Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What is/was Manifest Destiny Name a piece of land that the United States Gained after 1800. “Go West Young Man” is a famous American quote."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What is/was Manifest Destiny Name a piece of land that the United States Gained after “Go West Young Man” is a famous American quote. Why go west?
Bell Ringer What group largely built the transcontinental railroad? What is a reservation? (Not referring to dinner) What did the Supreme Court case of Worcester v Georgia rule? What actually happened?
Bell Ringer What did the Dawes Act do? What is Bimetallism? Why were problems between farmers and Indian common? Could they have been avoided?
CH 12: Change and Conflict in the American West
How the West was Won (Bought) In the early 1800s the USA was limited to lands East of the Mississippi River However, we know by the Civil War California and Texas were states: How? The US bought and won itself a country because of their belief in Manifest Destiny. This was the idea that Americans should control from “sea to shining sea.”
The Land Louisiana Purchase: Bought from France (1803) Florida Cession: Treaty with Spain (1819) Webster-Ashburton Treaty: Britain (1842) Texas Annexation: Took from Spain (1845) Oregon Country: Agreement with Britain (1846) Mexican Cession: Won from the Spanish American War (1848) Gadsden Purchase: Bought from Mexico (1853)
Indian Removal Act During all of this Indians were constantly being driven off their land. In 1830 the Indian Removal Act kicked all Indians off their land East of the Mississippi. Even though the Supreme Court ruled in Worcester v Georgia that the Cherokee had rights to their land: President Andrew Jackson moved them west.
This whole event was known as the Trail of Tears.
Insert Civil War Knowledge Here Now that the Civil War was done, people were looking for new opportunity… and all eyes turned West
Why West? Reason 1 Mining: In 1849 miners in California found gold. Everyone hoped to get rich and the influx of people made California’s population jump from 93,000 in 1850 to 380,000 in 1860
Why West? Reason 2 Ranching: Ranching had been popular in Texas before the US owned it. Many US ranchers left to fight the Civil War. The cattle multiplied in their absence. New ranchers would find unbranded cattle, claim them as their own, and drive them to market.
Why West? Reason 3 Railroad: Now that people were on the West coast there was profit in having a railroad that reached that far. The first transcontinental- railroad would be started in 1865 and finished by (Immigrants, Chinese, would build huge sections of the railroad)
Why West? Reason 4 Free Land: As people headed west they realized there were large sections of unclaimed land. The Homestead Act gave anyone who wanted it 160 acres of land for 5 years. If they made it profitable they could keep it. Morrill Land-Grant gave states large chunks of land if they opened up public Agricultural Colleges
Reason 4 Part II Many slaves fled the South after the Civil War ends. Those who flee are known as Exodusters (from Exodus in the Bible) Thousands will go West, and settle across the country. Many freedmen actually become Cowboys or Farmers.
But the Indians? What no one was concerned about was the Native Plains Indians. Most Americans thought that movement West showed the nation’s Progress. There were numerous tribes that lived in the Great Plains who’s land was being taken and destroyed. They opposed the invasion. This was in addition to the Indians who were forced West on the Trail of Tears.
Indian Treatment The Indian Removal Act moved the largest tribes from the East to the Oklahoma Territory The settlers ran into the native Great Plains tribes, and conflicts occurred. The settlers started to disrupt the plains, especially by killing Buffalo in large numbers The Indians retaliate
Sandy Creek Massacre (1870) The US went out to protect the settlers. They found an encampment of Indians at Sandy Creek More than 150 died, many women and children, in what is known as the Sandy Creek Massacre This enraged Plains Indians even more
Reservations In an attempt to stop conflict the Government tried to confine Indians to Reservations Even on Reservations though the Government ignored the invasion of settlers if it was for a good reason (to take gold/silver)
Little Big Horn (1876) Not all Indians stay on the reservations (Sioux, Apaches, Comanches, Cheyennes, and Arapahos) In 1876 the Sioux & Cheyennes were camped near Little Big Horn, MT. This group would come under attack by US Calvary & General George Custer
Little Big Horn: Custer’s Last Stand The Indians much larger force beats the US Calvary under the leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse Commonly known as Custer’s Last Stand These Indians will be hunted down, captured, and forced onto reservations.
Dawes Act The government decides the Indians need to assimilate. Congress passed the Dawes Act in Indian tribes could no longer own land, but Indian families could (so they could ideally become small farmers… like the settlers . This is completely contrary to the culture of American Indians, and almost destroys them as a people. Many Indians sold their land to Settlers looking for a quick way to earn money.
Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) Considered the last great US-Indian conflict of the time the US Calvary was sent to the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to disarm them. – Ghost Dance: the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region “Supposedly” a deaf Indian refused to give up his gun because he didn’t understand what was happening, a shot went off, and the Calvary kills almost everyone in the camp. About 300 American Indians are killed.
The Plight of the Farmer Despite getting 160 acres of land for free farmers faced problems. Expensive machines made many take loans, and they weren’t making enough to pay them back. This lead to Populism/Populist Party. – Populism: A political group that focuses on the common people’s interest over the interest of the wealthy.
Granger Laws- Farmers Complain about Rail Roads Several States pass Granger Laws, or laws saying that states can regulate rail road rates – Farmers complaining prices were too high Supreme Court Rules in Wabash, St Louis & Pacific R.R. v Illinois that the US government should regulate interstate trade. The Interstate Commerce Commission is set up to ensure “fair rates” on the railroad – Even though they lose it’s a win for Farmers
Farmers complain about Money Farmers wanted the Government to regulate crop prices (so they could make more $$$) They encouraged government to increase the cash flow through a political group known as the Greenbacks. (Greenback Party) At that time the US was on a gold standard Every $1.00 in the US was backed by $1.00 of gold in the treasury. (Problems???) – The US had been under a Bimetallism currency system before the Civil War, but switched to the Gold standard during the war
Free Silver Farmer’s Alliances (1880s) Farmers argue US monetary policy should follow Bimetallism (Gold + Silver) This idea is championed by the Populist Party and William Jennings Bryan (Free Silver) Famous “Cross of Gold Speech” Bryan would just lose to McKinley (51%-46.7% Pop Vote) McKinley formally keeps the US on the Gold Standard