Presentation on theme: "David on the Rise Part II-David the Refugee Episode 1-The Escape from Saul I Samuel 19/Psalm 59."— Presentation transcript:
David on the Rise Part II-David the Refugee Episode 1-The Escape from Saul I Samuel 19/Psalm 59
Beginning in chapter 19 we see the final, permanent rift between Saul and David split wide open, never to be repaired. On Saul’s side of the equation, there is some ambiguity about the relationship early in the chapter, but by the end there is no question about the relationship between Saul and David. The words that we will see associated with David are now the description of a refugee: “go into hiding”; “elude”; “run for your life”; “fled and escaped”; “escaped”; “get away”, etc. We also get a chance to see David’s thoughts in Psalm 59.
I. Saul Orders David’s death-Jonathon’s Intercession (vv. 1-7) A. Background—I Samuel 18:30 1. David’s continued success would have vexed Saul. 2. David is popular-which vexes Saul 3. Does Saul know, or have an inkling, that David is to be his successor? Has he heard whispers/rumors? -If so, is he just behaving like a typical Near Eastern monarch of the time when confronted w/ palace intrigue? -Does he know about Jonathon’s cloak?
4. What is Saul’s great sin? Self-reliance. After Saul’s second attack on David in chapter 19, God will remove 5 supports in chapters 19 and 20 from David to teach him to avoid self-reliance. a. the support of position b. the support of a spouse c. the support of a close advisor c. the support of a close friend d. the support of self-respect Why would God do this to David? So that he learns the lesson that Saul forgot, that David should rely on God alone. That is what God does in our lives, sometimes, through testing, specifically by removing supports.
B. Saul’s order-v. 1 And Saul spoke to Jonathon his son and to all his servants, that they should kill David. But Jonathon, Saul’s son, delighted much [was fond of] in David. 1. Time frame—how much time between 18 and 19? Obviously some time must have passed. The honeymoon is now over, literally and figuratively. 2. Jonathon and the servants are now in a bad place. They are duty bound to Saul, but they love David. -Saul previously told servants he was “delighted” with David (18:22). Mixed messages.
3. This would have placed a strain on the relationship between David and Jonathon. -although David trusted Jonathon, there had to be at least one of Saul’s inner circle who would have betrayed David in order to get ahead. How much can David share with Jonathon, knowing that Jonathon might unwittingly let slip some information?
C. Jonathon’s intercession (vv. 2-5) 1. In v. 2 Jonathon shows himself to be a loyal friend. What does a good friend look like? a. Previously Jonathon has shown he is willing to sacrifice (18:4) for his friend. b. Here Jonathon loyally defends his friend. (vv. 4-5) c. Jonathon will give his friend freedom to be himself (I Samuel 20:41) d. Jonathon is a constant source of encouragement (I Samuel 23:15-16)
2. Here, Jonathon warns David to literally “be on guard” and “hide”—David now becomes a fugitive. Probably near Saul’s citadel at Gibeah. 3. Notice that Jonathon’s investment is personal, emphasized by the pronouns we see in v 3: “I will go out”, “I will speak to my father”, and “if I learn anything, I will tell you”. -Jonathon will advocate for David, but at the same time he is acting in Saul’s best interest. After all, David is Saul’s most successful military leader.
4. Jonathon’s 5 point intercession (vv. 4-5) -Don’t wrong David, he is innocent. (4a) -David has not sinned against you (4b). Apparently Saul, in his paranoid mind, has decided that David has wronged him—probably accusing him of plotting a coup. -In fact, he has done good for you. (4c) -He has risked his life for you and your kingdom (5a) -You saw what he did and were pleased. (5b)
D. Ironically, Saul in I Samuel 11 refused to put his detractors to death, but here he is ready to murder one of his most loyal and successful supporters. -Jonathon points out that this would only bring bloodguilt on Saul, for he would murder an innocent man. (Why then will you sin against innocent blood by killing David without cause?). See Deuteronomy 21:1-9. Serious business. E. Saul listens to Jonathon in v. 6 (literally “obeyed”) and takes THE MOST SOLEMN OATH-”as the LORD lives”-that David would not be put to death. David is restored to court. - By v. 11 Saul has forgotten the oath.
II. Saul attempts to kill David a second time—Michal intercedes (vv. 8-17) A. After the reconciliation of Saul and David, David returns to the work of battling the Philistines with continued success. (v. 8). B. David is also serving in his capacity as court musician, for again the harmful spirit is afflicting Saul. (v. 9) -notice again that the spirit was sent by God -think of what this looks like—Saul, in anguish, twitching? Writhing? Spear in hand. David playing with a wary eye open. Tension builds.
-Finally the dam breaks. In a violent spasm, Saul flings the spear at David (remember, Saul was a big man). David eludes the spear, and escapes that night. (v. 10) C. Michal intercedes 1. David apparently fled from the palace to his home. Saul sent “hit men” after him. They plan to kill him in the morning, or take him to Saul so that he can personally do the job. (v. 11) 2. Michal, who loved David, sees the need for immediate action. He leaves by the window. (v. 12)
3. In order to stall the assassins and buy David some more time, Michal makes a dummy out of a figurine/idol (“image”=teraphim) and puts it in David’s bed. She then tells Saul’s men that David is sick. (vv ) -They must have said something like “Saul needs David” in order to attempt to lure him out. “Oh, he can’t come”, Michal replied, “he’s sick, see, there he is laying down”. (More than just a cold, remember, no modern medicine. So, the disease might do the job for them). -Like her brother, Jonathon, Michal has shifted her allegiance from her father to David.
4. Of course, this begs the question, “What are idols doing in David’s house? I thought he was ‘a man after God’s own heart’?!” -The word teraphim is usually rendered "images" or "idols" but the word actually means “the things pertaining to terah”. Terah = an ancient word meaning priest. Abraham's father was called Terah, though this is likely a title, not a proper name. -so, are these figurines/ornaments or idols?
-we have seen household idols used before to deceive a father (Rachel in Genesis 31:34). -The teraphim which Rachel hid from Laban were small clay figurines that represented Rachel and Jacob's common ancestor, the great ruler-priest Terah. There would have been at least 2 figurines, 1 male and 1 female, and possibly 3: 1 to represent Terah and one for each of his wives. The set of three would have had great value as they represented Terah's kingdom. (Linsley, Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines). Just Genesis through the lens of anthropology. genesis-31.html)
-So why is Rachel stealing the teraphim?—In the ancient Near East sometimes the possessor of these images was the heir of the family tradition. Position of prominence in family? (Ancestor veneration?-SCB) -see also the story of the would-be priest in Judges 17:3-6. We see first an image (an idol to represent Yahweh) made, then household gods. -If Michal uses idols-even if they represent Yahweh- then we can see how dominant syncretistic worship was in Israel—even the king’s daughter has some idols. Why would David tolerate them?
5. Bottom line-this is not some kind of a man- sized image. She would have had to use several piled up to fill the space. Then she capped it off with a goat-hair wig. -maybe Saul’s men weren’t the brightest (see Monty Python’s silly guards, or Bugs Bunny), because it appears to have worked. 6. When the assassins report (He was sick, so we didn’t kill him) v. 15, Saul’s response sounds something like, “You idiots, why didn’t you just go in an finish him off in the bed! Bring him here! On his bed! I WILL KILL HIM! If you want to get anything done around here....
-or, are the assassins torn in their loyalties, just like Michal and Jonathon? 7. By the time Saul’s men get back to David’s house in v. 16, he is gone. Saul now turns on Michal. -”Why did you ‘deceive’ [literally “betray”] me”, he asks her “and send my enemy away “. -notice, Saul is making a list of who is on his side and who is on David’s. Saul’s mind is very black and white at this point in his paranoia. “If you are not for me, you are against me”! REMEMBER WHOSE DAUGHTER YOU ARE!
8. In v. 17 Michal spits back a response using Saul’s own words against him. Her “get away” is the same word as Saul’s “send away”. -we can almost hear the exchange “I did not ‘send him away’. He threatened me and escaped”. I can’t help it your guards aren’t so smart or have divided loyalties”! -In reality she had told David to escape the night before. (v. 11). Now she blames David for everything. -turning on David? (Swindoll) -justified action?
Problem—Michal’s lie just gives Saul another excuse to hate David—”He threatened my daughter”! (First crutch removed—a spouse). Saul has now identified David as his “enemy” (v. 17). We have now crossed the Rubicon. David will never be able to return to Saul’s court again. He is now an outlaw and will remain so until Saul’s death. (Second crutch removed—position).
III. David turns to Samuel (vv ) A. Ramah only a short distance geographically, but an immense distance emotionally (vv ) 1. What is Naioth? 2. Naioth = “habitations”. The idea is one of a compound of dwellings, rather than a place name. It is a prophet school. See Elijah. So, David goes to the dwelling/condominiums (Naioth) of the prophets at Samuel’s hometown of Ramah.
3. As soon as Saul’s spies report to him that David has fled to Ramah, Saul send men to Ramah to the prophet school to capture David. (vv ). 4. God then protects David and then, ironically, sends a message to Saul through the very messengers Saul sent to capture David. (vv ) -first, the initial contingent messengers sent to capture David are possessed by the Holy Spirit and “prophesy”—in this case prophesy probably means a divinely induced trance rather than speaking (see I Samuel 10:5-6 re: Saul prophesying) -notice, this happens when they see the prophets.
-When Saul gets the report in v. 21, he sends another contingent of “messengers”, with similar results. -A third contingent ends up the same way. AT THIS POINT, GOD IS USING SAUL’S MESSENGERS TO SEND THE MESSAGE TO SAUL (DIVINE HUMOR)---”LEAVE DAVID ALONE”! BUT—SAUL IS NOT LISTENING. 5. Finally, Saul himself sets out for Ramah (no doubt muttering—If you want to get anything done around here, you have to do it yourself. I am surrounded by incompetents and traitors!), (v. 22), stopping only to ask directions.
6. When Saul gets to Ramah, he has the same experience as his messengers—the Holy Spirit puts him into a trance, and he strips off his clothes, laying naked all day and into the night (v. 24). -removal of the royal robes symbolic of his rule=forfeiture of claim to kingship. This leads to a rhetorical proverb “Is Saul also among the prophets”? Or---Is Saul a legitimate prophet? The answer, as they all know is an emphatic NO! -Questioning the genuineness of Saul’s prophetic behavior by proverb is meant to question the legitimacy of his rule. “He’s no prophet, and he’s no sure no king”. Popular opinion-the thing Saul cares about most--is turning against him. This saying is similar to Lloyd Bentsen in “Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy.... Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy.”
7. While David is spared by divine intervention, he is forced to pull up stakes and move on—20:1- “Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah and came alone before Jonathon....” [emphasis added]. -in the process he loses access to Samuel—his close advisor (third crutch-support of a close advisor).
IV. The Interior View—Ps. 59 A. Outline Prayer for deliverance (vv. 1-3) Innocence and protestation (vv. 4-5) The wicked and God (vv. 6-8) Hope in God (vv. 9-10a) Imprecation of the wicked (10b-13) Confidence in God’s response (vv )
B. Genre—Lament and praise 1. cycles from prayer to praise—warmth and closeness to Yahweh. 2. In lament and praise, the psalmist confides in God amid difficulty. (Definitely the case in I Samuel 19-20). Closeness of relationship leads psalmist to defend his innocence to God. 3. Psalmist expresses his frustration in what he perceives as God’s slowness to responding to entreaties. (Are we like that)? 4. Psalmist affirms his trust in the Lord.
First- As we read this Psalm, identify the emotions that David is expressing. Second-As we read this Psalm, let’s see how David deals with these emotions that could overwhelm him. Third-Watch how David’s perspective and attitude change as the Psalm progresses.
C. The prayer for deliverance (vv. 1-3) 1. The Psalm opens with repeated petitions that God “deliver”. In the last verses, David will affirm his belief that God is in his fortress and will show his love by, in fact, delivering. 2. Hope for deliverance based on Lord’s ability to do so, and sense of urgency. (David is looking out the window at Saul’s men-I Samuel 19). -the enemy is “bloodthirsty” and “evil” through and through. -their target is an undeserving victim.
D. Innocence and Protestation (vv. 4-5) 1. The protestation of innocence intensifies the psalmist’s reliance on God’s intervention. “ready to attack”=“they run and make ready” “Arise to help me; look on my plight!” “rouse yourself”/ “show no mercy 2. Is David telling God something He doesn’t already know?
E. The Wicked and God (vv. 6-8) 1. We now see David’s response when he looks out the window in the evening and sees that the enemy is still there. 2. They are like a pack of feral dogs or coyotes roaming around and snarling. (v. 6). Anarchy. “Who can hear us?”—”You wanna make something about it, huh?” -The wicked never see that they will be accountable. They do not recognize limitations.
3. To the human perspective, this is scary stuff. But, God is unmoved by their strutting and puffing. -He sees them as ridiculous and laughs at them, they are self-destructive. -Remembering this truth restores the Psalmist’s perspective to a proper view on God’s justice in the world. Takeaway-remembering God’s truth in difficult times gives us proper perspective.
F. Hope in God (vv. 9-10a) 1. Here we see how David responds to the wave of emotions sweeping over him. 2. While the enemy is fierce, God is the strength of his people. 3. In the face of an enemy promoting anarchy, God is a “fortress” of stability. 4. In the face of hatred shown by the enemy- God is “steadfast” in his love.
G. The Imprecation (Cursing) of the Wicked (10b-13) 1. We see a continuation of David’s explanation of his source of assurance—what he knows about God—”God will go before me”. -”God went before me with the bear, the lion, Goliath, Saul’s spear.... “ 2. David relies on God to vindicate him -”... and will let me gloat over those who slander me”. (In His time, not mine). 3. But be assured, the evil men will be held accountable. (v. 12)
4. What does David pray re: the judgment -”Lord, send down fire and brimstone and locusts and gnats, and leprosy and other nasty diseases to consume them AND DO IT RIGHT NOW”! No. -David prays that the judgment will be gradual and not immediate (v. 11), why? (a) For the benefit of the righteous—that they will be encouraged and rejoice. (v. 11) (b) So that God will be vindicated and glorified! (v. 13) (See Jesus in Garden of Gethsemane).
H. Confidence in God’s Response (vv ) 1. The danger has not yet been removed in v (“each evening they come back, howling like dogs and prowling”). 2. David’s tone, however, is different than it was in the first section of the Psalm, he says “But I will sing of your strength/I will sing aloud of your steadfast love”. -Why the different tone? -He remembers “you have been a fortress and a refuge in the days of my distress”! (v. 16)
3. In the last verse of the Psalm we see the lament turned into a song of confidence and praise. O my Strength, I will sing praises to you, for you, O God, are my fortress, the God who shows me steadfast love. What brought about this change? -remembering what God has done in the past. -seeking God’s glory in the time of trial.
TAKEAWAYS 1. David is in a very stressful, literally life-or-death situation. We can see how he feels throughout. -anxiety, worry, stress, fear, intimidation, loneliness, helplessness 2. Rather than be overwhelmed by his emotions, David does not dwell on how he feels, rather he focuses on what he knows about God. 3. How do we pray when we seek vindication during trials? Do we pray “God get me out of this”, or “God, glorify yourself in this” (v. 13)?