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1846-1877.  Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart  Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins  Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns  Chapter 18: Reconstruction.

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Presentation on theme: "1846-1877.  Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart  Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins  Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns  Chapter 18: Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart  Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins  Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns  Chapter 18: Reconstruction

3 The Civil War represented the greatest threat to the survival of the American republic in our history. Why we fought, how the Union won, and how we rebuilt the nation remain enduring matters of discussion and debate.

4 Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation

5  Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation  Lesson 2: War Affects Society  Lesson 3: The North Wins  Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War

6 In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?

7 How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war?

8  Emancipation Proclamation: Document issued by Lincoln that declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were free  54 th Massachusetts Volunteers: Regiment of African-American soldiers that gained fame for its courageous assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina  Emancipate: To free

9  As the Union troops went through the South, thousands of slaves escaped  Abolitionists were pressuring the government to act  Lincoln feared he did not have the power to abolish slavery in every state  Lincoln also wanted to preserve the Union  Lincoln did not want to anger the border states  Many Northerners also objected to emancipation Why?  Believed it was each state’s right to decide

10  Lincoln needed to weaken the South  January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation Declared all slaves in Confederate territory were free “On the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward and forever free.” – Abraham Lincoln

11  Made a huge impact on the public  But it actually free few slaves  Only the Union army would enforce the Proclamation  Most states lived far away from where the Union army was located  Why only in the South? Lincoln believed he did not have the constitutional power to free slaves But the Proclamation could be seen as a military action He had the military authority to do this  Now the goal of the Civil War wasn’t just to preserve the Union, but also to free millions from slavery

12  Abolitionists were thrilled “We shout for joy that we live to record this righteous decree.” – Frederick Douglass Many believed the law should have gone farther They were upset Lincoln had not freed all enslaved people, specifically in the border states  Many Northern Democrats were against the Proclamation They believed the Proclamation would lengthen the war by angering the South The proclamation was “monstrous, impudent, and heinous… insulting to God as to man.” – Ohio newspaper  Union soldiers support the Proclamation because it angered the rebels  White Southerners were angry Many slaves began to escape to the Union army  No longer supplied the South with labor  Began to provide the Union with soldiers

13  The Emancipation declared that African Americans could fight in the Union army  African Americans rushed to enlist and brought intensity to the Union  About 180,000 total enlisted 166 all-black regiments usually led by white officers Showed great courage on the battlefield and wore their uniforms with pride Some regiments insisted on fighting without pay instead of accepting lower pay Determined to destroy slavery, gain self-respect, and prove they deserved equal treatment  White officers often started off with racist views, but changed their minds after seeing their determination and courage

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15  One of the 1 st African American regiments organized in the North  2 of Frederick Douglass’ sons joined  One of the most famous in the Civil War  Earned its greatest glory in July 1863 Led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina  African American regiments faced great danger if they were captured Confederate government threatened to execute them or return them to slavery rather than make them prisoners as war

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17 How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the war?

18 Lesson 2: War Affects Society

19  Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation  Lesson 2: War Affects Society  Lesson 3: The North Wins  Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War

20 In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?

21 What difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on?

22  Writ of habeas corpus: Law that prevents the government from holding citizens without formal charges  Clara Barton: Civil War nurse who later founded the American Red Cross

23  There were many disagreements within the Union and the Confederacy  Some Southern areas opposed secession Like West Virginia  The Copperheads in the North were Democrats who favored peace with the South A copperhead is a poisonous snake that strikes without warning  Lincoln had protesters arrested  He suspended the writ of habeas corpus This prevents the government from holding citizens without formal charges

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25  Enslaved people did their best to weaken the South They slowed their work or stopped working altogether  When planters fled from Union armies, slaves refused to join their masters  They waited to join the Union army  After the Emancipation Proclamation, more and more slaves fled plantations  “It was very touching to see the vast numbers of colored [African American] women following after us with babies in their arms, and little ones like our Anna clinging to their tattered skirts. One poor creature, while nobody was looking, hid two boys, five years old, in a wagon, intending, I suppose that they should see the land of freedom if she couldn’t.” - Union officer

26  Enthusiasm for the war began to decline  Both the North and South passed laws of conscription (laws requiring men to serve in the military)  Southern Planters with more than 20 slaves were not required to serve in the army  In the North and South, the rich could pay substitutes to serve in their place  This caused resentment and anger  The Draft was very unpopular  Led to a 4 day riot in July 1863 in New York City Many destroyed property and attacked African Americans Over 100 people were killed or wounded Union soldiers had to be called in to put down the uprising

27  North Free African Americans were serving in the military Women were taking over jobs in factories and hospitals Poverty and hunger were spreading  South Poverty and hunger were spreading Suffering was worse in the South

28  South Food shortages were common  Many farmers were in the army and could not harvest crops  Transportation was disrupted and prevented food from reaching markets  Armies seized food Inflation (increase in the cost of goods and decrease in the value of money)  Prices rose steadily  Life was harder

29  Two federal government changes Income Tax  Tax on earnings Paper currency  Known as greenbacks  Helped the Northern economy by making sure people had money to spend  Helped the federal government pay for the war

30  With so many men away at war, women had to assume more responsibilities  Women plowed the fields and ran the farms or plantations  They took over office and factory jobs  Thousands of women served as volunteer workers and nurses on the battlefield Clara Barton and Susie King Taylor “Many lives were lost, - not men alone but noble women as well”  Relief agencies allowed women to work gathering supplies, washing clothes, and cooking food  Nursing became a profession  About 20,000 nurses worked in hospitals  Women also disguised themselves as men and enlisted Jennie Hodgers became Albert Cashier  Women also served as spies Belle Boyd was arrested 6 times

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33  Opportunities opened up for many groups African Americans could serve in the military Women gained an active role in many areas  In the South, ordinary people began to resent the draft laws  Society was more divided because of draft laws, inflation and food shortages (especially in the South)

34 What difficulties did the nation face as the war dragged on?

35 Lesson 3: The North Wins

36  Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation  Lesson 2: War Affects Society  Lesson 3: The North Wins  Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War

37 In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?

38 What led to the surrender of the Confederacy?

39  Battle of Gettysburg: Battle in 1863 in Pennsylvania when Union forces stopped a Confederate invasion of the North  Pickett’s Charge: Failed assault on Union positions on final day of Battle of Gettysburg  Sherman’s March to the Sea: Union general Sherman’s destructive march across Georgia

40  The Emancipation Proclamation  January 1, 1863  Battle of Gettysburg  July  Union Victory

41  Sherman’s March to the Sea  November 15- December 21, 1864  Fall of Richmond  April 3, 1865  Union Victory

42  Surrender at Appomattox  April 9, 1865

43  Confederacy had won some key battles in the East  Lee decided to further invade the North In a recent Northern battle, Confederate troops accidentally shot and killed Confederate General Stonewall Jackson Lee thought another victory in the North would force the Union into talks of peace and bring European nations in as allies Lee crossed into Pennsylvania and stumbled upon Union troops in Gettysburg

44  Fighting lasted for 3 days  90,000 Union troops against 75,000 Confederate troops  Union forces tried to hold their ground at Cemetery Ridge while Confederates tried to remove them  The Turning Point- Pickett’s Charge General George Pickett mounted a direct attack on the middle of the Union line It was a deadly mistake 15,000 rebel troops charged up the ridge into heavy Union fire Confederates were forced to retreat and waited for a counterattack Lincoln’s army once again failed to finish off the Lee’s army  The furious Lincoln wondered if he would ever find a general that would defeat Lee once and for all

45  The Union rejoiced over the victory  Lee’s hopes were crushed  Casualties North: 23,000 (about ¼ of the army) South: 28,000 (about 1/3 of the army)  Lee led his army back to Virginia  Although the war lasted 2 more years, the South never recovered from the defeat at Gettysburg

46  July 4, 1863  Confederate troops at Vicksburg surrendered to Grant  Vicksburg was the last hold that Confederates had on the Mississippi  Grant began his attack in May of 1863 Direct attacks failed, so he settled in for a long siege Grant’s troops surrounded the city and prevented delivery of food and supplies Confederates ran out of food Civilians moved into caves to protect themselves from the constant bombardment After a month and a half, the city surrendered  This victory fulfilled a major part of the Anaconda Plan- the South was split in two  The tide of the war had turned in favor of the Union  President Lincoln had found the man who might be able to defeat Lee

47  March Lincoln gives command of all Union armies to Grant  Grant would pursue Lee’s army in Virginia  General William Tecumseh Sherman would push through the deep South

48  Sherman traveled from Tennessee to Atlanta, Georgia  In November 1864, Sherman burned Atlanta and set out on a terrifying march to the sea  Sherman’s March to the Sea The army cut a path of destruction across Georgia that was 60 miles wide and 300 miles long Sherman waged total war (a war not only against enemy troops, but against everything that supported the enemy)  Tore up railroad lines  Destroyed crops  Burned and looted towns  He reached the coast at Savannah in December and continued north into the Carolinas to meet Grant in Virginia  His march tore into the heart of the Confederacy  It also increase the size of the Union army In Georgia alone, 19,000 former slaves joined the Union army

49  Grant pursued Lee’s army  He had a brutal plan- keep attacking Lee’s army no matter how many casualties the Union would suffer The Union could replace soldiers and supplies The South was running out  Lee would fight and then escape to fight another day after his troops recovered  It took Grant a year to corner and defeat Lee  Grant said, “No matter what happens, we will not retreat!” Grant’s army suffered great losses but he pushed on Union troops were so sure they would die in battle that they pinned their names and addresses on their jackets so their bodies could be identified later Unable to break through Confederate lines just South of Richmond, Union forces dug trenches and settled in for a 9 month long siege

50  April Lee realized he could hold out no longer  He sent Jefferson Davis a note advising the government to leave Richmond  Lee hoped to move the army to food supplies to prolong the war  April 2- Confederate government fled the capital  Leaders burnt anything that could be of use to the Union army  The city was in flames when the Union forces arrived April 3  Lincoln came to visit the city Whites stayed indoors African Americans cheered for the president who led the fight for freedom

51  Lee fled west while Grant followed  Lee wanted to continue fighting but knew the situation was hopeless  Lee sent a message to Grant saying he was ready to surrender  April 9, 1865 Lee and Grant met in the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange the surrender Grant wrote later that his joy at that moment was mixed with sadness Grant offered generous terms of surrender  Confederates could return home in peace after laying down their arms  Confederates could keep their private possessions and horses with them  Grant also fed the hungry Confederate troops

52 What led to the surrender of the Confederacy?

53 Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War

54  Lesson 1: The Emancipation Proclamation  Lesson 2: War Affects Society  Lesson 3: The North Wins  Lesson 4: The Legacy of the War

55 In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?

56 How did the nation change after the war ended?

57  John Wilkes Booth: Confederate supporter who assassinated Abraham Lincoln  Thirteenth Amendment: Constitutional amendment that ended slavery

58 On November 19, 1863, officials gathered in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. They were there to dedicate a national cemetery on the ground where the decisive Battle of Gettysburg had taken place nearly five months earlier. Following the ceremony’s main address, which lasted nearly two hours, President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address in just over two minutes. In this famous speech, Lincoln expressed his hopes for the nation.

59 Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

60 But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate… we cannot consecrate… we cannot hallow… this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us… that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead should not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

61  The Union had be preserved but at a terrible cost  Deadliest war in American history  In just 4 years 620,000 dead (360,000 Union; 260,000 Confederate) 275,000 Union wounded; 100,000 Confederate wounded Many suffered health problems the rest of their lives North and South spent enormous sums of money Government was still paying interest on loans many years later

62  After the War Economic disaster in the South Farms and plantations were destroyed 40% of livestock were killed 50% of farm machinery wrecked Factories were demolished Thousands of miles of railroad tracks were torn up Only had 12% of the nation’s wealth (30% before the war) South remained locked in poverty long after the war Economic gap would last for decades

63  April 14, 1865 (5 days after Lee’s surrender)  President Lincoln was shot while watching a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C.  John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate supporter escaped but was killed by troops 11 days later  Lincoln was wounded and carried to a house nearby  A bullet in his brain could not be removed  He died the next morning as the first American President to be assassinated  Many Americans wept in the streets

64  The Civil War had created a new nation economically and socially  The issue of state’s rights was settled- states did not have the power to secede  The national government expanded New paper currency New income tax New federal banking system Funded railroads Gave western settlers land Provided for state colleges  South’s economy was destroyed (now had to pay for workers)  Industry in the north grew rapidly (steel, petroleum, food processing, and manufacturing)

65  Greatest effect was the freeing of millions of enslaved Americans  “After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see.” – Booker T. Washington  January Congress passed the 13 th Amendment Ended and banned slavery Approved by 27 states including 8 southern states  Challenges South had to be brought back into the Union 4 million former slaves had to be integrated into national life Americans had to turn their energies into rebuilding the nation

66  Economic Change Income tax Paper currency Growing industry Destroyed southern economy Factory production increases  Social Change Slavery is abolished African Americans serve in the military Draft laws are introduced Women become active in society  Political Change Federal government grows more powerful United States pulls through as a union  Changes in Warfare Modern rifle and minie ball Increases number of casualties Ironclads

67 How did the nation change after the war ended?

68 In what ways did the Civil War transform the nation?


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