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Islam By Anneliese Scalzo and Gabrielle Jackson APWH Period 5 Schmid 10/18/12

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1 Islam By Anneliese Scalzo and Gabrielle Jackson APWH Period 5 Schmid 10/18/12

2 Founder/Founding The prophet Mohammad (or Muhammad), a camal driver, founded the religion of Islam. In 610 B.C., at the age of forty, Mohammad was visited by the angel, Gabriel, in Mecca. This began a series of revelations that would become the content of the Quran (the Muslim equivalent of the Bible). He went about converting people to this new monotheistic religion that would later become known as Islam. He is viewed today as the last prophet of Allah, the Muslim word for “God”. By 622 B.C., he was run out of Mecca and into Medina by those who opposed his teachings.

3 Symbols  God in Arabic  The color green is an important Muslim symbol. It is used for:  decoration of mosques  the bindings of Qur'ans  the silken covers for the graves of Sufi saints  flags of various Muslim countries  it was the color used by Muhammad’s tribe on their flags  According to Muslims green symbolizes nature and life.  In the Qur'an (Surah 76:21), it is said that the inhabitants of paradise will wear green garments of fine silk.  Star and Crescent  However, Islam is generally against appointing holy symbols oes-islam-come-from-biblical-god.html

4 Deities  Allah, the main god, whose name entails no plural or gender; only deity or god that is to be worshipped. He is understood to be the same god of Judaism and Christianity. Prophets (special messengers) include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc. In addition angels, such as Gabriel. m=1&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1920&bih=963&tbm=isch&tbnid= yCJrCLy5SpdUBM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alisharah.com/%3Fp% 3D1524&docid=i_Jj33SB75xyMM&imgurl=http://www.alisharah.c om/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Q_ x500.png&w=1000&h=500&ei=jxR3UMPMDJTC0AHwk4HYAg &zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1252&vpy=495&dur=5607&hovh=159& hovw=318&tx=239&ty=152&sig= &pag e=1&tbnh=92&tbnw=184&start=0&ndsp=48&ved=1t:429,r:35,s :0,i:182

5 Location of Origin  Commonly considered to be Medina, where the prophet fled to in 622 AD.  It is also considered to be Mecca, where the prophet first received visions and gathering followers. Pictures/Muhammad-Arrives-in-Medina.htm

6 Major Locations Today  Islam is most commonly practiced in the Middle East, Southwestern Asia, and Northern Africa

7 Number of Followers  Islam is the second largest religion in the world, with 1.1 billion followers. Ramzan.jpg

8 How/Why did the Religion Spread  Muhammad made speeches about the religion, spreading the concepts throughout Mecca and Medina.  Followers spread it through military conquests. ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages. search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dspread%2Bof%2Bislam%2Bmap %26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpiv- web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=900&h=693&imgurl=www.wall- maps.com%2FClassroom%2FAtlas%2FworldSpreadOfIslam750.gif&rurl=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww.wall-maps.com%2FClassroom%2FAtlas%2FWorld-History- Atlas.asp&size=395.9+KB&name=Spread+of+Islam+Map+...&p=spread+of+islam +map&oid=e4da4c19fe3d87de bb6cfffa&fr2=piv-web&fr=my- myy&tt=Spread%2Bof%2BIslam%2BMap%2B...&b=0&ni=60&no=1&ts=&tab=orga nic&sigr=120qvt7jd&sigb=139nf5l9b&sigi=11rkn90tg&.crumb=DVnj13ttgMD

9 Holy Book  The only holy book in the Islam religion is the Qur’an, which was written by Mohammad in the last 30 years of his life.

10 Places of Worship  Mosques.  Often large in size.  Commonly equipped with a musallah, one or more domes, one or more minarets, a mihrab, and ablution facilities. mosquee-saint-denis.JPG Mihrab.jpg

11  arch.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dmosque%26fr%3Dchr-hp-psg%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D5&w=1296&h=864&imgurl=www.heart- of-music.com%2Fvusical%2FAllGods%2Fbrunei_mosque.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.heart-of- music.com%2Fvusical%2FAllGods%2FAllGods.html&size=141.7+KB&name=mosque&p=mosque&oid=97d499cfae d5362f86a113e&fr2=piv-web&fr=chr-hp- psg&tt=mosque&b=0&ni=21&no=5&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11qi23esl&sigb=1300ii1m4&sigi=11o953o2d&.crumb=fkLZh47i41n

12 Roles of Women and Men Islam is historically notorious for its stringent social, cultural, and religious gender roles that its followers are expected to adhere to. Traditionally, Islam is a patriarchal religion that holds gender bias against women. This view contradicts the Quran who views men and women to be equal in “human dignity”. Most women wear a head scarf, veil or Hijab. Women do not have equal rights, they cannot choose marriage partners, divorce, or child custody. In verse 4.34, men are said to be guardians over women. Women are expected to be obedient wives and mothers. A Muslim man can have up to four wives according to the Quran. 2/gezzeg / a-muslim-women-pray- in-isolated-white-background.jpg

13 Holy sites  Mecca- Birthplace of Muhammad.  Medina- Where Muhammad and his followers sought refuge. 3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dmecca%26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpiv- web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D7&w=1000&h=709&imgurl=img.dailymail.co.uk%2Fi%2 Fpix%2F2007%2F12_03%2Fhaj1712_1000x709.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailymail.co.uk%2Fnews%2Farticle %2FAmazing-pictures-biggest-pilgrimage- Earth.html&size=381+KB&name=It+is+one+of+the+greatest+examples+of+human+devo tion+on+earth+- +a+sea+of+white+robes+as+hundreds+of+thousands&p=mecca&oid=f356f8d7fcd6136f3 7021e ee&fr2=piv-web&fr=my- myy&tt=It%2Bis%2Bone%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bgreatest%2Bexamples%2Bof%2Bhuman%2Bd evotion%2Bon%2Bearth%2B- %2Ba%2Bsea%2Bof%2Bwhite%2Brobes%2Bas%2Bhundreds%2Bof%2Bthousands&b=0&n i=84&no=7&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=12t6subum&sigb=12ra6u2dl&sigi=11p5uae1k&.crumb =DVnj13ttgMD 4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimage s%3Fp%3Dmedina%2Bcity%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf-8%26y%3DSearch%26fr%3Dmy- myy%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=790&h=559&imgurl=www.cresset-travel.com%2Fblog%2Fwp- content%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F08%2Fmedina.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.articlesbase.com%2Fd estinations-articles%2Fmedina-the-radiant-city html&size=61.8+KB&name=Medina+– +The+Radiant+City&p=medina+city&oid=ba71851afe331344c96c677c03f242cf&fr2=&fr=my- myy&tt=Medina%2B%25E2%2580%2593%2BThe%2BRadiant%2BCity&b=0&ni=105&no=1&ts=&tab=o rganic&sigr=12mcgslrb&sigb=13ch02spi&sigi=121phbcdr&.crumb=DVnj13ttgMD

14 Holidays Major Islam holidays include: Milad un Nabi – Birthday of the Prophet Islam festivals - Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha Muharram – the Islamic New Year Ramadan – ninth month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during the daylight hours It is believed that the Qur’an was first revealed during this month It is believed that the gates of heaven are open and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained up. content/uploads/2009/09/eid- ul-fitr-festival-02.jpg

15 Major Beliefs  - Creation story- Allah created the universe, the heavens, and all creatures in six days. Very similar to the Christian creation story.  -Death- When one dies, Allah will have the final say on who passes onto paradise and who is damned to hell.  - The Five Pillars of Islam - Iman- "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger.“ - Salat- Pray five times per day by dropping to one's knees and facing Mecca as one does so. - Sawm- Fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan, the holy month. - Sakat- Donate roughly 2.5% of profit per year to the poor. - Hajj- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once at some point in one's life.

16 e%2Bfive%2Bpillars%2Bof%2Bislam%26fr%3Dmy-myy%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=1024&h=768&imgurl=www.travelerswonder.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2012%2F02%2FThe-Five- Pillars-of-Islam.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.travelerswonder.com%2Fnews%2Fguide-to-islam-including-history-beliefs-holy-days-around-the-world-and-message- boards.html&size=618.9+KB&name=...+basic+religious+tenets%2C+generally+called+the+Five+Pillars+of+Islam&p=the+five+pillars+of+islam&oid=4f12db99a57755a462a1091f10e3a34b&fr2=piv-web&fr=my- myy&tt=...%2Bbasic%2Breligious%2Btenets%252C%2Bgenerally%2Bcalled%2Bthe%2BFive%2BPillars%2Bof%2BIslam&b=0&ni=112&no=1&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=13v6ach96&sigb=13fihlt3a&sigi=12gtfvmri&.crumb =DVnj13ttgMD

17 Influence on art, architecture, etc Architecture Islamic architecture is seen in mosques, homes, and gardens. Homes are built around a courtyard. Decoration and color are focused on buildings. In religious buildings geometry is the focus. Art Islamic Art is very unique because it is not restricted to religious art, like Christians are. It is very vibrant and colorful. It does not focus on physical properties, but also their meaning and beauty. Calligraphy and books are major art forms. In Islamic art., geography and patterns are important.

18 Timeline 1.In 570 CE, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born 2.In 610 CE, he received his first vision in a cave near Mecca. 3.In 622 CE, Muhammad and his followers flee to Medina. This is called Hijira, and this is the year the Islamic calendar begins. 4.In 650, Caliph Uthman had the Quran written down. 5.In 680, the death of Husayn marks the beginning of the Shi’a sect.

19 Timeline Cont. 6. In 754, Baghdad (“City of Peace”) becomes the new capital city of the Abbasid Empire. 7. From 786 t0 809 was the reign of Harun ar-Rashid, which is best known through The Thousand and One Nights. 8. In 1109, Christian crusaders took Jerusalem. 9. From 1126 to 1198 was the life of Averroës, a Muslim philosopher who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought. 10. In the late 1990s, the Taliban came to power in Afghanistan.

20 Works Cited "3D Islamic Symbol." Pix Mac, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Aladdin (1992)." Biolfilman.is. Bio Fil Man, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Al-Husayn Ibn 'Ali (Muslim Leader and Martyr)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Amazing Pictures from the Biggest Pilgrimage on Earth." Dailymail.co.uk. Associated Newspapers Ltd, 18 Dec Web. 17 Oct Anderson, Douglas. "World Religions." Religions: HUM 300 The Arts in Society. N.p., Feb Web. 16 Oct "Bassin Mosquee Saint Dennis." Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, 18 Sept Web. 17 Oct Cline, Austin. "Muslims Fighting The Nonbelievers." About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. About.com, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Does Islam Come from the Biblical God?" EireIslam: Does Islam Come from the Biblical God? Blogger, 28 Sept Web. 16 Oct "Eid Ul Fitr Festival." India Advices. India Advises, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Guide to Islam, including History, Beliefs, Holy Days around the World and Message Boards." TravelersWonder.com. Travel Wonders of the World, n.d. Web. 17 Oct

21 Hayes, Laura, Borgna Brunner, and Beth Rowen. "Who Are the Taliban?" Infoplease. Infoplease, Web. 16 Oct "Islam and the Role of Women." Beliefnet.com. Belief Net, n.d. Web. 16 Oct Lane, Jesse. "All Gods Were Created Equal." Heart-of-Music.com. Heart of Music, n.d. Web. 17 Oct "Medina – The Radiant City." ArticlesBase.com. Articles Base, 3 Sept Web. 17 Oct "Muslim Creation Story." InnovationsLearning.co.uk. Hampshire Schools, n.d. Web. 17 Oct "Muslims Praying at a Dargah, India." LightStalkers.org. Light Stalkers, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Newsletter for April 2011." Al-Hida.com. Al-Huda, Apr Web. 16 Oct Powell-Smith, Michelle. "Roles of Muslim Women." EHow. Demand Media, 17 June Web. 21 Sept "Prophet Mohammad Mihab." Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, 5 June Web. 17 Oct "Qur€™anic Quotes." Al Isharah. Blogger, 29 Apr Web. 16 Oct "Religions and Belief Systems." Religion, World Religions, Comparative Religion. Religion Facts, n.d. Web. 16 Oct Works Cited (Cont.)

22 "Religions." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Sexuality, Gender, and Islam." SafraProject.org. Safra Project, n.d. Web. 21 Sept "Stock Photo - A Muslim Women Pray in Isolated White Background." 123rf.com. 123RF Stock Photos, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Surat Al-Baqarah." Quran.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct "Symbols of Islam." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Oct Web. 16 Oct "Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History." Listverse.com. Listverse, 19 Feb Web. 16 Oct "Understanding Islam from a Christian Worldview: Who Was Muhammad?" Brettneckel's Blog. Word Press, 17 Nov Web. 16 Oct Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi. "Whose Jerusalem? Whose Land?" ChristianActionforIsreal.org. Christian Action for Isreal, n.d. Web. 16 Oct "World History Atlas." Wall-Maps.com. Wall Maps, n.d. Web. 17 Oct


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