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1500s to 1600s PROTESTANT REFORMATION.  During the Renaissance, W. Euro. was still Roman Catholic but it was beginning to weaken  Rise of Humanism:

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Presentation on theme: "1500s to 1600s PROTESTANT REFORMATION.  During the Renaissance, W. Euro. was still Roman Catholic but it was beginning to weaken  Rise of Humanism:"— Presentation transcript:


2  During the Renaissance, W. Euro. was still Roman Catholic but it was beginning to weaken  Rise of Humanism: humanists were secular, believing in free thought and questions accepted beliefs THE CHURCH

3  2 Main problems:  Worldliness and Corruption w/in the church  Political conflict between the pope and European monarchs WEAKENING OF THE CHURCH

4  By the 1300’s, Catholics felt the church was becoming too corrupt  Failed to live up to their role as spiritual leader  Priests, monks, & nuns broke vows not to marry or have children  Behaved like royalty, extremely wealthy and powerful  Troubled by the way many Church officials raised money in support of the Church  Sold indulgences (release from punishment for sins) Sold indulgences  Sold offices, simony  Charged people to see holy relics of saints  Paid taxes to church & their gov. WORLDLINESS AND CORRUPTION

5  Pope = powerful political & religious leader  Church was wealthy & independent of political control  Monarchs wanted more power, argued over Church property and other conflicts POLITICAL CONFLICT

6  France 1301, King Philip IV tried to tax Fr. Clergy  Pope threated to remove him from Church  Soldiers kidnapped the Pope  1309 Clement moved headquarters from Rome to Avignon (Fr.)  Appointed 24 cardinals, 22 were Fr.  1377 Pope Gregory XI moved Papacy back to Rome  1378 Gregory died & an Italian declared pope, refused to move back to Avignon  Fr. Cardinals left Rome and declared a rival pope in Avignon  Church council elected a 3 rd pope  The Great Schism THREE CRISIS

7  Catholics begin to challenge the Church and call for reform  John Wycliffe (Eng.)  Translated the Bible into English  Publicly questioned the pope’s authority.  Attacked indulgences and immoral behavior by the clergy  Believe Bible was key source of authority  Accused of heresy- his followers were persecuted and burned to death CALLS FOR REFORM

8  Bohemian priest  Criticized wealth of the Church  Spoke out against pope’s authority  Said true head of Church was Jesus Christ  Wanted Bible and mass to be in other languages besides Latin  1414: arrested for heresy  1415: burned at the stake JAN HUS

9  Felt she had direct experience with God  Traveled to Rome to try and end Great Schism  Showed that people could lead spiritual lives that went beyond the usual norms of the Church  Prepared people for ideas of the Reformation  1461 declared a saint CATHERINE OF SIENA

10  Humanist from Holland  Wrote The Praise of Folly: included abuses by the clergy and church leaders  His attacks on corruption led many to want to leave Catholicism  “Erasmus laid the egg, and Luther hatched it.” DESIDERIUS ERASMUS

11  German priest German priest  Began the Protestant Reformation  Conflict over indulgences, only God could grant salvation through faith  1517 Pope Leo X sold indulgences to finish building St. Peter’s Basilica MARTIN LUTHER

12  Luther posed theses, list of arguments, against indulgences and Church abuses on church door in Wittenberg  Sent the 95 Theses to Church leaders = controversial95 Theses  Believed the Bible was ultimate source of religious authority  Baptism and the Eucharist only true sacraments  Everyone should study the bible 95 THESES

13  1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated him  April, brought before the Diet (assembly of state leaders) in Worms, but refused to take back teachings  Declared a heretic and forbidden from selling writings LUTHER

14  Increased in popularity, organized a new Christian denomination = Lutheranism  Emphasized study of the bible  Translated Bible into German  Wrote baptism service, mass, and hymns in German  Needed support of German princes, sided with rulers during a peasants’ revolt in 1555  Tens of thousands of peasants died, rejected Lutheranism  Lutherans and Catholics at war until Peace of Augsburg (1555)  Princes in HRE determined religion of subjects LUTHERANISM

15  Catholic priest in Zurich, Switzerland  Influenced by Erasmus and Luther  Wanted Christians to focus on the Bible not on relics, saints, or images.  Persuaded local gov. to ban worship not based on the bible  In his churches there were no paintings or statues  Services were simple, without music or singing. HULDRYCH ZWINGLI

16  French humanist in Geneva  Wrote Institutes of the Christian Faith  Believed that salvation came only from God’s grace  Believed in hard work & thrift  Believed in predestination – God knew from the beginning of time who would be condemned. JOHN CALVIN

17  Led England’s Protestant Reformation.  Formed the Church of England (also called the Anglican Church)  His reasons for breaking from the Catholic Church were personal: 1.He wanted to divorce his first wife and the church forbade it (had 6 total)wife 2.He was tired of sharing power with the Pope KING HENRY VIII

18  Eng. Priest, scholar, writer  Attacked Catholic corruption and defended Eng. Reformation  Arrested at Antwerp by Catholic authorities and burned at the stake  Translated New and Old Testament into Eng.  Used in preparation of the King James Bible WILLIAM TYNDALE

19 Sects of Protestanti sm THE SPREAD & IMPACT

20  Began after Martin Luther excommunicated  People couldn’t do anything to earn their salvation, only God could grant through faith  Only be saved if truly believed in Jesus, were sorry for their sins, and accepted the Bible as true  Met in old Catholic churches, Holy Communion, Bible readings and sermons, hymns in German to popular tunes  Two sacraments: baptism and Communion  Emphasis on family: Prayer before meals and bed, women should marry and have multiple children  Lutheran ministers could marry LUTHERANISM

21  Founded by John Calvin  God chose the “elect” to be saved and enjoy eternal life  Predestination  Elect demonstrated good behavior, i.e. singing, dancing, playing cards, and wearing fancy clothes were forbidden  Bible only religious guidance, religious rules became laws for gov.  Services up to 5x a week  Church simple, men and women sat on opposite sides of pulpit, sang only words from Bible  2 Sacraments  Theocracy CALVINISM

22  1534 King Henry VIII in Eng.  Wanted to divorce Katherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn (no heir and forbidden)  Parliament declared him head of the Church of England  Baptism washed away original sin, but to get to heaven, only believe in God, regret sins, and receive God’s mercy  The Monarch interpreted the Bible w/ Archbishop of Canterbury, people could interpret if loyal  Combined Roman Catholic and Lutheran services  2 Sacraments  Official prayer book, Book of Common Prayer, published under King Edward VI  King James Bible  Queen Elizabeth I said Eng. Should choose how to worship as long as they were loyal ANGLICANISM


24  1545 Catholic leaders met in Trent, Italy to combat corruption of the Church & fight Protestantism  20 sessions over 18 years 20 sessions  Rejected predestination & justification by faith alone  Reaffirmed the 7 sacraments  Latin Bible was the only official scripture and Church’s authority to interpret the bible  Better edu. and training for clergy, priests & bishops to preach more, corrected abuses w/ money and Church offices COUNCIL OF TRENT

25  Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, Sp. nobleman  Goals to preach, edu. people, & feed the poor  Founded schools & colleges, missionaries in Africa, Asia, and Americas  Brought Europeans back to the church SOCIETY OF JESUS (JESUITS)

26  1. The church looked to Catholic rulers to support it and to win back lands lost to Protestantism  2. The pope started the Roman Inquisition, which condemned people whose views were considered dangerous and Jews  3. The church published a list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read, and dealt harshly with those it labeled heretics FIGHTING PROTESTANTISM

27  Led to a series of wars and persecutions in the 16 th and 17 th centuries between Catholics and Protestants, as well as other religions.  Fr. Protestants moved fled to Switzerland or other countries  Civil War in Fr. left over a million dead between 1562- 1598  30 Years’ War in Germany between Protestants and Protestants and Catholics, nations also fighting for power 30 Years’ War  Peace of Westphalia in 1648, set boundaries between Catholic and Protestant lands EFFECTS OF THE REFORMATION

28  Nationalism = people identified w/ their nation & official state religions strengthened unity  Age of Monarchs claimed authority over religious and revived divine right of kings  Religious freedom, Puritans fled Eng. For N. Am.  Protestant churches sought freedom and independence and often chose their own leaders. This helped pave the way for democracy. EFFECTS CONT.

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