Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Nationalism Spreads to the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America Chapter 25."— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 3: Nationalism Spreads to the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America Chapter 25
2 Essential QuestionsWhat causes people to develop feelings of nationalism?Is seeking divisions/enemies/others an inevitable part of human nature?Is it possible for humans to define who they are without comparing themselves to who they are not?What are the pros and cons of nationalism?What are the modern-day implications of decisions made during this time period around the world?
3 Ottoman Empire During WWI BackgroundOttoman Empire founded in the 1300’sAt its height controlled most of the Middle East, North Africa, large parts of EuropeBy WWI much weaker, “Sick man of Europe”Sided with the Germans/Central Powers in WWI, was defeated by the AlliesNationalism in the Ottoman Empire Before/During WWINationalism appealed to a small elite (ex. Young Turks) but not to most people before WWIDuring WWI, extreme nationalists took control of Ottoman GovernmentOttoman Empire was culturally and ethnically very diverse, lots of religions, lots of ethnic minorities, why would that be a problem for ultra- nationalists?Result: Armenian Genocide, 1 to 1.5 million people killed
5 Ottoman Empire becomes Turkish Republic Treaty of SevresTreaty signed by Turkey after the end of WWI (Turkey’s version of the Versailles Treaty)Turkey lost all its possessions in the Middle EastAllied countries occupied large chunks of TurkeyBritain/France—southeast cornerGreece—western coastItaly—southwestern coastInternational Zone—northwest cornerOttoman Sultan unable to do anything to repel the foreign invadersSultan overthrown by the military, Mustafa KemalMustafa Kemal pushed all foreigners off of Turkish landRepublic of Turkey established, Mustafa Kemal became first president
6 Modern Turkey under Ataturk Modernizing Turkey: Mustafa Kemal wanted Turkey to become more like the WestLast names: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (father of the Turks)Arabic alphabet replaced with Roman alphabet5 year plan to encourage industrializationSecularization: outward signs of religion banned (no veils for women), religious toleration institutedWestern styles of dress: no fez hats for menEducation: free public school establishedWomen’s rights: legal equality for women, women encouraged to go to school and work outside the home, voting rights for women (1934)
7 Ataturk Introducing the New Alphabet to a Turkish Village
8 Ataturk’s Legacy Today Ataturk’s ideas still are very influential in TurkeyNationalismSecularismRepublicanismProblem: Turkey was/is a very religious place, lots of people didn’t like Ataturk’s reformsAtaturk hand-picked candidates for the Turkish Parliament, only his political party was allowed, all other political parties were bannedSince Ataturk’s death the military and the courts have seen themselves as the guardians of his legacyOften elections would put very religious politicians into power, who wanted to dismantle some of Ataturk’s reforms, the military would overthrow those elected politicians. (1960, 71, 80, 97) Is that right?Since 2002 Turkey has become more democratic, the current Prime Minister has slowly allowed religion to become more prominent in Turkish society, is this good, bad, something else?What caused the Turks to become nationalistic and rally around Ataturk?
9 Nationalism in the Middle East: Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine Ottoman Empire during WWIBritish and French vs. OttomansWar not going well for the British/French, needed the Arabs to join their sideHussein-McMahon CorrespondenceBritish ambassador (McMahon) promised the Sharif of Mecca (Hussein) that the British would support Arab independence if the Arabs revolted against the Ottoman TurksArabs joined the BritishFighting against the Ottoman Turks helped build Arab nationalism and desire for an independent Arab state after the war
10 Things Get Messy: End of WWI Contradictory PromisesHussein-McMahon—British promised the Arabs independenceBalfour Declaration—British promised Jewish Zionists support for a Jewish homeland in PalestineSykes-Picot Agreement—British and French promised each other that they would divide and colonize the Middle East after WWIContradictions were settled at the Paris Peace ConferenceBritain gained control of Mesopotamia (split into two and renamed Iraq and Trans-Jordan) as well as Palestine (open to Jewish immigration)France gained control of Syria (split into Syria and Lebanon)Arabs gained independence only in the territory around Mecca and Medina in the Arabian Peninsula (Hejaz)Arabs tried to establish an independent state in Syria/Iraq but were forced out by the French military
13 Recap Arabs Promised—Independent Arab state in the Middle East Arabs GotSyria—French MandateLebanon—French MandatePalestine—British Mandate, with Jewish migrationTransjordan—British Mandate with Arab King (Abdullah I)Iraq—British Mandate with Arab King (Faisal)Hejaz—Independent Arab state with Arab King (Sharif Hussein)Hejaz conquered by Ibn Saud, became part of Saudi Arabia 1930’s
14 Problems In the Middle East Arbitrary BordersBritain/France drew lines on a map, didn’t correspond with who actually lived in those placesDifferent ethnic/religious groups lumped into the same countryEx. Kurds and Sunni and Shiite Arabs in IraqEx. Alawites, Sunni and Shiite Arabs, and Christians in SyriaEx. Christians, Druze, and Sunni and Shiite Arabs in LebanonEx. European Jews, Arab Jews, and Arab Muslims in Palestine
20 Modern-Day Legacy in the Middle East PalestineBalfour Declaration=increased Jewish migrationPlans to split Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state after WWII failed1948 war broke out between Jewish and Arab Palestinians1948 Jewish Palestinians won, Israel createdUnresolved issues between Israelis and Palestinian Arabs till this dayLebanonChristian majority given most of the power by the FrenchBy 1980s Christians no longer a majority still had the majority of the powerCivil war broke out in the 1980sShiite militant group, Hezbollah, gained powerUneasy peace between Hezbollah, Christians, and Sunni Arabs today
21 Modern-Day Legacy in the Middle East IraqKing Faisal’s descendants overthrownBaath Party representing Sunni Arabs took control in the 1960’sSunnis were a minority in IraqSaddam Hussein, Sunni Baath Party member, became dictator, brutally repressed Kurdish and Shiite rebellionsAfter US invasion in 2003 Saddam overthrown, Shiites in powerEthnic tension between Sunnis and Shiites still remains todaySyriaMilitary dictatorship took control in the 1960sCivil War broke out in 2011Minority ethnic groups: Alawites, Shiites vs. Sunnis and KurdsJordanAbdullah’s descendants still on the throne (Abdullah II)Slowly making democratic reforms
22 Nationalism in Africa Nationalism in Africa = Desire For Independence Factors that caused a rise in nationalism in Africa after WWIAfricans sent to Europe to fight in WWIWoodrow Wilson’s 14 PointsTired of European ImperialismYoung Africans educated in Europe coming back to AfricaEffect of Nationalism in AfricaRise in desire for independenceIncrease in rebellions against European ruleNo independence (not until after WWII)
23 Nationalism in Asia French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) Japan Wanted independence from FranceHo Chi Minh = the leader of the Vietnamese movement for independenceVietnamese heavily influenced by communism, ideas of Lenin and the USSRNo independence until after WWIIVietnamese defeated the French in 1954 gained independenceJapan1920’s and 1930’s Japan was a liberal democracyHeavily industrialized economyProblems: Japan had a lot of people but not many natural resourcesLate 1920’s the economy began to decline many turned away from liberalism and towards militant nationalismNationalists saw the military as the solution to Japan’s economic problems
24 Japanese Military and Extreme Nationalism 1931 Invasion of ManchuriaMukden Incident—Japanese military destroyed their own railroad in Chinese ManchuriaJapan gained control of Manchuria1937 Invasion of ChinaJapanese military blamed Chinese nationalists for attacking Japanese soldiers in BeijingJapan responded by invading ChinaJapan vs. China (end of WWII)Military in ControlMilitary used the war in China as an excuse to take over total control of Japanese society, government, cultureQuestion: What explains the rise of the military/nationalism in Japan?
25 Nationalism and Communism in China Questions to think about:What things caused nationalism in China in the early 1900s?What happened to unity within the Chinese nationalist movement as time went on?Background: China in the early 1900sChina was once the most powerful/advanced country in the worldDuring the late 1800s imperialized by European powers, “spheres of influence”Chinese government lost control of most of the country to either European powers or local warlords who did whatever they wantedSun Yat-sen founded the Chinese Nationalist party to fight against European Imperialism and Chinese warlordsParis Peace Conference: many in China hoped that the major powers would support Chinese independence, no more imperialism in China, that didn’t happen, led to a major upsurge in Chinese nationalism
26 Nationalists and Communists in China Chinese Nationalist PartyLed by Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai ShekMostly a middle and upper class movement, popular in citiesWanted to make China an independent Republic (like the US or Great Britain)Wanted to kick imperialists and Chinese warlords out of ChinaChinese CommunistLed by Mao Tse Tung (Mao Zedong)Mostly a lower class movement, popular in the countrysideWanted to make China an independent communist state (like USSR)Nationalists and Communists wanted mostly the same things, so they united together in the early 1920s to achieve their shared goals
27 Nationalists and Communist Success and Problems Great Northern ExpeditionNationalists and Communists recaptured most of China and defeated most warlords and took back large chunks of the country from foreign imperialist controlNationalist-Communist SplitChiang Kai-Shek distrusted the communists1927 Shanghai massacre, Kai-Shek killed most of the Communist leadership in ShanghaiRepublic of ChinaNationalist made a new Republic of China led by Chiang Kai-ShekProblemsNot very democraticIgnored the wishes of the poor, especially in the countrysideCommunists not totally defeated, still active in some parts of ChinaNationalist government was very weak, only barely controlled large parts of China
30 Nationalist vs. Communist Civil War The Long MarchChiang Kai-Shek launched an expedition to finally destroy the Communists in 1934Mao Tse Tung fled from the Nationalists, 6,000 milesEventually reached safety outside of area controlled by NationalistsWWIINationalists and Communists worked together from 1937 to 1945 to fight the JapaneseAfter WWII to TodayAfter WWII the Chinese communists were much stronger than the NationalistsCivil War started up again, Communists won in 1949Mainland China became a communist country People’s Republic of ChinaChiang Kai Shek and his Nationalist supports fled to the island of Taiwan and crated the Republic of China (Taiwan)
33 Nationalism In Central and South America What were things like in Central and South America during the early 1900s?Economically?Politically?Foreign countries had a lot of influence and control over Central and South American affairs—especially USExamples (political): US military occupation of Haiti, Cuba, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, etc.Examples (economic): Central/South American economies dependent upon exports to make money, and on imports to supply themselves with industrial goodsWhat kind of feelings would political and economic dependence cause people in Central/South America to have toward the US and other European countries? How would this help cause feelings of nationalism?
34 Nationalism in Central and South America Great Depressionexposed problems with the economies of Central/South America, caused economic hardshipLed to calls for political and economic independence/self sufficiencyGood Neighbor PolicyUS agreed not to use its military to invade other countries in Central/South AmericaImport Substitute IndustrializationCentral/South American countries began to build their own industry so they wouldn’t have to import goods from abroadRise of populist political leadersPeople began to support political leaders who looked out for the interests of the poorExamples: Vargas in Brazil, Peron in Argentina, Cardenas in Mexico
35 Nationalization of the Oil Industry in Mexico Nationalization=when a government takes over privately owned property and makes it the property of the people of the country or nationMexican government expropriated (took over) foreign owned oil wells and refineries in Mexico 1938Why?How an example of nationalism?