Presentation on theme: "SC & The Battles of The Revolutionary War 8-2"— Presentation transcript:
1SC & The Battles of The Revolutionary War 8-2 SC & The Battles of The Revolutionary War Summarize the role of South Carolinians in the course of the American Revolution, including the use of partisan warfare and the battles of Charleston, Camden, Cowpens, Kings Mountain and Eutaw Springs.
2The Fighting Begins Fighting began in 1775 in the Northern colonies. Americans won a decisive victory at Saratoga, NYTurning point in war – Americans welcome alliance with France.battle of Saratoga – (9:32)
5The fighting continues… Key conflicts of the American Revolution took place in SC and affected the state and outcome of the War.Fighting began in 1775 in the Northern colonies, but after the British loss at Saratoga, they decided to try a new strategy…take the South.
6First Battle of Charleston Summer of 1776British Gen. Clinton sent 5000 troops from BostonPatriot leaders got word the British planned to capture Charles Town.They decided to build a fort on Sullivan’s Island – Colonel William Moultrie began building a fort of palmetto logs.British fired and their cannon balls bounced safely off the soft wood.Americans severely damaged the British ships and renamed the fort, Fort Moultrie.
7Flag of SC…Sergeant Jasper lifting the flag after it had fallen in the battle----Colonel Moultrie designed the flag that hung over Sullivan’s Island. It had a silver crescent in the corner. Today it also has a silver palmetto tree in honor of the victory. In 1861 it became the official state flag.
9Siege of Charleston March 29, 1780 Major General Benjamin Lincoln severe blow to the coloniesthe greatest loss of manpower and equipment of the war for the Americansgave the British nearly complete control of the Southern colonies
11British Response to SCBritish hoped they would gain control of state through large numbers of state Loyalists and neutral colonists to help win the warBut, British changed their parole terms and forced paroled Patriots to take up arms against their countrymenAt the same time, the British, along with American Tories, treated SC harshly: they burned churches, looted & confiscated homes, harassed and exiled citizensThis behavior turned South Carolinians against the British. Partisan bands were formed as a result
13Partisan TroopsPatriot partisans led by Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens, & William Hardenfighting both the British regular troops and Loyalists forces using hit & run tactics all over the state (Guerilla Warfare)
15Battle of Camden August 16, 1780 a major defeat for regular Continental Army; signified almost all of SC was controlled by BritishSC militia was not prepared and turned and fled in the face of regular British forces
16Battle of CamdenHoratio Gates’ commander of the southern arm of the Continental Army was transferred to Nathaniel GreeneGreene understood need to coordinate with the work of the state’s partisans in order to fight a destructive war of attrition [termed today a “mobile war”] that would unbalance and eventually destroy the British war effort.British Troops after the Battle of Camden
18Battle of Kings Mountain The Scotch-Irish and the Battle of Kings Mountain – YouTube (8:16)
19Battle of Kings Mountain After British victory at Camden, Cornwallis sent Major Patrick Ferguson, Commander of Loyalists, into SC Up-country to rid area of Patriots.Ferguson was ambushed by North & South Carolina mountain-men at Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780.Using guerrilla warfare, Patriots killed Ferguson along with 1,100 of his men.British tried to surrender, but were offered no quarter by Patriots in retaliation of harsh treatment British had bestowed upon Patriots throughout SCKings Mountain is considered turning point of war in the south. From this point on, British began retreating from interior of SC.
20Battle of King’s Mountain – The Turning Point in the War
21Battle of CowpensBattle of Cowpens – YouTube (2:18)
22Battle of CowpensThe Battle of Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781) showed cooperation of regular Continental Army and partisan forces.Partisans had a reputation of turning tail and running (think Camden Cowards). Americans counted on this rep for battle plan.partisans, led by Andrew Pickens, led attack and then fled, tricking British into thinking Americans were retreating. Instead, partisans lured British forces into guns of regular American army.British were defeated-retreated toward Virginia.
23Colonel Isaac HaynePartisan parolee Colonel Isaac Hayne was captured near Charleston in July 1781British used his punishment as an example to help stem Patriot advanceThey hanged him as a traitor of British crown after only a brief trialNathaniel Greene issued a proclamation stating he would retaliate against British forces.
25Battle of Eutaw Springs September, 1781Not the last of 137 battles fought in SC, nor a technical victorythe irreplaceable British troop losses made it strategically the final major battle in SCWhile current sources often disagree in their final assessment of who won the battle itself, there is no question about its evaluation by the Patriot cause.American contemporaries viewed the Battle of Eutaw Springs in the very least as a Pyrrhic victory for British because it marked the clearance of the British from the battleground state and region (with the exception of a few coastal enclaves that were finally evacuated after Yorktown and during the peace proceedings in 1782) and thus the demise of the British southern campaign.
26Victory at YorktownAfter the British defeat at Cowpens, General Cornwallis was forced to leave SC and retreat to Yorktown, VA hoping to re-supply his troops and later gain a better hold on the south.At this same time, Washington, with help from the French (Reminder: The French sided with ANYONE against the British), cut off Yorktown peninsula from the main land.French navy cut off peninsula by sea.
27Cornwallis was held under siege for weeks Cornwallis was held under siege for weeks. No supplies reached him because of the French naval blockade.In early October, Patriots prepared for an attack on Cornwallis – his troops were weak from starvation.Fearing defeat, Cornwallis surrendered October19, 1781, ending the Revolutionary War.
28Victory at YorktownLiberty`s Kids #36 Yorktown – YouTube (21:37)
29Treaty of ParisIn June 1781, reps from the Continental Congress began peace negotiations with the British.American delegates were John Jay, John Adams, Henry Laurens, & Benjamin Franklin.The Treaty of Paris took 2 years to work out.George Washington stated, “The citizens of America are…possessed of absolute freedom and independency.”
30Conditions/Provisions of the Treaty of Paris, 1783 Established British recognition of the United States.Established the borders as north to the Great Lakes, west to the Mississippi River & south to Spanish Florida.Allowed for Americans to settle west of the original 13 colonies.
32Review Why was American victory at Saratoga so important? Who were the three leaders of the Partisan Troops?What battle was the turning point of the war in SC?What made the Battle of Camden so unique?