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Rwanda Brianna Vear, Laura Laureano, Greg Sachetti, Doug Champigny.

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Presentation on theme: "Rwanda Brianna Vear, Laura Laureano, Greg Sachetti, Doug Champigny."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rwanda Brianna Vear, Laura Laureano, Greg Sachetti, Doug Champigny

2 Location: Central Africa Borders Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo Tanzania and Uganda 893 km of border Area 26,338 sq km Land 24,668 sq km 155 Largest country in the world Landlocked Slighlty larger then maryland

3 Natural Resources!!! gold cassiterite(tin ore) wolframite (tungsten ore) methane hydro-power arable land

4 Environmental issues Deforestation overgrazing soil exhaustion and erosion Widespread poaching Natural Hazards Periodic droughts Volcanic Varunga mountains

5 ClimateClimate Two rainy seasons February to April; November to January Mild in Mountains; Some Frost and snow possible


7 The People Nationality  Rwandan(s) Population(2008)  10,180,000 Ethnic Groups  Hutu 85% Tutsi 14% Twa 1% Religions  Christiona 93% Muslim 4.6% Non- claimed 1.7% traditional African.1% Languages  Kinyarwanda, French, English Life Expecentcy  49.5 years

8 ● 150,000 people living with HIV/AIDS ● 7800 deaths occur due to HIV/AIDS ● High Risk of Major Infectious Disease such as Malaria, Typhoid fever, rabies ● 70.4% adults are literate

9 Flag Three Horizontal Bands of sky blue yellow and green with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band This flag was adopted on October 25, 2001 Designed by a local artist Green is symbolic of the country’s prosperity Yellow is symbolic of potential and real economic development Blue is a symbolic of happiness and peace The Sun and Rays represent Englightment


11 Rwanda is a poor rural country 90% of population engages in subsistence farming, or farming for the family Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa It is landlocked and has few natural resources Primary Foreign export is coffee and Tea

12 The genocide and civil war depleted Rwanda’s fragile economy even farther increased the poverty rate It destroyed the country’s ability to attract private and external investment Rwanda is making great progress stabilizing and reconstructing the economy back to its pre 1994 state Poverty levels are still alarmingly high, but inflation has been curbered and the GDP(gross national Product) is on the rise again

13 ● Rwanda has very fertile soil but food production can not keep up with the pace that population growth is setting ● This then calls need for food imports ● Rwanda is still being given substantial amounts of aid from foreign Countries ● Government is attempting to reduce the poverty by improving education, infrastructure and foreign and domestic Investment. ● Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states and lack of adequate transportation to other countries is continuing to hinder growth.


15 Folklore ● Tutsi Cattle breeders came to the Horn of Africa in the 15 century ● Made Hutu their subjects over time ● Some areas Hutu’s were dominant others Tutsi and Hutu lived together under the control of Tutsi Kings

16 Gregoire Kayibanda who led the Parmehutu Party became Rwanda’s first president of the one party government Ideals of the Kayibanda regime included peaceful negotiation of international problem social and economic elevation of the masses and integrated development of Rwanda.

17 ● In 1894 Count Von Goetzen a German was the first European to visit ● He was followed by Missionaries known as the “White Fathers” ● After WWI the league of nations combine Rwanda and Burundi to become Ruanda-Urundi a given to Belgium. ● After WWII it became a UN territory under Belgium administration

18 Under Belgium rule Democratic political instutioins were encouraged but they met great resistance from the Tutsi Tradistionalists who found it a threat to Tutdi rule. During revolt 160,000 Tutsi fled to other countries.

19 The Parmehutu government was formed during the election in 1961 Belgium granted internal autonomy to the government on January 1 1962. July 1 1962 the UN Granted Rwanda as well as Burundi its complete independence

20 In the First 10 years relations with 43 countries was established During the mid 60’s coruption began to occur within the government On July 5 1973 the military took power under Major General Juvnal Habyarimana disbanding the National Assembly and all political activity

21 President Habyarimana forms the National Revolutionary movement for Development Goals are to promote peace unity and national development under a one party state In December 1978 country endorses a new constitution and confirms Habyarimana as president Is “Re elected” in 83 and 88 as he is the only candidate Due to public pressure in 1990 he announces to change Rwanda from a one party state

22 On October 1, 1990 Rwanda exiles join in Force to create the Rwandan Patriotic Front They invade Rwanda from there exile in Uganda. War continues for 2 years until a cease fire on July 12 1992 On April 1994 an airplane that President Habyarimana is on is shot down while preparing to land in Kigali Military and militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis and political moderates

23 ● The prime minister and her 10 body guards were first victims ● Killing spread from Kigali to all corners of the Country ● Between April 6 and the beginning of July a genocide left over a Million Tutsis and Hutu moderates dead ● Citizens were called on to kill their neighbors

24 The RDF in Kigali came under attack as soon as the president’s plane was shot down. They fought there way out of the capital and met up with its comrades from the north. They continued there invasion France landed in “Zone Turquoise” to help end the genocide. With France’s help the RPF took Kigali on July 4 th 1994 and the war ended on July 16 1994

25 The RPF took control of the damaged country 1 million were murder and 2 million had fled the country and another million had fled within the country. The biggest international humanitarian response was mounted. In November of ‘96 600,000 Rwandan refuges return in a two week span of time.

26 RPF Organized a coalition government that resembled Called the Board Bases Government of National Unity Based on a mixture of the 1991 Constitution, the Arusha accords and political declarations by the parties. National Revolutionary Movement for Development Party was banned

27 Government

28 ● In April 2003 The national assembly recommended dissolving the Democratic Republican Party(MDR) ● Human rights groups noticed the disappearance of assorted MDR figure heads. ● On May 26 2003 Rwanda adopted a new Constitution that eliminated any references to Ethnicity and paved the way for the elections that would be held in September 2003

29 ● The Seven remaining Political parties all supported Paul Kagame who was elected on a 7yr term. ● In the Spring of 2006 elections were held to elect mayors and small councils ● The Chamber of Deputies was elected in the fall of 2008 ● 42 of the 53 seats went to the RPF ● 24 seats went to women. ● Women currently hold 45 of the 80 seats

30 Promoting Further democratization and judicial reform Completion of prosecution of those hundred thousands of people being charged with crimes relating to the Genocide Preventing another revolt but the Ex- military and Militia Long term development planning GOVERNMENT PLANS

31 Executive Branch Chief of state  President Head of government  Prime Minister Cabinet  Council of Ministers Elections  18 yrs of age, Gender and ethnicity is not a factor

32 Legislative Branch Parliament Consists of Senate  26 seats; 12 elected by local councils, 8 by the president, 4 by the Political Organization Forum; 2 by institutions of higher learning; severs an 8 yr term Chamber of Deputies  80 members, 53 members are elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 members are selected by youth and disability organizations; serve 5 years

33 Judicial Branch Supreme Court High Courts of the Republic Provincial Courts District Courts Mediation Committees

34 Political Parties Centrist Democratic Party Democratic popular Union of Rwanda Democratic Republican Movement Islamic Democratic Party Party got Democratic Renewal Rwanda Patriotic Front Social Democratic Party

35 Current Government Officials President  Paul Kagame Prime Minister  Bernard Makuza Minister of Foreign Affairs  Rosemary Musemenali Ambassador to the United States  James Kimonyo Ambassador to the UN  Joseph Nsengemana

36 Defense Well trained army and a small rotary-wing air force Takes a large proportion of the National Budget fur to the security problems with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi. After security problems are over Rwanda is intended to have a small army of 25 000

37 Foreign Relations Rwanda is an active member of the UN Most of the UN development and humanitarian agencies have had a large presence in Rwanda At the peak of the crisis 200 nongovernmental organizations were aiding in Rwanda Rwanda also aids in peace keeping missions They have 4 battalions in Darfur and one in Southern Sudan In Jan 2009 forces entered the Congo and began to help the Congolese forces Rwanda disbanded diplomatic relations with France after France charged senior Rwandan officials of shooting down the plane in 1994; Rwanda denies these charges









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