettysburg Address On November 19, 1863, officials gathered in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. They were there to dedicate a national cemetery on the ground where the decisive Battle of Gettysburg had taken place nearly five months earlier. Following the ceremony’s main address, which lasted nearly two hours, President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address in just over two minutes. In this famous speech, Lincoln expressed his hopes for the nation.
59The Gettysburg Address Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
60The Gettysburg Address But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate… we cannot consecrate… we cannot hallow… this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us… that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead should not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
61Costs of the War The Union had be preserved but at a terrible cost Deadliest war in American historyIn just 4 years620,000 dead (360,000 Union; 260,000 Confederate)275,000 Union wounded; 100,000 Confederate woundedMany suffered health problems the rest of their livesNorth and South spent enormous sums of moneyGovernment was still paying interest on loans many years later
62The South in Ruins After the War Economic disaster in the South Farms and plantations were destroyed40% of livestock were killed50% of farm machinery wreckedFactories were demolishedThousands of miles of railroad tracks were torn upOnly had 12% of the nation’s wealth (30% before the war)South remained locked in poverty long after the warEconomic gap would last for decades
63Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865 (5 days after Lee’s surrender)President Lincoln was shot while watching a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C.John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate supporter escaped but was killed by troops 11 days laterLincoln was wounded and carried to a house nearbyA bullet in his brain could not be removedHe died the next morning as the first American President to be assassinatedMany Americans wept in the streets
64The Nation Transformed The Civil War had created a new nation economically and sociallyThe issue of state’s rights was settled- states did not have the power to secedeThe national government expandedNew paper currencyNew income taxNew federal banking systemFunded railroadsGave western settlers landProvided for state collegesSouth’s economy was destroyed (now had to pay for workers)Industry in the north grew rapidly (steel, petroleum, food processing, and manufacturing)
65Greatest effect was the freeing of millions of enslaved Americans “After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see.” – Booker T. WashingtonJanuary Congress passed the 13th AmendmentEnded and banned slaveryApproved by 27 states including 8 southern statesChallengesSouth had to be brought back into the Union4 million former slaves had to be integrated into national lifeAmericans had to turn their energies into rebuilding the nation
66In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Economic ChangeIncome taxPaper currencyGrowing industryDestroyed southern economyFactory production increasesSocial ChangeSlavery is abolishedAfrican Americans serve in the militaryDraft laws are introducedWomen become active in societyPolitical ChangeFederal government grows more powerfulUnited States pulls through as a unionChanges in WarfareModern rifle and minie ballIncreases number of casualtiesIronclads
67How did the nation change after the war ended? Key QuestionHow did the nation change after the war ended?
68In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation? Essential QuestionIn what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?