Presentation on theme: "Israel-Palestine. Pre-1917 – Palestine under control of Ottoman empire 1917-1947 – Palestine under British control. Balfour Declaration of 1917 – Britain."— Presentation transcript:
Pre-1917 – Palestine under control of Ottoman empire – Palestine under British control. Balfour Declaration of 1917 – Britain pledges to create in Palestine a “national home for the Jewish people”. At time there were half million Arabs in Palestine and only 70,000 Jews – rise of Hitler in Germany, continued Jewish emigration from Europe to Palestine. By 1939 half million Jews in Palestine – Arab revolt against creation of Jewish state – United Nations proposed creation of separate Jewish/Arab states from Palestine. Historical Timeline Under British control
1947 UN Partition Plan 1947 – United Nations proposed creation of separate Jewish/Arab states from Palestine.
David Ben-Gurion, PM from May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaims Israeli independence – one day before planned British military withdrawal and UN plan to take affect. Explosion of violence between Jewish/Palestinian nationalists. Israeli Independence
The 1948 Arab-Israeli War Israeli victory leads to territorial gains. After 1949 armistice, Jordan assumes control over West Bank and Egypt over the Gaza Strip. No Palestinian state. Nearly 700,000 Palestinians fled or were forced out of Israel into the West Bank, Gaza, or beyond. In what Palestinians call “The Disaster” only about 150,000 Palestinians remained inside Israeli territory.
By mid 1950s, nearly 1 million Palestinians living as refugees either in West Bank, Gaza or abroad. Israel enacts “Law of Return” granting citizenship to anyone of Jewish ethnicity who emigrates to Israel – over 1 million Jewish emigrants came in first 5 years. The plight of Palestinian refugees emboldens anti-Israeli sentiments in neighboring Arab states. Also concerned about Israeli expansion.
The Six Day War of June – Israel launches preemptive strike against Egypt, Jordan, Syria in Six Day War. Take Sinai peninsula and Gaza from Egypt, West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria.
The October 1973 or Yom Kippur War 1973 – Yom Kippur war. Egypt attacks Israel seeking to regain Sinai – Egypt seeks to negotiate a return of the Sinai in exchange for peace with Israel.
Anwar Sadat Menachem Begin
Camp David Accords 1979 – Camp David Accords Israel and Egypt make peace Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Islamic radicals who eventually will form leadership of Al Qaeda.
Omar Abdel RahmanAyman al Zawahiri
1980s – Israeli nationalists/orthodox jews increase settlement of West Bank. Kibbutzim (farm cooperatives). Goal of Zionism is to reclaim all land of ancient Israel – Jews from throughout the Soviet Union migrate to Israel. Current Israeli Population – 7.2 million. Includes 5.5 million Jews (75%) + 270,000 Israeli settlers in West Bank and 1.2 million Palestinian Arabs are Israeli citizens inside Israel (about 20% of population).
Among Jews, 68% are Sabras (born in Israel speaking Hebrew). The rest are Olim (born outside Israel and most fall into the following categories) 1. Ashkenazim – born in Germany, France, Eastern Europe, Russia 2. Sephardim – from Portugal, Spain, North Africa 3. Bene Roma – from central Italy 4. Mizrahim – from Muslim countries other than Spain, Portugal, North Africa Current Palestinian refugee Population – 3.8 million total (2.4 million in West Bank, 1.4 million in Gaza Strip) million in Israel.
Yasser Arafat and the PLO Fatah - Palestinian National Liberation Movement 1964 – formation of Palestinian Liberation Organization. Fatah movement – militant wing of PLO led by Yasser Arafat.
Munich Black September Group 1970 – PLO involved in attempt to overthrow Jordanian monarchy. Fails and Arafat flees to Lebanon – Fatah’s Black September carries out attack on Israeli athletes at Olympic Games in Munich.
1st Intifada or “uprising” – Israel invades Lebanon, PLO relocates to Tunisia 1987 – First intifada (“shaking off” or uprising) breaks out in Palestinian territories.
Oslo Accords 1993 Yitzhak Rabin, Clinton, Yasser Arafat 1993 – Oslo Accords – Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat agree to plan for Palestinian governance of some parts of West Bank and Gaza.
1993-Creation of Palestinian Authority. Arafat allowed to return to occupied territory – Arafat and Fatah party become head of Palestinian Authority in first ever Palestinian elections – attempts to resolve Palestinian sovereignty break down. Neither Ehud Barak nor Yasser Arafat can agree to a plan. The Palestinian Authority Palestinian Territories
Temple Mount = Haram al-Sharif Al-Aqsa Mosque 2000 – Ariel Sharon, leader of the nationalist Likud Party provokes Palestinians by visiting sight of Temple Mount and al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Declared site would always remain under Israeli rule.
The Second Intifada, 2000-Present
Al-Aqsa Martyrs BrigadeHamas - Islamic Resistance Movement “Zeal”
2001 – Ariel Sharon assumes power in Israel – Palestinian Authority looses control to Israeli security forces in West Bank and Gaza Israel begins construction of security wall in Palestinian territories despite international condemnation.
2004- Sharon withdraws Israeli soldiers from Gaza Strip. Forces removal of nearly 20,000 Israeli settlers from Gaza.
Recent Developments 2004 – Yasser Arafat dies. Mahmoud Abbas assumes control over Palestinian Authority in 2005 elections – Hamas wins majority of parliamentary seats in Palestinian elections. United States cuts aid to Palestinians in response Ehud Olmert elected prime minister after Sharon suffers stroke. June 2006 – Israeli warships accused of killing Palestinian family on Gaza beach. Hamas kidnaps Israeli soldiers. Hezbollah begins firing rockets into Israel from Lebanon. Israel responds with air-strikes on Hezbollah and eventually entering southern Lebanon.
Hezbollah Control of Southern Lebanon Hezbollah Leader Hassan Nasrallah 2006 Lebanon War
Hamas derives most support from Gaza strip. Fatah has most of its support in the West Bank. Since 2006, President Abbas has attempted to oust and replace Haniyeh as prime minister. At present, the Palestinian authority is effectively divided.
Salam Fayyad Fatah Prime Minister in West Bank Ismail Haniyeh Hamas Prime Minister in Gaza