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Enlightenment and Revolution. Enlightenment  A philosophical movement of the 18 th century where logic scrutinized long-held doctrines and traditions.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution. Enlightenment  A philosophical movement of the 18 th century where logic scrutinized long-held doctrines and traditions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment and Revolution

2 Enlightenment

3  A philosophical movement of the 18 th century where logic scrutinized long-held doctrines and traditions  Result of the Scientific Revolution  Advocated the reason and thinking  Looked especially at government  People would meet and discuss ideas in salons


5 Locke vs. Hobbes Locke  English  Humans have basic rights  Life  Liberty  Property  “blank slate” at birth Hobbes  English  People naturally live in anarchy  Social contract  People give up all freedoms (except to protect life) for safety

6 Baron de Montesquieu  Limited government  Separation of powers  Checks and balances  How is this different from absolutism?

7 Voltaire and Rousseau Voltaire  French  Criticized government for  Intolerance  Suppression of freedom Rousseau  French  People are born good but society makes them bad  Government based on popular sovereignty  Distrusted reason

8 Legacy of the Enlightenment  Human Rights  Limited Government  Trust reason  There are moral and natural laws  Documents protecting freedoms

9 English Civil War

10 Houses of Parliament House of Lords  Nobles  Sympathetic to the crown House of Commons  Burgesses  Dominated by Puritans  Wanted more religious reform in England  Argued with the crown

11 Charles I  Son of James I  Anglican  Thought the monarchy should have more power  Needed funding for agenda  Parliament refused  Parliament sent the Petition of Rights  Dismissed Parliament

12 Scottish Rebellion  Charles I needed money to defeat the Scots  British defeated in England  Charles I forced to call Parliament

13 Long Parliament  1640-1660  Parliament met on and off  Little compromise

14 Irish Rebellion  Parliament wanted control of army  Charles I tried to have them arrested  Start of the English Civil War

15 Groups of the English Civil War Cavaliers  Royalists  Supported Charles I and the monarchy Roundheads  Puritans  Named after their haircut  Led by Oliver Cromwell  Wanted a new government

16 How the War Was Won  Oliver Cromwell created a “New Model Army”  Defeated Charles I in battle (twice)  Created a Rump Parliament (not legal, but still controlled government)  Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords

17 Oliver Cromwell  Became “Lord Protector” of England  Ruled like a dictator  Established religious tolerance  New constitution (first in Europe)  Navigation Act of 1651

18 “Lord Protector” & English Commonwealth  1653-1658  Commonwealth means republic  Oliver Cromwell was the “Lord Protector”  Ruled like a dictatorship  After his death, his son (Richard) ruled England

19 Charles II  Richard lost the favor of the army  He was forced out  Charles II was restored to the throne  Well-liked by the people, Charles II was known as the “Merry Monarch”  Worked with Parliament to achieve his ends

20 James II  Son of Charles II  Did not work well with Parliament  Catholic  Married a Catholic princess  People feared having a Catholic heir

21 Glorious Revolution  William and Mary of Orange were asked to take the English throne  Mary was the daughter of James II  William invaded England with troops  James II fled  Change of government and no bloodshed!!!

22 Legacies  English Bill of Rights  Limited Government  People should choose who rules them

23 Mercantilism

24 Main Idea  The idea that a country’s economic power depends on the amount of gold and silver in its treasury  Which means…?

25 Examples  British East India Company  Colonies made for the benefit of the mother country  Navigation Acts

26 American Revolution

27 Why Revolution?  Colonies left alone for 200 years, then expected to comply with mercantilism  Rights as British citizens had been violated  Britain sent troops  Declaration of Independence

28 New Government  Articles of Confederation  Constitution  Bill of Rights

29 Estates of France

30 1 st Estate- Clergy  Often chosen by the king  Owned land  Paid no taxes  Influenced policy in France  1% of population

31 2 nd Estate- Nobility  Most important government jobs  Owned land  Only paid taxes in war (and sometimes not even then)  2% of the population

32 3 rd Estate- Peasants, Artisans, Bourgeoisie  Resented the privileges of the aristocracy  Paid most of the taxes in France  Most members were peasants  97% of the population

33 Louis XVI  Married to Marie Antoinette (a foreign princess)  Inherited debt from his predecessors  Forced to call the Estates General to find a solution to the economic crisis

34 France in Trouble  French aid during the American Revolution caused France to go into debt  Financial crisis  Owed 113 million livres  Over 20 trillion by today’s standards  Louis XV borrowed heavily from bankers  Louis XVI tried to tax nobles, but they led riots

35 Estates General

36 Tennis Court Oath  Estates General met  Each estate got 1 vote, so the third estate was often outvoted  The representatives of the third estate met in the Tennis Court and invited the other estates to join them  Asked Louis XVI to give each representative a vote  He didn’t respond  They formed the National Assembly

37 Spread of Revolution

38 Fall of the Bastille  Bastille was a prison  Represented the power of the monarch  Peasants stormed the Bastille for its weapons

39 “Great Fear”  Third estate was afraid the aristocracy would try to stop the Revolution  Manor houses and monasteries destroyed  Nobles fled to other countries

40 Women march on Versailles  Urban women were upset by the price of food  They marched to Versailles and demanded that the monarchs come live in Paris

41 Constitution of 1791  Split up France into departments  Limited the power of the king  Land-owning males voted for members of the Legislative Assembly


43 Death of the King  King Louis XVI plotted with émigrés and foreign powers to stop the revolution  Tried to escape France, but was caught  Sent to the guillotine

44 National Convention

45 What was it?  A legislative body elected through universal manhood suffrage

46 Political Leaders Girondins  Feared domination by Paris  conservatives Jacobins  Wanted domination by Paris  Liberals  Danton  Robespierre  Marat

47 Accomplishments  Wanted a “Republic of Virtue”  Opened new schools  Universal elementary education  Wage an price controls  Metric system  New Calendar  New constitution  500 person lower house  250 person upper house  5 directors

48 Reign of Terror

49 What happened?  Committee of Public Safety  Guillotined those who opposed the Jacobins  Led by Robespierre and Danton  Both were later sent to the guillotine

50 Why?  Jacobins wanted more change  Kept people supportive of the Jacobins

51 Results  Leaders of the revolution went too far  They were executed  Led to a reactionary type of government

52 Napoleon

53 Background of Napoleon  Gained fame as a brilliant military commander

54 Coup d'état  1799- Napoleon took his army to Paris  The Directors either fled or supported him  He claimed control of France by force  Ruled France like a dictatorship  Much like Julius Caesar

55 French Empire  The French voted themselves out of a Republic  Napoleon crowned himself emperor  Created peace and stability in France

56 Napoleonic Wars  Napoleon invaded the rest of Europe to seek unity  France controlled much of the HRE, Italy, Poland, and Spain  Allied with Austria and Prussia  Defeated in Russia  More by the winter than by the Russian troops


58 Exile, Escape, and Waterloo  Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba  He escaped and came back to France for 100 Days  Defeated by a British and Russian alliance at Waterloo

59 Exile (Again)  Sent to Saint Helena  Died less than 6 years later

60 Legacies of Napoleon  Napoleonic Code  Reforms and stability in France  Changes of boundaries in Europe  Sold Louisiana to the Americans  Increased nationalism in territories he conquered.

61 Congress of Vienna

62 The Players (Diplomats)  Talleyrand (France)  Metternich (Austria)  Wellington (Great Britain)  Hardenburg (Prussia)  Nesselrode (Russia)

63 Results  Antebellum status quo  Concert of Europe  A way of solving problems with balance of power and discussion  Serious war avoided until WWI  Alliances  Holy Alliance- Russia, Austria, Prussia  Quadruple Alliance- Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia (later included France in the Quintuple Alliance)  Reactionary in Nature

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