Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What is/was Manifest Destiny"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell Ringer What is/was Manifest Destiny Name a piece of land that the United States Gained after 1800.“Go West Young Man” is a famous American quote. Why go west?
2Bell Ringer What group largely built the transcontinental railroad? What is a reservation? (Not referring to dinner)What did the Supreme Court case of Worcester v Georgia rule? What actually happened?
3Bell Ringer What did the Dawes Act do? What is Bimetallism? Why were problems between farmers and Indian common? Could they have been avoided?
6How the West was Won (Bought) In the early 1800s the USA was limited to lands East of the Mississippi RiverHowever, we know by the Civil War California and Texas were states: How?The US bought and won itself a country because of their belief in Manifest Destiny.This was the idea that Americans should control from “sea to shining sea.”
7The Land Louisiana Purchase: Bought from France (1803) Florida Cession: Treaty with Spain (1819)Webster-Ashburton Treaty: Britain (1842)Texas Annexation: Took from Spain (1845)Oregon Country: Agreement with Britain (1846)Mexican Cession: Won from the Spanish American War (1848)Gadsden Purchase: Bought from Mexico (1853)The Land
9Indian Removal ActDuring all of this Indians were constantly being driven off their land.In 1830 the Indian Removal Act kicked all Indians off their land East of the Mississippi.Even though the Supreme Court ruled in Worcester v Georgia that the Cherokee had rights to their land: President Andrew Jackson moved them west.
10This whole event was known as the Trail of Tears.
11Insert Civil War Knowledge Here Now that the Civil War was done, people were looking for new opportunity… and all eyes turned West
13Why West? Reason 1Mining: In 1849 miners in California found gold. Everyone hoped to get rich and the influx of people made California’s population jump from 93,000 in 1850 to 380,000 in 1860
14Why West? Reason 2Ranching: Ranching had been popular in Texas before the US owned it. Many US ranchers left to fight the Civil War. The cattle multiplied in their absence. New ranchers would find unbranded cattle, claim them as their own, and drive them to market.
15Why West? Reason 3Railroad: Now that people were on the West coast there was profit in having a railroad that reached that far. The first transcontinental-railroad would be started in 1865 and finished by (Immigrants, Chinese, would build huge sections of the railroad)
16Why West? Reason 4Free Land: As people headed west they realized there were large sections of unclaimed land. The Homestead Act gave anyone who wanted it 160 acres of land for 5 years. If they made it profitable they could keep it.Morrill Land-Grant gave states large chunks of land if they opened up public Agricultural Colleges
17Reason 4 Part IIMany slaves fled the South after the Civil War ends. Those who flee are known as Exodusters (from Exodus in the Bible)Thousands will go West, and settle across the country.Many freedmen actually become Cowboys or Farmers.
18But the Indians?What no one was concerned about was the Native Plains Indians.Most Americans thought that movement West showed the nation’s Progress.There were numerous tribes that lived in the Great Plains who’s land was being taken and destroyed. They opposed the invasion.This was in addition to the Indians who were forced West on the Trail of Tears.
20Indian TreatmentThe Indian Removal Act moved the largest tribes from the East to the Oklahoma TerritoryThe settlers ran into the native Great Plains tribes, and conflicts occurred.The settlers started to disrupt the plains, especially by killing Buffalo in large numbersThe Indians retaliate
21Sandy Creek Massacre (1870) The US went out to protect the settlers.They found an encampment of Indians at Sandy CreekMore than 150 died, many women and children, in what is known as the Sandy Creek MassacreThis enraged Plains Indians even more
22ReservationsIn an attempt to stop conflict the Government tried to confine Indians to ReservationsEven on Reservations though the Government ignored the invasion of settlers if it was for a good reason (to take gold/silver)
23Little Big Horn (1876)Not all Indians stay on the reservations (Sioux, Apaches, Comanches, Cheyennes, and Arapahos)In 1876 the Sioux & Cheyennes were camped near Little Big Horn, MT.This group would come under attack by US Calvary & General George Custer
24Little Big Horn: Custer’s Last Stand The Indians much larger force beats the US Calvary under the leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy HorseCommonly known as Custer’s Last StandThese Indians will be hunted down, captured, and forced onto reservations.
25Dawes Act The government decides the Indians need to assimilate. Congress passed the Dawes Act in Indian tribes could no longer own land, but Indian families could (so they could ideally become small farmers… like the settlers .This is completely contrary to the culture of American Indians, and almost destroys them as a people.Many Indians sold their land to Settlers looking for a quick way to earn money.
26Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) Considered the last great US-Indian conflict of the time the US Calvary was sent to the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to disarm them.Ghost Dance: the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region“Supposedly” a deaf Indian refused to give up his gun because he didn’t understand what was happening, a shot went off, and the Calvary kills almost everyone in the camp.About 300 American Indians are killed.
28The Plight of the Farmer Despite getting 160 acres of land for free farmers faced problems.Expensive machines made many take loans, and they weren’t making enough to pay them back.This lead to Populism/Populist Party.Populism: A political group that focuses on the common people’s interest over the interest of the wealthy.
29Granger Laws- Farmers Complain about Rail Roads Several States pass Granger Laws, or laws saying that states can regulate rail road ratesFarmers complaining prices were too highSupreme Court Rules in Wabash, St Louis & Pacific R.R. v Illinois that the US government should regulate interstate trade.The Interstate Commerce Commission is set up to ensure “fair rates” on the railroadEven though they lose it’s a win for Farmers
30Farmers complain about Money Farmers wanted the Government to regulate crop prices (so they could make more $$$)They encouraged government to increase the cash flow through a political group known as the Greenbacks. (Greenback Party)At that time the US was on a gold standardEvery $1.00 in the US was backed by $1.00 of gold in the treasury. (Problems???)The US had been under a Bimetallism currency system before the Civil War, but switched to the Gold standard during the war
31Free Silver Farmer’s Alliances (1880s) Farmers argue US monetary policy should follow Bimetallism (Gold + Silver)This idea is championed by the Populist Party and William Jennings Bryan (Free Silver)Famous “Cross of Gold Speech”Bryan would just lose to McKinley (51%-46.7% Pop Vote)McKinley formally keeps the US on the Gold Standard