Presentation on theme: "The English Establish 13 Colonies. Early Colonies Have Mixed Success Virginia Dare: 1 st English child born in America. Croatoan : Local tribe and."— Presentation transcript:
The English Establish 13 Colonies
Early Colonies Have Mixed Success Virginia Dare: 1 st English child born in America. Croatoan : Local tribe and was carved in a tree. When White returned to Roanoke he found it and discovered everyone disappeared. Roanoke failed as an English settlement
Sir Walter Raleigh: Got permission to sponsor England’s first American colony. He named the colony Virginia. Troubles 1. Lack of food 2. Local Tribes This forced the colonists back to England
Joint Stock Company: companies funded by a group of investors. Investors: person who puts money into a project to earn a profit. 1. Virginia Company of London 2. Virginia Company of Plymouth Mercantillism: Economic system that European nations used to enrich their treasures. Charter: A written contract, issued by Government giving rights to establish a colony.
Jamestown - 1 st permanent English settlement in North America. Jamestown Struggles to Survive Become sick/ Lack of Water and Food Looked for gold instead of building and preparing for winter. John Smith: took control of colony. He brought order to the colony
Powhatan Tribe: Trade with colonists but still had an intense relationship. Until Chief’s daughter… Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
They didn’t find gold but found another product that brought them wealth… Tobacco 1614: sent 1 st shipment back to England. Very Popular and ensured survival of colony. Colonists demanded a share/ company gave them land. Colonists worked harder than ever.
Along the Chesapeake Bay and James River so you can ship directly to England. Headright: 50 acre land grant / who could pay way to colony. Indentured Servant: One’s who couldn’t pay their way. Worked for landlord #4 to 6 years given freedom.
st representative assembly in colonies. 1. Passed Local Laws 2. Taxes Representative Government James I took back company’s charter turned Virginia into a royal colony- ruled by King –appointed official. Got rid of the assembly Colonist petitioned for representation in the Colonies until James I death and Charles I restored the assembly.
New England Colonies John Winthrop: Puritan leader who became 1 st governor of Massachusetts. The Voyage of the May Flower Dissenters: people who disagree with England’s official church. Religious Freedom and Self Government Separatist: wanted to separate from church of England. King James – Persecuted or mistreated – the separation for rejecting England’s official church.
The escaped persecuted fled to Holland a country known for its tolerance: acceptance of different opinions. Pilgrims or separatists: a person who goes on a religious journey. Pilgrims Found Plymouth (Nov. 1620) Settlement called Plymouth. Most men signed agreement Mayflower Compact: document that helped establish the practice of self government
Squanto: taught pilgrims to plant nature crop. day feast do a good harvest. It was the first Thanksgiving in New England. This feast represented peace between English Settlers and Native Americans.
Puritans: purify the English Church They founded Boston, which is the most important town in New England – 20,000 settlers came to the area called the Great Migration
Religious- commonwealth- self governing congregation. Congregation: A group of people who belong to the same church. Congregationalist: (The New England Way) Puritan Values 1.hard work 2. education 3. Representative government Freeman- could vote male church member
Mass. Is a seed colony: out of which other New England colonies grew. Puritans felt threatened and left Mass.
Roger Williams shocked the puritans by: The colonists had no right to take Native American land No one should be forced to attend church Puritans should not impose their religious beliefs on anyone Church and state should be kept separate He was banished for his beliefs. He founded Rhode Island colony. That colony guaranteed tolerance and separation of state Also started 1 st Baptist church in America
Anne Hutchinson: dissenter – Left and went to Rhode Island. She believed that many of the clergy were not among the elect- those chosen by God for salvation. John Wheelwright: also fled an established Exeter which is now New Hampshire.
Hooker- moved congregation to Conn Valley Settlers wrote Fundamental Order of Conn.- Voting Rights to non-church members – representatives Government Puritans wouldn’t 6+ intolerant of Quakers – Protestant dissenters. Quakers believed women were equal to men. Women served as preachers and missionaries. Threatened the New England Way
Martyrs: people who choose to die for a religious purpose. A famous martyr: Mary Dyer New England Settlers came from the middle ranks of English society. Many were highly skilled and educated.
The Southern Colonies Lord Baltimore Founds Maryland (1634) The second Southern colony was founded, Maryland. It was on the Chesapeake Bay. It was in tended to be a new society free from religious conflicts of Europe. The Act of Toleration Gave Maryland to Lord Baltimore as a proprietary colony: a colony governed by a single owner. The first settlement was St. Mary’s City. It became the capital. Colonists were allowed to elect an assembly and in 1649 the Act of Toleration : forbade religious persecution.
Raised tobacco Used up the nutrients in the soil / continued to clear land Planters always searching for workers The workers were: 1. slaves 2. indentured servants
The Carolinas In 1640 England was in a civil war and colonization stopped. In 1660’s Monarchy was restored and Charles II King rewarded 8 supporters by giving the land for a new colony (The Carolinas) Owners Offer A. offers religious toleration B. large land grants C. Political representation
Charleston It was a refuge for Huguenots: or French Protestants who fled France. Rice and Slavery Cash crop for Carolina’s was RICE Elite: High ranking group. The elite used slaves to raise cash crops. The slaves outnumbered the elite and the elite feared a revolt. Colonist Revolt Colonists were unhappy that proprietors did not provide military protection from Spanish and Native Americans.
Colonists overthrew proprietors rule. King took over and made North and South Carolina a royal colony. The Governors were appointed by the king.
James Oglethorpe received a charter for Georgia. 1 st settlement was Savannah Debtors and Poor could make a new start. Diversity and variety could make a new start. All religions were welcomed but Catholics. The were to sympathize with Spanish. Oglethorpe had strict rules. He opposed large plantations and slavery. Poor settlers to set up small farms. Feared slave revolt would weaken colony.
Upset with South Carolina’s prosperity. Georgia legalized Slavery and Royal Colony. Also turned into Plantation Society. Region of the South Region: Tidewater- Soil and Climate- warm water crops 1. Tobacco 2. Rice 3. Indigo
The Dutch – founded New Netherlands – Peter Stuyvesant, the new governor Restored order to wild colonial outpost Weren’t bounded together- stop the diversity Modern Day New York Diversity was their strength
Attracted a population of great ethnic and religious background New Netherland – along the Hudson River Largest Town – New Amsterdam Patroon – A person who brought so settlers to New Netherlands Received large land grant Hunting, fishing, and fur trading privileges Religious Tolerance
English ran Dutch from New Netherlands- King Charles II Duke of York- Ships arrived Dutch surrendered and English renamed the colony New York- Proprietor Colony. Duke of York- Largest Landowner in America The province New Jersey gave to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkley. William Penn- Another land owner –Born to a rich family that loaned Charles II money.
Gave him land to pay back his debt. Pennsylvania – “Penn’s Woods” Penn granted 3 lower counties own assembly and a later known as a colony of Delaware. Penn joined Quakers to dismay of father Practice their beliefs Free of Persecution Pennsylvania- “Holy Experiment” Capital – Philadelphia Richest Colonies in America- Wealthiest By 1730’s -13 colonies are thriving Population –Doubling every 25 years
11. People who put money into a project to earn profits? 22. 1 st permanent English settlement in North America? 33. 50 acres / land grant? 44. wanted to separate from the Church of England? 55. The Ship the Pilgrims sailed on? 66. Wanted to purify the Church of England? 77. Founded Rhode Island? 8 Puritan Values?