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The secret to success is knowing who to blame for your failures. www.despair.com.

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Presentation on theme: "The secret to success is knowing who to blame for your failures. www.despair.com."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The secret to success is knowing who to blame for your failures.

3 The full title of the Hapsburg ruler, Francis I in 1804 “King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria"

4 1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661) Glorious Revolution (1688) Eng. Civ. Wars begin (1642) Cromwell’s dictatorship ( ) Plague hits London (1665) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) James II Begins reign (1685) Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes (1685) Louis XIV dies (1715) 1st Anglo Dutch- Naval War (1652-4) 2nd Anglo-Dutch Naval War (1665-7) 3rd Anglo- Dutch Naval War (1672-4) Dutch War ) Fronde ( ) Stuart monarchy restored (1661) London Fire (1666) Russia Peter the Great dies (1725) War of Sp. Succession ( ) Great N.War vs. Sweden ( ) “Time of Troubles” ( ) Prussia Fred-Wm The Great Elector Starts his reign (1640) Fred-Wm the Great Elector Dies (1688) N. War b/w Sweden, Prussia & Poland ( ) Peter I’s Great Embassy (1697) Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648) War of Sp. Succession ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of Holy League ends (1699) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) Dutch indep. (1648) William III Marries Mary Stuart (1674) Turks besiege Vienna & start of War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683)

5 Different versions of the Hohenzollern coats of arms.

6 Rise of Prussia to 1786

7 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Cost of the War?

8 - Ger. lost 40% pop. FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

9 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies QUOTE: "...men under 60 yrs of age shall not be admitted to monasteries...Priests & curates (if not ordained), & the canons of religious establishments, shall marry...Every male shall be allowed to marry two wives; & each & every male is earnestly reminded, & shall often be warned from the pulpit, to so comport himself in this matter."

10 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by 1700 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

11 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

12 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

13 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

14 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

15 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

16 Coin celebrating the coronation of Franz-William, bishop of Regensburg in 1653, showing how German bishops were still independent enough to mint their own coinage. Note the ridged milling around the coin, put there to stop people from shaving silver off the coins.

17 Coin of Alfonso X “The Learned” of Toledo, Spain ( ) showing how people would shave or clip silver from the edges

18 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Geographic problem?

19 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Br-Pr’s neighbors?

20 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Soil & resources?

21 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland

22 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Nobles & army

23 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Ruler?

24 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

25 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

26 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

27 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) Before he could build up his army?

28 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to 2500 Army by 1648?

29 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by 1648 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

30 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K -Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. States & 51free cities Hohenzollerns get Br.& elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

31 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K -Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. States & 51free cities Hohenzollerns get Br.& elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania What does Fr-Wm concentrate on?

32 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K -Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. States & 51free cities Hohenzollerns get Br.& elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11 ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania Where does he get officers & bur’s?

33 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

34 Fancy military uniforms were such a special mark of status in the 1600s that men’s civilian fashions, in particular hats and boots, copied them.

35 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Longstanding tradition? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

36 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Where does he get recruits? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

37 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to do what? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

38 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Use bureaucracy & army to demand? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania Durned steroids

39 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Uses the taxes to do what? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

40 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

41 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

42 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

43 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

44 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania

45 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania -Got 6 yrs taxes (1653) while letting Nobles choose own pastors & police & judge own estates -> Army 18k (1656) -> 45k (1678) Foundations of what?

46 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: So what was it time for next? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania -Got 6 yrs taxes (1653) while letting Nobles choose own pastors & police & judge own estates -> Army 18k (1656) -> 45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country

47

48 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania -Got 6 yrs taxes (1653) while letting Nobles choose own pastors & police & judge own estates -> Army 18k (1656) -> 45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Communications?

49 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Foreign Policy? - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania -Got 6 yrs taxes (1653) while letting Nobles choose own pastors & police & judge own estates -> Army 18k (1656) -> 45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country

50 - Ger. lost 40% pop. -> Polygamy->babies -> 20m. by Berlin lost 8k/14k; - Prenzlau 9K=>600 - Br. 600K->210K; - Br-Pr: 1.5m->600K - Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Br. & elector vote (1411) Got Prussia From Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11; ->Neth's at 14 -> Took power (1640) -> Cut army to > 8k by > Got E. Pomerania -Got 6 yrs taxes (1653) while letting Nobles choose own pastors & police & judge own estates -> Army 18k (1656) -> 45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

51 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

52 Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

53 The Northern War ( ) The Northern War ( ) was typical of the problems Frederick-William faced in the late 1600's. In a sense, it started with Sweden’s Queen Christina who had succeeded her father, Gustavus Adolphus, after his death at the Battle of Lutzen in At the time she was a young girl, so Gustavus’ minister, Oxenstierna, had largely guided Sweden through the rest of the Thirty Years War.

54 The Northern War ( ) The Northern War ( ) was typical of the problems Frederick-William faced in the late 1600's. In a sense, it started with Sweden’s Queen Christina who had succeeded her father, Gustavus Adolphus, after his death at the Battle of Lutzen in At the time she was a young girl, so Gustavus’ minister, Oxenstierna, had largely guided Sweden through the rest of the Thirty Years War. Christina was sickened by the violence of the war and wanted to end it as soon as possible. She was also one of the more unique personalities of the age. Refusing to be limited to the normally constricted roles of women then, Christina wore men’s clothing, rode horses in the straddling (not lady-like sidesaddle) position, went hunting, swore like a sailor, and seemed to do anything else calculated to shock her contemporaries.

55 The Northern War ( ) The Northern War ( ) was typical of the problems Frederick-William faced in the late 1600's. In a sense, it started with Sweden’s Queen Christina who had succeeded her father, Gustavus Adolphus, after his death at the Battle of Lutzen in At the time she was a young girl, so Gustavus’ minister, Oxenstierna, had largely guided Sweden through the rest of the Thirty Years War. Christina was sickened by the violence of the war and wanted to end it as soon as possible. She was also one of the more unique personalities of the age. Refusing to be limited to the normally constricted roles of women then, Christina wore men’s clothing, rode horses in the straddling (not lady-like sidesaddle) position, went hunting, swore like a sailor, and seemed to do anything else calculated to shock her contemporaries. In 1654 she shocked Europe in a whole new way by abdicating her throne, converting to Catholicism, and moving to Rome to live as a nun.

56 Christina’s successor was Charles X, another in the line of warlike Swedish kings in the 1600s. One of the things pushing him to war was the end of the Thirty Years War, because, in an age of mercenaries, peacetime was often anything but peaceful with a bunch of unemployed professional killers on the loose in society. The obvious solution to such a problem was to start another war, which is what Charles did.

57 For his victim, he settled on Poland where Sweden’s Vasa Dynasty had claims to the throne. In addition, success in such a venture would give Charles control of the Baltic. So in 1655 the Swedish army landed in Pomerania and marched across Brandenburg to invade Poland.

58 At this point, Frederick-William had three options:

59 1) Staying Neutral;

60 At this point, Frederick-William had three options: 1) Staying Neutral; 2) Joining Sweden to throw off Polish overlordship of Prussia; or

61 At this point, Frederick-William had three options: 1) Staying Neutral; 2) Joining Sweden to throw off Polish overlordship of Prussia; or 3) Joining Poland & fulfill his obligations as a loyal vassal & try to get W. Pomerania

62 At this point, Frederick-William had three options: 1) Staying Neutral; 2) Joining Sweden to throw off Polish overlordship of Prussia; or 3) Joining Poland & fulfill his obligations as a loyal vassal & try to get W. Pomerania He did all three, although not at the same time.

63 At first, he stayed neutral, since his peacetime army at the time was down to 4,000 men. Therefore, he had to let the Swedes, who landed in West Pomerania march across Brandenburg to get to Poland. This bought him time to build up his army, which by war’s end, would number 27,000 men and win respect for his neutrality.

64 Meanwhile, Charles had marched victoriously across Poland, winning recognition as its king. However, the Swedes’ savage treatment of the Poles led to a revolt and Charles was forced back to the Prussian border

65 Desperate for help, he bought Frederick-William’s support. Together, their combined army of 18,000 took on & defeated a Polish army of 70,000 poorly armed & disciplined men in a three- day battle outside Warsaw in 1656 (below). Then disease struck their army & they had to retreat again, with Frederick-William forcing Charles to recognize him as the sole ruler of Prussia.

66 As in the Thirty Years War, much of the fighting in the Northern War consisted of skirmishes and ambushes, such as this Polish ambush of a Swedish supply convoy. These tactics especially suited the Poles whose light cavalry, many of them Cossacks, were very mobile and adapted to this sort of warfare.

67 The pride of the Polish army was its heavy cavalry, known as Hussars, whose shock tactics proved surprisingly effective against pike formations and musketeers. Before entering the Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus, who had fought for years in Poland against Polish hussars, adopted their tactics, & briefly revived the use of shock cavalry in Western Europe.

68 Then, in 1657 the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III died. Frederick-William (left), as one of the electors, quickly became involved in all sorts of intrigues and deals to elect a new emperor. Finally, he cut a deal with the Hapsburgs and their Polish Catholic ally to vote for Leopold (below) as emperor and switch sides in the war in return for being recognized as the independent ruler of Prussia.

69 By 1660, the Poles and Frederick-William had slowly driven back the Swedes until pressure from France and the Dutch along with Charles’ death brought about peace and recognition of Frederick-William as the independent ruler of Prussia, a status no other German ruler outside of the Austrian Hapsburgs could claim. Below: The Polish army storms the fortress of Furen in 1659 as the tide turns against Swedes in the Northern War.

70 The commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania c.1600

71 Although a great power, the commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania went into decline in the 1600s. Below: Defending the Polish banner against the Cossacks at the Battle of Chocim (1621)

72 The period after 1650 in particular is referred to as the Deluge in Polish history, as Poland was confronted with wars against Sweden, Russia, and the Turks, as well as a massive rebellion by the Cossacks in the Ukraine. Below: a Cossack army mobilizing

73 Poles Attack the Turkish Fort of Chochim in These wars along with a weak elective monarchy and powerful nobility led to Poland’s steady decline until it was partitioned by its neighbors in the late 1700s and briefly disappeared altogether from Europe’s political maps. Below: Poles Attack the Turkish Fort of Chochim in 1673.

74 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

75 Frederick-William the Great Elector’s victory over the Swedes at Fehrbellin (1675)

76

77 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia Br-Pr’s borders by 1688?

78 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

79 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia Infrastructure?

80 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia He also encouraged ?

81 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

82 FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems: Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia Br-Pr’s pop. & revenue by 1688?

83 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

84 Still 200 terr's, 63 eccles. states & 51 free cities Hohenzollerns get Brand. & electoral vote (1411) Got Prussia from Poland Fred- Wm ( ) - Unbaptized for months - Fled Berlin at 11;  Neth's at 14  Took power (1640)  Cut army to 2.5k  8k by 1648  Got E. Westph Got 6 yrs taxes while letting Nobles choose pastors & police & judge own estates  Army 18k (1656)  45k (1678) - Army got 80% rev - Not country w/army but army w/ country Opportunistic foreign policy - Switched sides 3x in Louis XIV’s war Qu. Christina gave up men's garb, riding, hunt & crown  Charles X invades Pol  Nor. War ( )  Fred. is neutral  Sw's side,  Polish side -Traded electoral vote for indep. rule in Prussia FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Basis for Prussia’s eventual unification of Germany (FC.121) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

85 *** FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Basis for Prussia’s eventual unification of Germany (FC.121) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:

86 *** FC.91 THE RISE OF BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ( ) Basis for Prussia’s eventual unification of Germany (FC.121) Postal system to connect his lands & make $ Encourages new crops, ag. tech’s & immigration, Opportunistic foreign policy of switching sides Peacetime army builds roads, canals, etc. Measures to build Br-Pr’s econ. Measures to unify & defend Br-Pr: Br-Pr the only Eur. state to ally w/its nobles & use them in service to state Tradition of efficient milit. & govt. run by nobles w/strong civic spirit Use bureaucracy & army to enforce its will State demands taxes to increase mil. & bureauc. Foundations of absolutism in Br.-Prussia Mercenaries, but also peasant recruits  Cheap & loyal trained reserve Nobles as officers & bur’s, giving them pay, status, & power over serfs Fr-Wm concentrates on building his army using: By 1688 Br-Pr has preserved & even expanded its borders By 1688 Br-Pr’s pop. has recovered & its tax rev has grown 25X Thirty Years War devastates Ger., esp. Brandenburg- Prussia which lost up to 60% of its population (FC.88) Brand. & Prussia separated by Polish territory Destruction from Thirty Years War Strong neighbors using Brand-Pr as a battleground Poor soil & few natural resources Unruly & powerful nobles & rebellious army Frederick-William Hohenzollern, “The Great Elector” ( ) faces many problems:


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