2The churchDuring the Renaissance, W. Euro. was still Roman Catholic but it was beginning to weakenRise of Humanism: humanists were secular, believing in free thought and questions accepted beliefs
3Weakening of the Church 2 Main problems:Worldliness and Corruption w/in the churchPolitical conflict between the pope and European monarchs
4Worldliness and corruption By the 1300’s, Catholics felt the church was becoming too corruptFailed to live up to their role as spiritual leaderPriests, monks, & nuns broke vows not to marry or have childrenBehaved like royalty, extremely wealthy and powerfulTroubled by the way many Church officials raised money in support of the ChurchSold indulgences (release from punishment for sins)Sold offices, simonyCharged people to see holy relics of saintsPaid taxes to church & their gov.
5Political conflict Pope = powerful political & religious leader Church was wealthy & independent of political controlMonarchs wanted more power, argued over Church property and other conflicts
6Three Crisis France 1301, King Philip IV tried to tax Fr. Clergy Pope threated to remove him from ChurchSoldiers kidnapped the Pope1309 Clement moved headquarters from Rome to Avignon (Fr.)Appointed 24 cardinals, 22 were Fr.1377 Pope Gregory XI moved Papacy back to Rome1378 Gregory died & an Italian declared pope, refused to move back to AvignonFr. Cardinals left Rome and declared a rival pope in AvignonChurch council elected a 3rd popeThe Great Schism
7Calls for reformCatholics begin to challenge the Church and call for reformJohn Wycliffe (Eng.)Translated the Bible into EnglishPublicly questioned the pope’s authority.Attacked indulgences and immoral behavior by the clergyBelieve Bible was key source of authorityAccused of heresy- his followers were persecuted and burned to death
8Jan Hus Bohemian priest Criticized wealth of the Church Spoke out against pope’s authoritySaid true head of Church was Jesus ChristWanted Bible and mass to be in other languages besides Latin1414: arrested for heresy1415: burned at the stake
9Catherine of Siena Felt she had direct experience with God Traveled to Rome to try and end Great SchismShowed that people could lead spiritual lives that went beyond the usual norms of the ChurchPrepared people for ideas of the Reformation1461 declared a saint
10Desiderius Erasmus Humanist from Holland Wrote The Praise of Folly: included abuses by the clergy and church leadersHis attacks on corruption led many to want to leave Catholicism“Erasmus laid the egg, and Luther hatched it.”
11Martin Luther German priest Began the Protestant Reformation Conflict over indulgences, only God could grant salvation through faith1517 Pope Leo X sold indulgences to finish building St. Peter’s Basilica
1295 ThesesLuther posed theses, list of arguments, against indulgences and Church abuses on church door in WittenbergSent the 95 Theses to Church leaders = controversialBelieved the Bible was ultimate source of religious authorityBaptism and the Eucharist only true sacramentsEveryone should study the bible
13Luther 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated him April, brought before the Diet (assembly of state leaders) in Worms, but refused to take back teachingsDeclared a heretic and forbidden from selling writings
14LutheranismIncreased in popularity, organized a new Christian denomination = LutheranismEmphasized study of the bibleTranslated Bible into GermanWrote baptism service, mass, and hymns in GermanNeeded support of German princes, sided with rulers during a peasants’ revolt in 1555Tens of thousands of peasants died, rejected LutheranismLutherans and Catholics at war until Peace of Augsburg (1555)Princes in HRE determined religion of subjects
15Huldrych Zwingli Catholic priest in Zurich, Switzerland Influenced by Erasmus and LutherWanted Christians to focus on the Bible not on relics, saints, or images.Persuaded local gov. to ban worship not based on the bibleIn his churches there were no paintings or statuesServices were simple, without music or singing.
16John Calvin French humanist in Geneva Wrote Institutes of the Christian FaithBelieved that salvation came only from God’s graceBelieved in hard work & thriftBelieved in predestination – God knew from the beginning of time who would be condemned.
17King Henry VIII Led England’s Protestant Reformation. Formed the Church of England (also called the Anglican Church)His reasons for breaking from the Catholic Church were personal:He wanted to divorce his first wife and the church forbade it (had 6 total)He was tired of sharing power with the Pope
18William Tyndale Eng. Priest, scholar, writer Attacked Catholic corruption and defended Eng. ReformationArrested at Antwerp by Catholic authorities and burned at the stakeTranslated New and Old Testament into Eng.Used in preparation of the King James Bible
20Lutheranism Began after Martin Luther excommunicated People couldn’t do anything to earn their salvation, only God could grant through faithOnly be saved if truly believed in Jesus, were sorry for their sins, and accepted the Bible as trueMet in old Catholic churches, Holy Communion, Bible readings and sermons, hymns in German to popular tunesTwo sacraments: baptism and CommunionEmphasis on family: Prayer before meals and bed, women should marry and have multiple childrenLutheran ministers could marry
21Calvinism Founded by John Calvin God chose the “elect” to be saved and enjoy eternal lifePredestinationElect demonstrated good behavior, i.e. singing, dancing, playing cards, and wearing fancy clothes were forbiddenBible only religious guidance, religious rules became laws for gov.Services up to 5x a weekChurch simple, men and women sat on opposite sides of pulpit, sang only words from Bible2 SacramentsTheocracy
22Anglicanism 1534 King Henry VIII in Eng. Wanted to divorce Katherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn (no heir and forbidden)Parliament declared him head of the Church of EnglandBaptism washed away original sin, but to get to heaven, only believe in God, regret sins, and receive God’s mercyThe Monarch interpreted the Bible w/ Archbishop of Canterbury, people could interpret if loyalCombined Roman Catholic and Lutheran services2 SacramentsOfficial prayer book, Book of Common Prayer, published under King Edward VIKing James BibleQueen Elizabeth I said Eng. Should choose how to worship as long as they were loyal
24Council of Trent1545 Catholic leaders met in Trent, Italy to combat corruption of the Church & fight Protestantism20 sessions over 18 yearsRejected predestination & justification by faith aloneReaffirmed the 7 sacramentsLatin Bible was the only official scripture and Church’s authority to interpret the bibleBetter edu. and training for clergy, priests & bishops to preach more, corrected abuses w/ money and Church offices
25Society of jesus (jesuits) Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, Sp. noblemanGoals to preach, edu. people, & feed the poorFounded schools & colleges, missionaries in Africa, Asia, and AmericasBrought Europeans back to the church
26Fighting Protestantism 1. The church looked to Catholic rulers to support it and to win back lands lost to Protestantism2. The pope started the Roman Inquisition, which condemned people whose views were considered dangerous and Jews3. The church published a list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read, and dealt harshly with those it labeled heretics
27Effects of the Reformation Led to a series of wars and persecutions in the 16th and 17th centuries between Catholics and Protestants, as well as other religions.Fr. Protestants moved fled to Switzerland or other countriesCivil War in Fr. left over a million dead between30 Years’ War in Germany between Protestants and Protestants and Catholics, nations also fighting for powerPeace of Westphalia in 1648, set boundaries between Catholic and Protestant lands
28Effects Cont.Nationalism = people identified w/ their nation & official state religions strengthened unityAge of Monarchs claimed authority over religious and revived divine right of kingsReligious freedom, Puritans fled Eng. For N. Am.Protestant churches sought freedom and independence and often chose their own leaders. This helped pave the way for democracy.