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Protestant Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Protestant Reformation
1500s to 1600s

2 The church During the Renaissance, W. Euro. was still Roman Catholic but it was beginning to weaken Rise of Humanism: humanists were secular, believing in free thought and questions accepted beliefs

3 Weakening of the Church
2 Main problems: Worldliness and Corruption w/in the church Political conflict between the pope and European monarchs

4 Worldliness and corruption
By the 1300’s, Catholics felt the church was becoming too corrupt Failed to live up to their role as spiritual leader Priests, monks, & nuns broke vows not to marry or have children Behaved like royalty, extremely wealthy and powerful Troubled by the way many Church officials raised money in support of the Church Sold indulgences (release from punishment for sins) Sold offices, simony Charged people to see holy relics of saints Paid taxes to church & their gov.

5 Political conflict Pope = powerful political & religious leader
Church was wealthy & independent of political control Monarchs wanted more power, argued over Church property and other conflicts

6 Three Crisis France 1301, King Philip IV tried to tax Fr. Clergy
Pope threated to remove him from Church Soldiers kidnapped the Pope 1309 Clement moved headquarters from Rome to Avignon (Fr.) Appointed 24 cardinals, 22 were Fr. 1377 Pope Gregory XI moved Papacy back to Rome 1378 Gregory died & an Italian declared pope, refused to move back to Avignon Fr. Cardinals left Rome and declared a rival pope in Avignon Church council elected a 3rd pope The Great Schism

7 Calls for reform Catholics begin to challenge the Church and call for reform John Wycliffe (Eng.) Translated the Bible into English Publicly questioned the pope’s authority. Attacked indulgences and immoral behavior by the clergy Believe Bible was key source of authority Accused of heresy- his followers were persecuted and burned to death

8 Jan Hus Bohemian priest Criticized wealth of the Church
Spoke out against pope’s authority Said true head of Church was Jesus Christ Wanted Bible and mass to be in other languages besides Latin 1414: arrested for heresy 1415: burned at the stake

9 Catherine of Siena Felt she had direct experience with God
Traveled to Rome to try and end Great Schism Showed that people could lead spiritual lives that went beyond the usual norms of the Church Prepared people for ideas of the Reformation 1461 declared a saint

10 Desiderius Erasmus Humanist from Holland
Wrote The Praise of Folly: included abuses by the clergy and church leaders His attacks on corruption led many to want to leave Catholicism “Erasmus laid the egg, and Luther hatched it.”

11 Martin Luther German priest Began the Protestant Reformation
Conflict over indulgences, only God could grant salvation through faith 1517 Pope Leo X sold indulgences to finish building St. Peter’s Basilica

12 95 Theses Luther posed theses, list of arguments, against indulgences and Church abuses on church door in Wittenberg Sent the 95 Theses to Church leaders = controversial Believed the Bible was ultimate source of religious authority Baptism and the Eucharist only true sacraments Everyone should study the bible

13 Luther 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated him
April, brought before the Diet (assembly of state leaders) in Worms, but refused to take back teachings Declared a heretic and forbidden from selling writings

14 Lutheranism Increased in popularity, organized a new Christian denomination = Lutheranism Emphasized study of the bible Translated Bible into German Wrote baptism service, mass, and hymns in German Needed support of German princes, sided with rulers during a peasants’ revolt in 1555 Tens of thousands of peasants died, rejected Lutheranism Lutherans and Catholics at war until Peace of Augsburg (1555) Princes in HRE determined religion of subjects

15 Huldrych Zwingli Catholic priest in Zurich, Switzerland
Influenced by Erasmus and Luther Wanted Christians to focus on the Bible not on relics, saints, or images. Persuaded local gov. to ban worship not based on the bible In his churches there were no paintings or statues Services were simple, without music or singing.

16 John Calvin French humanist in Geneva
Wrote Institutes of the Christian Faith Believed that salvation came only from God’s grace Believed in hard work & thrift Believed in predestination – God knew from the beginning of time who would be condemned.

17 King Henry VIII Led England’s Protestant Reformation.
Formed the Church of England (also called the Anglican Church) His reasons for breaking from the Catholic Church were personal: He wanted to divorce his first wife and the church forbade it (had 6 total) He was tired of sharing power with the Pope

18 William Tyndale Eng. Priest, scholar, writer
Attacked Catholic corruption and defended Eng. Reformation Arrested at Antwerp by Catholic authorities and burned at the stake Translated New and Old Testament into Eng. Used in preparation of the King James Bible

19 The Spread & Impact Sects of Protestantism

20 Lutheranism Began after Martin Luther excommunicated
People couldn’t do anything to earn their salvation, only God could grant through faith Only be saved if truly believed in Jesus, were sorry for their sins, and accepted the Bible as true Met in old Catholic churches, Holy Communion, Bible readings and sermons, hymns in German to popular tunes Two sacraments: baptism and Communion Emphasis on family: Prayer before meals and bed, women should marry and have multiple children Lutheran ministers could marry

21 Calvinism Founded by John Calvin
God chose the “elect” to be saved and enjoy eternal life Predestination Elect demonstrated good behavior, i.e. singing, dancing, playing cards, and wearing fancy clothes were forbidden Bible only religious guidance, religious rules became laws for gov. Services up to 5x a week Church simple, men and women sat on opposite sides of pulpit, sang only words from Bible 2 Sacraments Theocracy

22 Anglicanism 1534 King Henry VIII in Eng.
Wanted to divorce Katherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn (no heir and forbidden) Parliament declared him head of the Church of England Baptism washed away original sin, but to get to heaven, only believe in God, regret sins, and receive God’s mercy The Monarch interpreted the Bible w/ Archbishop of Canterbury, people could interpret if loyal Combined Roman Catholic and Lutheran services 2 Sacraments Official prayer book, Book of Common Prayer, published under King Edward VI King James Bible Queen Elizabeth I said Eng. Should choose how to worship as long as they were loyal

23 The Counter- Reformation

24 Council of Trent 1545 Catholic leaders met in Trent, Italy to combat corruption of the Church & fight Protestantism 20 sessions over 18 years Rejected predestination & justification by faith alone Reaffirmed the 7 sacraments Latin Bible was the only official scripture and Church’s authority to interpret the bible Better edu. and training for clergy, priests & bishops to preach more, corrected abuses w/ money and Church offices

25 Society of jesus (jesuits)
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, Sp. nobleman Goals to preach, edu. people, & feed the poor Founded schools & colleges, missionaries in Africa, Asia, and Americas Brought Europeans back to the church

26 Fighting Protestantism
1. The church looked to Catholic rulers to support it and to win back lands lost to Protestantism 2. The pope started the Roman Inquisition, which condemned people whose views were considered dangerous and Jews 3. The church published a list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read, and dealt harshly with those it labeled heretics

27 Effects of the Reformation
Led to a series of wars and persecutions in the 16th and 17th centuries between Catholics and Protestants, as well as other religions. Fr. Protestants moved fled to Switzerland or other countries Civil War in Fr. left over a million dead between 30 Years’ War in Germany between Protestants and Protestants and Catholics, nations also fighting for power Peace of Westphalia in 1648, set boundaries between Catholic and Protestant lands

28 Effects Cont. Nationalism = people identified w/ their nation & official state religions strengthened unity Age of Monarchs claimed authority over religious and revived divine right of kings Religious freedom, Puritans fled Eng. For N. Am. Protestant churches sought freedom and independence and often chose their own leaders. This helped pave the way for democracy.


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